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Träfflista för sökning "L773:0012 1797 OR L773:1939 327X srt2:(2020-2021)"

Sökning: L773:0012 1797 OR L773:1939 327X > (2020-2021)

  • Resultat 21-30 av 32
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21.
  • Jönsson, Josefine, et al. (författare)
  • Lifestyle Intervention in Pregnant Women With Obesity Impacts Cord Blood DNA Methylation, Which Associates With Body Composition in the Offspring
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Diabetes. - : American Diabetes Association Inc.. - 1939-327X. ; 70:4, s. 854-866
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Maternal obesity may lead to epigenetic alterations in the offspring and might thereby contribute to disease later in life. We investigated whether a lifestyle intervention in pregnant women with obesity is associated with epigenetic variation in cord blood and body composition in the offspring. Genome-wide DNA methylation was analyzed in cord blood from 208 offspring from the Treatment of Obese Pregnant women (TOP)-study, which includes pregnant women with obesity randomized to lifestyle interventions comprised of physical activity with or without dietary advice versus control subjects (standard of care). DNA methylation was altered at 379 sites, annotated to 370 genes, in cord blood from offspring of mothers following a lifestyle intervention versus control subjects (false discovery rate [FDR] <5%) when using the Houseman reference-free method to correct for cell composition, and three of these sites were significant based on Bonferroni correction. These 370 genes are overrepresented in gene ontology terms, including response to fatty acids and adipose tissue development. Offspring of mothers included in a lifestyle intervention were born with more lean mass compared with control subjects. Methylation at 17 sites, annotated to, for example, DISC1, GBX2, HERC2, and HUWE1, partially mediates the effect of the lifestyle intervention on lean mass in the offspring (FDR <5%). Moreover, 22 methylation sites were associated with offspring BMI z scores during the first 3 years of life (P < 0.05). Overall, lifestyle interventions in pregnant women with obesity are associated with epigenetic changes in offspring, potentially influencing the offspring's lean mass and early growth.
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22.
  • Li, Qian, et al. (författare)
  • Longitudinal Metabolome-Wide Signals Prior to the Appearance of a First Islet Autoantibody in Children Participating in the TEDDY Study
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Diabetes. - : American Diabetes Association Inc.. - 1939-327X. ; 69:3, s. 465-476
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Children at increased genetic risk for type 1 diabetes (T1D) after environmental exposures may develop pancreatic islet autoantibodies (IA) at a very young age. Metabolic profile changes over time may imply responses to exposures and signal development of the first IA. Our present research in The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young (TEDDY) study aimed to identify metabolome-wide signals preceding the first IA against GAD (GADA-first) or against insulin (IAA-first). We profiled metabolomes by mass spectrometry from children's plasma at 3-month intervals after birth until appearance of the first IA. A trajectory analysis discovered each first IA preceded by reduced amino acid proline and branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), respectively. With independent time point analysis following birth, we discovered dehydroascorbic acid (DHAA) contributing to the risk of each first IA, and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABAs) associated with the first autoantibody against insulin (IAA-first). Methionine and alanine, compounds produced in BCAA metabolism and fatty acids, also preceded IA at different time points. Unsaturated triglycerides and phosphatidylethanolamines decreased in abundance before appearance of either autoantibody. Our findings suggest that IAA-first and GADA-first are heralded by different patterns of DHAA, GABA, multiple amino acids, and fatty acids, which may be important to primary prevention of T1D.
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23.
  • Li, Qian, et al. (författare)
  • Plasma Metabolome and Circulating Vitamins Stratified Onset Age of an Initial Islet Autoantibody and Progression to Type 1 Diabetes : the TEDDY Study
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Diabetes. - : American Diabetes Association Inc.. - 1939-327X. ; 70:1, s. 282-292
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Children's plasma metabolome, especially lipidome reflects gene regulation and dietary exposures, heralding the development of islet autoantibodies (IA) and type 1 diabetes (T1D). The TEDDY study enrolled 8676 newborns by screening HLA-DR-DQ genotypes at six clinical centers in four countries; profiled metabolome and measured concentrations of ascorbic acid, 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), erythrocyte membrane fatty acids following birth until IA seroconversion under nested case-control design. We grouped children having an initial autoantibody only against insulin (IAA-first) or glutamic acid decarboxylase (GADA-first) by unsupervised clustering of temporal lipidome, identifying a subgroup of children having early onset of each initial autoantibody, i.e., IAA-first by 12 months and GADA-first by 21 months, consistent with population-wide early seroconversion age. Differential analysis showed that infants having reduced plasma ascorbic acid and cholesterol experienced IAA-first earlier, while early onset of GADA-first was preceded by reduced sphingomyelins at infancy. Plasma 25(OH)D prior to either autoantibody was lower in T1D progressors compared to non-progressors, with simultaneous lower diglycerides, lysophosphatidylcholines, triglycerides, alanine before GADA-first. Plasma ascorbic acid and 25(OH)D at infancy were lower in HLA-DR3/DR4 children among IA cases but not in matched controls, implying gene expression dysregulation of circulating vitamins as latent signals for IA or T1D progression.
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24.
  • Lund, M. L., et al. (författare)
  • L-Cell Differentiation Is Induced by Bile Acids Through GPBAR1 and Paracrine GLP-1 and Serotonin Signaling
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Diabetes. - 0012-1797. ; 69:4, s. 614-623
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) mimetics are effective drugs for treatment of type 2 diabetes, and there is consequently extensive interest in increasing endogenous GLP-1 secretion and L-cell abundance. Here we identify G-protein-coupled bile acid receptor 1 (GPBAR1) as a selective regulator of intestinal L-cell differentiation. Lithocholic acid and the synthetic GPBAR1 agonist, L3740, selectively increased L-cell density in mouse and human intestinal organoids and elevated GLP-1 secretory capacity. L3740 induced expression of Gcg and transcription factors Ngn3 and NeuroD1. L3740 also increased the L-cell number and GLP-1 levels and improved glucose tolerance in vivo. Further mechanistic examination revealed that the effect of L3740 on L cells required intact GLP-1 receptor and serotonin 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 4 (5-HT4) signaling. Importantly, serotonin signaling through 5-HT4 mimicked the effects of L3740, acting downstream of GLP-1. Thus, GPBAR1 agonists and other powerful GLP-1 secretagogues facilitate L-cell differentiation through a paracrine GLP-1-dependent and serotonin-mediated mechanism.
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26.
  • Nagao, Mototsugu, et al. (författare)
  • Potential Protection Against Type 2 Diabetes in Obesity Through Lower CD36 Expression and Improved Exocytosis in β-Cells
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Diabetes. - : American Diabetes Association Inc.. - 1939-327X. ; 69:6, s. 1193-1205
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Obesity is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes (T2D); however, not all obese individuals develop the disease. In this study, we aimed to investigate the cause of differential insulin secretion capacity of pancreatic islets from donors with T2D and non-T2D (ND), especially obese donors (BMI ≥30 kg/m2). Islets from obese donors with T2D had reduced insulin secretion, decreased β-cell exocytosis, and higher expression of fatty acid translocase CD36. We tested the hypothesis that CD36 is a key molecule in the reduced insulin secretion capacity. Indeed, CD36 overexpression led to decreased insulin secretion, impaired exocytosis, and reduced granule docking. This was accompanied by reduced expression of the exocytotic proteins SNAP25, STXBP1, and VAMP2, likely because CD36 induced downregulation of the insulin receptor substrate (IRS) proteins, suppressed the insulin-signaling phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT pathway, and increased nuclear localization of the transcription factor FoxO1. CD36 antibody treatment of the human β-cell line EndoC-βH1 increased IRS1 and exocytotic protein levels, improved granule docking, and enhanced insulin secretion. Our results demonstrate that β-cells from obese donors with T2D have dysfunctional exocytosis likely due to an abnormal lipid handling represented by differential CD36 expression. Hence, CD36 could be a key molecule to limit β-cell function in T2D associated with obesity.
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27.
  • Ouni, Meriem, et al. (författare)
  • Epigenetic changes in islets of langerhans preceding the onset of diabetes
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Diabetes. - : American Diabetes Association Inc.. - 0012-1797. ; 69:11, s. 2503-2517
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The identification of individuals with a high risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D) is fundamental for pre-vention. Here, we used a translational approach and prediction criteria to identify changes in DNA methylation visible before the development of T2D. Islets of Langerhans were isolated from genetically identical 10-week-old female New Zealand Obese mice, which differ in their degree of hyperglycemia and in liver fat content. The application of a semiexplorative approach identified 497 differentially expressed and methylated genes (P = 6.42e-09, hypergeometric test) enriched in pathways linked to insulin secretion and extracellular matrix-receptor interaction. The comparison of mouse data with DNA methylation levels of incident T2D cases from the prospective European Prospective Investigation of Cancer (EPIC)-Potsdam cohort, revealed 105 genes with altered DNA methylation at 605 cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) sites, which were associated with future T2D. AKAP13, TENM2, CTDSPL, PTPRN2, and PTPRS showed the strongest predictive potential (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve values 0.62–0.73). Among the new candidates identified in blood cells, 655 CpG sites, located in 99 genes, were differentially methylated in islets of humans with T2D. Using correction for multiple testing detected 236 genes with an altered DNA methylation in blood cells and 201 genes in diabetic islets. Thus, the introduced translational approach identified novel putative biomarkers for early pancreatic islet aberrations preceding T2D.
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28.
  • Satin, L. S., et al. (författare)
  • "Take Me To Your Leader": An Electrophysiological Appraisal of the Role of Hub Cells in Pancreatic Islets
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Diabetes. - 0012-1797. ; 69:5, s. 830-836
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The coordinated electrical activity of beta-cells within the pancreatic islet drives oscillatory insulin secretion. A recent hypothesis postulates that specially equipped "hub" or "leader" cells within the beta-cell network drive islet oscillations and that electrically silencing or optically ablating these cells suppresses coordinated electrical activity (and thus insulin secretion) in the rest of the islet. In this Perspective, we discuss this hypothesis in relation to established principles of electrophysiological theory. We conclude that whereas electrical coupling between beta-cells is sufficient for the propagation of excitation across the islet, there is no obvious electrophysiological mechanism that explains how hyperpolarizing a hub cell results in widespread inhibition of islet electrical activity and disruption of their coordination. Thus, intraislet diffusible factors should perhaps be considered as an alternate mechanism.
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  • Resultat 21-30 av 32
  • Föregående 12[3]4Nästa

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