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Sökning: L773:0012 1797 OR L773:1939 327X > (2020-2021)

  • Resultat 11-20 av 32
  • Föregående 1[2]34Nästa
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11.
  • Ahlqvist, Emma, et al. (författare)
  • Subtypes of type 2 diabetes determined from clinical parameters
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Diabetes. - : American Diabetes Association Inc.. - 0012-1797. ; 69:10, s. 2086-2093
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is defined by a single metabolite, glucose, but is increasingly recognized as a highly heterogeneous disease, including individuals with varying clinical characteristics, disease progression, drug response, and risk of complications. Identification of subtypes with differing risk profiles and disease etiologies at diagnosis could open up avenues for personalized medicine and allow clinical resources to be focused to the patients who would be most likely to develop diabetic complications, thereby both im-proving patient health and reducing costs for the health sector. More homogeneous populations also offer increased power in experimental, genetic, and clinical studies. Clinical parameters are easily available and reflect relevant disease pathways, including the effects of both genetic and environmental exposures. We used six clinical parameters (GAD autoantibodies, age at diabetes onset, HbA1c, BMI, and measures of insulin resistance and insulin secretion) to cluster adult-onset diabetes patients into five subtypes. These sub-types have been robustly reproduced in several populations and associated with different risks of complications, comor-bidities, genetics, and response to treatment. Importantly, the group with severe insulin-deficient diabetes (SIDD) had increased risk of retinopathy and neuropathy, whereas the severe insulin-resistant diabetes (SIRD) group had the highest risk for diabetic kidney disease (DKD) and fatty liver, empha-sizing the importance of insulin resistance for DKD and hepatosteatosis in T2D. In conclusion, we believe that sub-classification using these highly relevant parameters could provide a framework for personalized medicine in diabetes.
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13.
  • Baboota, Ritesh, et al. (författare)
  • Emerging Role of Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4 in Metabolic Disorders
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Diabetes. - 0012-1797. ; 70:2, s. 303-312
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are a group of signaling molecules that belong to the TGF-beta superfamily. Initially discovered for their ability to induce bone formation, BMPs are known to play a diverse and critical array of biological roles. We here focus on recent evidence showing that BMP4 is an important regulator of white/beige adipogenic differentiation with important consequences for thermogenesis, energy homeostasis, and development of obesity in vivo. BMP4 is highly expressed in, and released by, human adipose tissue, and serum levels are increased in obesity. Recent studies have now shown BMP4 to play an important role not only for white/beige/brown adipocyte differentiation and thermogenesis but also in regulating systemic glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity. It also has important suppressive effects on hepatic glucose production and lipid metabolism. Cellular BMP4 signaling/action is regulated by both ambient cell/systemic levels and several endogenous and systemic BMP antagonists. Reduced BMP4 signaling/action can contribute to the development of obesity, insulin resistance, and associated metabolic disorders. In this article, we summarize the pleiotropic functions of BMP4 in the pathophysiology of these diseases and also consider the therapeutic implications of targeting BMP4 in the prevention/treatment of obesity and its associated complications.
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15.
  • Buzzetti, Raffaella, et al. (författare)
  • Management of latent autoimmune diabetes in adults : A consensus statement from an international expert panel
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Diabetes. - : American Diabetes Association Inc.. - 0012-1797. ; 69:10, s. 2037-2047
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A substantial proportion of patients with adult-onset diabetes share features of both type 1 diabetes (T1D) and type 2 diabetes (T2D). These individuals, at diagnosis, clinically resemble T2D patients by not requiring insulin treatment, yet they have immunogenetic markers associated with T1D. Such a slowly evolving form of autoimmune diabetes, described as latent autoimmune diabetes of adults (LADA), accounts for 2-12% of all patients with adult-onset diabetes, though they show considerable variability according to their demographics and mode of ascertainment. While therapeutic strategies aim for metabolic control and preservation of residual insulin secretory capacity, endotype heterogeneity within LADA implies a personalized approach to treatment. Faced with a paucity of large-scale clinical trials in LADA, an expert panel reviewed data and delineated one therapeutic approach. Building on the 2020 American Diabetes Association (ADA)/European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD) consensus for T2D and heterogeneity within autoimmune diabetes, we propose deviations for LADA from those guidelines. Within LADA, C-peptide values, proxy for b-cell function, drive therapeutic decisions. Three broad categories of random C-peptide levels were introduced by the panel: 1) C-peptide levels <0.3 nmol/L: A multiple-insulin regimen recommended as for T1D; 2) C-peptide values >0.3 and <0.7 nmol/L: Defined by the panel as a gray area in which a modified ADA/EASD algorithm for T2D is recommended; consider insulin in combination with other therapies to modulate β-cell failure and limit diabetic complications; 3) C-peptide values >0.7 nmol/L: Suggests a modified ADA/EASD algorithm as for T2D but allowing for the potentially progressive nature of LADA by monitoring C-peptide to adjust treatment. The panel concluded by advising general screening for LADA in newly diagnosed noninsulin-requiring diabetes and, importantly, that large randomized clinical trials are warranted.
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16.
  • Elhadad, M. A., et al. (författare)
  • Deciphering the plasma proteome of type 2 diabetes
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Diabetes. - 0012-1797. ; 69:12, s. 2766-2778
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • With an estimated prevalence of 463 million affected, type 2 diabetes represents a major challenge to health care systems worldwide. Analyzing the plasma proteomes of individuals with type 2 diabetes may illuminate hitherto unknown functional mechanisms underlying disease pathology. We assessed the associations between type 2 diabetes and >1,000 plasma proteins in the Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg (KORA) F4 cohort (n = 993, 110 cases), with subsequent replication in the third wave of the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT3) cohort (n = 940, 149 cases). We computed logistic regression models adjusted for age, sex, BMI, smoking status, and hypertension. Addition-ally, we investigated associations with incident type 2 diabetes and performed two-sample bidirectional Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis to prioritize our results. Association analysis of prevalent type 2 diabetes revealed 24 replicated proteins, of which 8 are novel. Proteins showing association with incident type 2 diabetes were aminoacylase-1, growth hormone receptor, and insulin-like growth factor–binding protein 2. Aminoacylase-1 was associated with both prevalent and incident type 2 diabetes. MR analysis yielded nominally significant causal effects of type 2 diabetes on cathepsin Z and rennin, both known to have roles in the pathophysiological pathways of cardiovascular disease, and of sex hormone–binding globulin on type 2 diabetes. In conclusion, our high-throughput pro-teomics study replicated previously reported type 2 diabetes–protein associations and identified new candidate proteins possibly involved in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. © 2020 by the American Diabetes Association.
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17.
  • Eliasson, Lena, et al. (författare)
  • MicroRNA networks in pancreatic islet cells : Normal function and type 2 diabetes
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Diabetes. - : American Diabetes Association Inc.. - 0012-1797. ; 69:5, s. 804-812
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Impaired insulin secretion from the pancreatic β-cells is central in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes (T2D), and microRNAs (miRNAs) are fundamental regulatory factors in this process. Differential expression of miRNAs contributes to β-cell adaptation to compensate for increased insulin resistance, but deregulation of miRNA expression can also directly cause β-cell impairment during the development of T2D. miRNAs are small noncoding RNAs that posttranscriptionally reduce gene expression through translational inhibition or mRNA destabilization. The nature of miRNA targeting implies the presence of complex and large miRNA-mRNA regulatory networks in every cell, including the insulin-secreting β-cell. Here we exemplify one such network using our own data on differential miRNA expression in the islets of T2D Goto- Kakizaki rat model. Several biological processes are influenced by multiple miRNAs in the β-cell, but so far most studies have focused on dissecting the mechanism of action of individual miRNAs. In this Perspective we present key islet miRNA families involved in T2D pathogenesis including miR-200, miR-7, miR-184, miR-212/miR-132, and miR-130a/b/miR-152. Finally, we highlight four challenges and opportunities within islet miRNA research, ending with a discussion on how miRNAs can be utilized as therapeutic targets contributing to personalized T2D treatment strategies.
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18.
  • Garcia-Vaz, Eliana, et al. (författare)
  • Inhibition of NFAT signaling restores microvascular endothelial function in diabetic mice
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Diabetes. - : American Diabetes Association Inc.. - 0012-1797. ; 69:3, s. 424-435
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Central to the development of diabetic macro- and microvascular disease is endothelial dysfunction, which appears well before any clinical sign but, importantly, is potentially reversible. We previously demonstrated that hyperglycemia activates nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) in conduit and medium-sized resistance arteries and that NFAT blockade abolishes diabetes-driven aggravation of atherosclerosis. In this study, we test whether NFAT plays a role in the development of endothelial dysfunction in diabetes. NFAT-dependent transcriptional activity was elevated in skin microvessels of diabetic Akita (Ins21/2) mice when compared with nondiabetic littermates. Treatment of diabetic mice with the NFAT blocker A-285222 reduced NFATc3 nuclear accumulation and NFAT-luciferase transcriptional activity in skin microvessels, resulting in improved microvascular function, as assessed by laser Doppler imaging and iontophoresis of acetylcholine and localized heating. This improvement was abolished by pretreatment with the nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor L-NGnitro-L-arginine methyl ester, while iontophoresis of the NO donor sodium nitroprusside eliminated the observed differences. A-285222 treatment enhanced dermis endothelial NO synthase expression and plasma NO levels of diabetic mice. It also prevented induction of inflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 and osteopontin, lowered plasma endothelin-1 and blood pressure, and improved mouse survival without affecting blood glucose. In vivo inhibition of NFAT may represent a novel therapeutic modality to preserve endothelial function in diabetes.
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19.
  • Hedjazifar, Shahram, 1975, et al. (författare)
  • The Novel Adipokine Gremlin 1 Antagonizes Insulin Action and Is Increased in Type 2 Diabetes and NAFLD/NASH
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Diabetes. - 0012-1797. ; 69:3, s. 331-341
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The BMP2/4 antagonist and novel adipokine Gremlin 1 is highly expressed in human adipose cells and increased in hypertrophic obesity. As a secreted antagonist, it inhibits the effect of BMP2/4 on adipose precursor cell commitment/differentiation. We examined mRNA levels of Gremlin 1 in key target tissues for insulin and also measured tissue and serum levels in several carefully phenotyped human cohorts. Gremlin 1 expression was high in adipose tissue, higher in visceral than in subcutaneous tissue, increased in obesity, and further increased in type 2 diabetes (T2D). A similar high expression was seen in liver biopsies, but expression was considerably lower in skeletal muscles. Serum levels were increased in obesity but most prominently in T2D. Transcriptional activation in both adipose tissue and liver as well as serum levels were strongly associated with markers of insulin resistance in vivo (euglycemic clamps and HOMA of insulin resistance), and the presence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). We also found Gremlin 1 to antagonize insulin signaling and action in human primary adipocytes, skeletal muscle, and liver cells. Thus, Gremlin 1 is a novel secreted insulin antagonist and biomarker as well as a potential therapeutic target in obesity and its complications T2D and NAFLD/NASH.
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20.
  • Herzog, Katharina, et al. (författare)
  • Metabolic Effects of Gastric Bypass Surgery : Is It All About Calories?
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Diabetes. - : American Diabetes Association Inc.. - 1939-327X. ; 69:9, s. 2027-2035
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Bariatric surgery is an efficient method to induce weight loss and also, frequently, remission of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Unpaired studies have shown bariatric surgery and dietary interventions to differentially affect multiple hormonal and metabolic parameters, suggesting that bariatric surgery causes T2D remission at least partially via unique mechanisms. In the current study, plasma metabolite profiling was conducted in patients with (n = 10) and without T2D (n = 9) subjected to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB). Mixed-meal tests were conducted at baseline, after the presurgical very-low-calorie diet (VLCD) intervention, immediately after RYGB, and after a 6-week recovery period. Thereby, we could compare fasted and postprandial metabolic consequences of RYGB and VLCD in the same patients. VLCD yielded a pronounced increase in fasting acylcarnitine levels, whereas RYGB, both immediately and after a recovery period, resulted in a smaller but opposite effect. Furthermore, we observed profound changes in lipid metabolism following VLCD but not in response to RYGB. Most changes previously associated with RYGB were found to be consequences of the presurgical dietary intervention. Overall, our results question previous findings of unique metabolic effects of RYGB and suggest that the effect of RYGB on the metabolite profile is mainly attributed to caloric restriction.
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  • Resultat 11-20 av 32
  • Föregående 1[2]34Nästa

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