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  • Graae, Anne-Sofie, et al. (författare)
  • ADAMTS9 Regulates Skeletal Muscle Insulin Sensitivity Through Extracellular Matrix Alterations
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Diabetes. - 0012-1797 .- 1939-327X. ; 68:3, s. 502-514
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The ADAMTS9 rs4607103 C allele is one of the few gene variants proposed to increase the risk of type 2 diabetes through an impairment of insulin sensitivity. We show that the variant is associated with increased expression of the secreted ADAMTS9 and decreased insulin sensitivity and signaling in human skeletal muscle. In line with this, mice lacking Adamts9 selectively in skeletal muscle have improved insulin sensitivity. The molecular link between ADAMTS9 and insulin signaling was characterized further in a model where ADAMTS9 was overexpressed in skeletal muscle. This selective over expression resulted in decreased insulin signaling presumably mediated through alterations of the integrin 131 signaling pathway and disruption of the intracellular cytoskeletal organization. Furthermore, this led to impaired mitochondria! function in mouse muscle-an observation found to be of translational character because humans carrying the ADAMTS9 risk allele have decreased expression of mitochondrial markers. Finally, we found that the link between ADAMTS9 overexpression and impaired insulin signaling could be due to accumulation of harmful lipid intermediates. Our findings contribute to the understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes and point to inhibition of ADAMTS9 as a potential novel mode of treating insulin resistance.
  • Graham, J, et al. (författare)
  • Genetic effects on age-dependent onset and islet cell autoantibody markers in type 1 diabetes.
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Diabetes. - : American Diabetes Association Inc.. - 1939-327X .- 0012-1797. ; 51:5, s. 1346-1355
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Age-dependent associations between type 1 diabetes risk genes HLA, INS VNTR, and CTLA-4 and autoantibodies to GAD65 (GADAs), ICA512/IA-2, insulin, and islet cells were determined by logistic regression analysis in 971 incident patients with type 1 diabetes and 702 control subjects aged 0-34 years. GADAs were associated with HLA-DQ2 in young but not in older patients (P = 0.009). Autoantibodies to insulin were negatively associated with age (P < 0.0001) but positively associated with DQ8 (P = 0.03) and with INS VNTR (P = 0.04), supporting possible immune tolerance induction. ICA512/IA-2 were negatively associated with age (P < 0.0001) and with DQ2 (P < 0.0001) but positively associated with DQ8 (P = 0.04). Males were more likely than females to be negative for GADA (P < 0.0001), autoantibodies to islet cells (P = 0.04), and all four autoantibody markers (P = 0.004). The CTLA-4 3' end microsatellite marker was not associated with any of the autoantibodies. We conclude that age and genetic factors such as HLA-DQ and INS VNTR need to be combined with islet autoantibody markers when evaluating the risk for type 1 diabetes development.
  • Hagopian, William, et al. (författare)
  • Teplizumab Preserves C-Peptide in Recent-Onset Type 1 Diabetes
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Diabetes. - : American Diabetes Association. - 0012-1797 .- 1939-327X. ; 62:11, s. 3901-3908
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Protege was a phase 3, randomized, double-blind, parallel, placebo-controlled 2-year study of three intravenous teplizumab dosing regimens, administered daily for 14 days at baseline and again after 26 weeks, in new-onset type 1 diabetes. We sought to determine efficacy and safety of teplizumab immunotherapy at 2 years and to identify characteristics associated with therapeutic response. Of 516 randomized patients, 513 were treated, and 462 completed 2 years of follow-up. Teplizumab (14-day full-dose) reduced the loss of C-peptide mean area under the curve (AUC), a prespecified secondary end point, at 2 years versus placebo. In analyses of prespecified and post hoc subsets at entry, U.S. residents, patients with C-peptide mean AUC andgt;0.2 nmol/L, those randomized 6 weeks after diagnosis, HbA(1c) andlt;7.5% (58 mmol/mol), insulin use andlt;0.4 units/kg/day, and 8-17 years of age each had greater teplizumab-associated C-peptide preservation than their counterparts. Exogenous insulin needs tended to be reduced versus placebo. Antidrug antibodies developed in some patients, without apparent change in drug efficacy. No new safety or tolerability issues were observed during year 2. In summary, anti-CD3 therapy reduced C-peptide loss 2 years after diagnosis using a tolerable dose.
  • Hartling, Svend G, et al. (författare)
  • Elevated proinsulin in healthy siblings of IDDM patients independent of HLA identity
  • 1989
  • Ingår i: Diabetes. - : American Diabetes Association. - 0012-1797 .- 1939-327X. ; 38:10, s. 1271-1274
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Based on the recent demonstration of elevated serum proinsulin levels in cystic fibrosis patients with impaired glucose tolerance, it was hypothesized that proinsulin could be an indicator of altered β-cell function. We therefore analyzed fasting proinsulin levels in 99 siblings of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) patients, most of them discordant for diabetes for >6 yr. The results from this group were compared with the results from 41 healthy age- and sex-matched control subjects with no family history of diabetes. Median (range) fasting proinsulin in siblings was 8.9 pM (1.7–58 pM) vs. 3.8 pM (<1.2–28 pM) in control subjects (P < .00001). There was no difference between the groups in fasting blood glucose concentrations. Both groups had fasting insulin concentrations within the normal range with a tendency toward lower values in the siblings: 108 pM (60–237 pM) vs. 118 pM (71–175 pM) (P = .07). The 99 siblings were subdivided into groups according to HLA sharing with their diabetic proband. The concentration of proinsulin, insulin, and blood glucose among the groups of 33 HLA-identical, 40 HLA-haploidentical, and 26 nonidentical siblings did not differ significantly. The fasting proinsulin level did not correlate with fasting levels of insulin, blood glucose, age, or body weight. We conclude that fasting proinsulin is elevated in healthy siblings of IDDM patients, whereas fasting insulin is normal or slightly decreased independent of HLA identity with their diabetic sibling. Elevated proinsulin levels could represent a family trait, perhaps mirroring a β-cell more vulnerable to destruction, or it could reflect previous β-cell damage that does not lead to IDDM.
  • Hellgren, Karl-Johan, et al. (författare)
  • Progression of Early Retinal Dysfunction in Diabetes Over Time: Results of a Long-term Prospective Clinical Study.
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Diabetes. - : American Diabetes Association Inc.. - 1939-327X .- 0012-1797. ; 63:9, s. 3104-3111
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We explored signs of retinal dysfunction over time in diabetic subjects before or early in the course of retinopathy. Patients with no, mild, or moderate retinopathy were consecutively recruited and underwent standard automated perimetry, visual acuity measurement, and fundus photography. These examinations and measurements of HbA1c and blood pressure were repeated for up to 5 years from baseline. Visual field improvement/deterioration in diabetic subjects was evaluated using significance limits for change. Progression or regression of retinopathy was defined as a two-step change on the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study final severity scale. Seventy-four subjects completed at least 3 years of follow-up, and 22% showed visual field worsening, defined as repeated significant deterioration at ≥10% of the test points, whereas only 1% showed field improvement. Worsening occurred in subjects both with and without vascular lesions. The degree of retinopathy was stable throughout the observation period in 68 of 74 eyes, improved in 4, and worsened in 2. Visual field deterioration was not correlated with a change in retinopathy. By using perimetry with an analysis tailored for monitoring diabetic subjects, we were able to demonstrate progression of retinal dysfunction over time, which may represent early signs of retinal neurodegeneration.
  • Henriksnäs, Johanna, et al. (författare)
  • Markedly Decreased Blood Perfusion of Pancreatic Islets Transplanted Intraportally Into the Liver : Disruption of Islet Integrity Necessary for Islet Revascularization
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Diabetes. - 0012-1797 .- 1939-327X. ; 61:3, s. 665-673
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Experimental studies indicate low revascularization of intraportally transplanted islets. This study aimed to quantify, for the first time, the blood perfusion of intrahepatically transplanted islets and elucidate necessary factors for proper islet graft revascularization at this site. Yellow chameleon protein 3.0 islets expressing fluorescent protein in all cells were transplanted. Graft blood perfusion was determined by microspheres. The vascular density and relative contribution of donor blood vessels in revascularization was evaluated using islets expressing green fluorescent protein under the Tie-2 promoter. Blood perfusion of intrahepatic islets was as a mean only 5% of that of native islets at 1-month posttransplantation. However, there was a marked heterogeneity where blood perfusion was less decreased hi islets transplanted without prior culture and in many cases restored in islets with disrupted integrity. Analysis of vascular density showed that distorted islets were well revascularized, whereas islets still intact at 1-month posttransplantation were almost avascular. Few donor endothelial cells were observed in the new islet vasculature. The very low blood perfusion of intraportally transplanted islets is likely to predispose for ischemia and hamper islet function. Since donor endothelial cells do not expand posttransplantation, disruption of islet integrity is necessary for revascularization to occur by recipient blood vessels.
  • Hiukka, A, et al. (författare)
  • ApoCIII-Enriched LDL in Type 2 Diabetes Displays Altered Lipid Composition, Increased Susceptibility for Sphingomyelinase and Increased binding to Biglycan.
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Diabetes. - : American Diabetes Association. - 1939-327X .- 0012-1797. ; 58:9, s. 2018-2026
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective- Apolipoprotein CIII (apoCIII) is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease, but the molecular mechanisms involved are poorly understood. Here, we investigated potential proatherogenic properties of apoCIII-containing LDL from hypertriglyceridemic patients with type 2 diabetes. Research design and methods - LDL was isolated from controls and subjects with type 2 diabetes, and from apoB transgenic mice. LDL-biglycan binding was analyzed with a solid-phase assay using immunoplates coated with biglycan. Lipid composition was analyzed with mass spectrometry. Hydrolysis of LDL by sphingomyelinase was analyzed after labeling plasma LDL with [(3)H]sphingomyelin. ApoCIII isoforms were quantified after isoelectric focusing. Human aortic endothelial cells were incubated with desialylated apoCIII or with LDL enriched with specific apoCIII isoforms. Results- We showed that enriching LDL with apoCIII only induced a small increase in LDL-proteoglycan binding, and this effect was dependent on a functional Site A in apoB100. Our findings indicated that intrinsic characteristics of the diabetic LDL other than apoCIII per se are responsible for further increased proteoglycan binding of diabetic LDL with high endogenous apoCIII, and we showed alterations in the lipid composition of diabetic LDL with high apoCIII. We also demonstrated that high apoCIII increased susceptibility of LDL to hydrolysis and aggregation by SMase. In addition, we demonstrated that sialylation of apoCIII increased with increasing apoCIII content, and that sialylation of apoCIII was essential for its proinflammatory properties. Conclusions- We have demonstrated a number of features of apoCIII-containing LDL from hypertriglyceridemic patients with type 2 diabetes that could explain the proatherogenic role of apoCIII.
  • Hivert, Marie-France, et al. (författare)
  • Lifestyle and metformin ameliorate insulin sensitivity independently of the genetic burden of established insulin resistance variants in Diabetes Prevention Program participants.
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Diabetes. - : American Diabetes Association Inc.. - 1939-327X .- 0012-1797. ; 65:2, s. 520-526
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Genome-wide association studies of glycemic traits have identified genetics variants that are associated with insulin resistance (IR) in the general population. It is unknown if people with genetic enrichment for these IR-variants respond differently to interventions that aim to improve insulin sensitivity. We built a genetic risk score based on 17 established IR-variants and their effect sizes (weighted IR-GRS) in 2,713 participants of the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) with genetic consent. We tested associations between the weighted IR-GRS and insulin sensitivity index (ISI) at baseline in all participants, and with change in ISI over 1-year of follow-up in DPP intervention (metformin and lifestyle) and control (placebo) arms. All models were adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, and waist circumference at baseline (plus baseline ISI for 1-year ISI change models). A higher IR-GRS was associated with lower baseline ISI (β= -0.754 [SE=0.229] log-ISI per unit; P=0.001 in fully adjusted models). There was no differential effect of treatment for the association between IR-GRS on change in ISI; higher IR-GRS was associated with attenuation in ISI improvement over 1 year (β= -0.520 [SE=0.233]; P=0.03 in fully adjusted models; all treatment arms). Lifestyle intervention and metformin improved ISI, regardless of the genetic burden of IR-variants.
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