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11.
  • Beyerlein, Andreas, et al. (författare)
  • Progression from islet autoimmunity to clinical type 1 diabetes is influenced by genetic factors : Results from the prospective TEDDY study
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Journal of Medical Genetics. - : BMJ. - 0022-2593 .- 1468-6244. ; 56:9, s. 602-605
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Progression time from islet autoimmunity to clinical type 1 diabetes is highly variable and the extent that genetic factors contribute is unknown. Methods: In 341 islet autoantibody-positive children with the human leucocyte antigen (HLA) DR3/DR4-DQ8 or the HLA DR4-DQ8/DR4-DQ8 genotype from the prospective TEDDY (The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young) study, we investigated whether a genetic risk score that had previously been shown to predict islet autoimmunity is also associated with disease progression. Results: Islet autoantibody-positive children with a genetic risk score in the lowest quartile had a slower progression from single to multiple autoantibodies (p=0.018), from single autoantibodies to diabetes (p=0.004), and by trend from multiple islet autoantibodies to diabetes (p=0.06). In a Cox proportional hazards analysis, faster progression was associated with an increased genetic risk score independently of HLA genotype (HR for progression from multiple autoantibodies to type 1 diabetes, 1.27, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.58 per unit increase), an earlier age of islet autoantibody development (HR, 0.68, 95% CI 0.58 to 0.81 per year increase in age) and female sex (HR, 1.94, 95% CI 1.28 to 2.93). Conclusions: Genetic risk scores may be used to identify islet autoantibody-positive children with high-risk HLA genotypes who have a slow rate of progression to subsequent stages of autoimmunity and type 1 diabetes.
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12.
  • Björkman, Kristoffer, et al. (författare)
  • Phenotypic spectrum and clinical course of single large-scale mitochondrial DNA deletion disease in the paediatric population: a multicentre study.
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Journal of Medical Genetics. - : BMJ. - 0022-2593 .- 1468-6244. ; 60:1, s. 65-73
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Large-scale mitochondrial DNA deletions (LMD) are a common genetic cause of mitochondrial disease and give rise to a wide range of clinical features. Lack of longitudinal data means the natural history remains unclear. This study was undertaken to describe the clinical spectrum in a large cohort of patients with paediatric disease onset. Methods A retrospective multicentre study was performed in patients with clinical onset <16 years of age, diagnosed and followed in seven European mitochondrial disease centres. Results A total of 80 patients were included. The average age at disease onset and at last examination was 10 and 31 years, respectively. The median time from disease onset to death was 11.5 years. Pearson syndrome was present in 21%, Kearns-Sayre syndrome spectrum disorder in 50% and progressive external ophthalmoplegia in 29% of patients. Haematological abnormalities were the hallmark of the disease in preschool children, while the most common presentations in older patients were ptosis and external ophthalmoplegia. Skeletal muscle involvement was found in 65% and exercise intolerance in 25% of the patients. Central nervous system involvement was frequent, with variable presence of ataxia (40%), cognitive involvement (36%) and stroke-like episodes (9%). Other common features were pigmentary retinopathy (46%), short stature (42%), hearing impairment (39%), cardiac disease (39%), diabetes mellitus (25%) and renal disease (19%). Conclusion Our study provides new insights into the phenotypic spectrum of childhood-onset, LMD-associated syndromes. We found a wider spectrum of more prevalent multisystem involvement compared with previous studies, most likely related to a longer time of follow-up.
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18.
  • Celse, Tristan, et al. (författare)
  • OTX2 duplications : a recurrent cause of oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum
  • 2023
  • Ingår i: Journal of Medical Genetics. - : BMJ Publishing Group Ltd. - 0022-2593 .- 1468-6244. ; 60:6, s. 620-626
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum (OAVS) is the second most common cause of head and neck malformations in children after orofacial clefts. OAVS is clinically heterogeneous and characterised by a broad range of clinical features including ear anomalies with or without hearing loss, hemifacial microsomia, orofacial clefts, ocular defects and vertebral abnormalities. Various genetic causes were associated with OAVS and copy number variations represent a recurrent cause of OAVS, but the responsible gene often remains elusive.Methods We described an international cohort of 17 patients, including 10 probands and 7 affected relatives, presenting with OAVS and carrying a 14q22.3 microduplication detected using chromosomal microarray analysis. For each patient, clinical data were collected using a detailed questionnaire addressed to the referring clinicians. We subsequently studied the effects of OTX2 overexpression in a zebrafish model.Results We defined a 272 kb minimal common region that only overlaps with the OTX2 gene. Head and face defects with a predominance of ear malformations were present in 100% of patients. The variability in expressivity was significant, ranging from simple chondromas to severe microtia, even between intrafamilial cases. Heterologous overexpression of OTX2 in zebrafish embryos showed significant effects on early development with alterations in craniofacial development.Conclusions Our results indicate that proper OTX2 dosage seems to be critical for the normal development of the first and second branchial arches. Overall, we demonstrated that OTX2 genomic duplications are a recurrent cause of OAVS marked by auricular malformations of variable severity.
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19.
  • Christensen, Alex Hörby, et al. (författare)
  • Genotype-phenotype correlation in arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy-risk of arrhythmias and heart failure.
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Journal of medical genetics. - : BMJ PUBLISHING GROUP. - 1468-6244 .- 0022-2593.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) is predominantly caused by desmosomal genetic variants, and clinical hallmarks include arrhythmias and systolic dysfunction. We aimed at studying the impact of the implicated gene(s) on the disease course.The Nordic ARVC Registry holds data on a multinational cohort of ARVC families. The effects of genotype on electrocardiographic features, imaging findings and clinical events were analysed.We evaluated 419 patients (55% men), with a mean follow-up of 11.2±7.4 years. A pathogenic desmosomal variant was identified in 62% of the 230 families: PKP2 in 41%, DSG2 in 13%, DSP in 7% and DSC2 in 3%. Reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≤45% on cardiac MRI was more frequent among patients with DSC2/DSG2/DSP than PKP2 ARVC (27% vs 4%, p<0.01). In contrast, in Cox regression modelling of patients with definite ARVC, we found a higher risk of arrhythmias among PKP2 than DSC2/DSG2/DSP carriers: HR 0.25 (0.10-0.68, p<0.01) for atrial fibrillation/flutter, HR 0.67 (0.44-1.0, p=0.06) for ventricular arrhythmias and HR 0.63 (0.42-0.95, p<0.05) for any arrhythmia. Gene-negative patients had an intermediate risk (16%) of LVEF ≤45% and a risk of the combined arrhythmic endpoint comparable with DSC2/DSG2/DSP carriers. Male sex was a risk factor for both arrhythmias and reduced LVEF across all genotype groups (p<0.01).In this large cohort of ARVC families with long-term follow-up, we found PKP2 genotype to be more arrhythmic than DSC2/DSG2/DSP or gene-negative carrier status, whereas reduced LVEF was mostly seen among DSC2/DSG2/DSP carriers. Male sex was associated with a more severe phenotype.
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20.
  • Christensen, Alex Horby, et al. (författare)
  • Genotype-phenotype correlation in arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy-risk of arrhythmias and heart failure
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Journal of Medical Genetics. - : BMJ PUBLISHING GROUP. - 0022-2593 .- 1468-6244. ; 59:9, s. 858-864
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) is predominantly caused by desmosomal genetic variants, and clinical hallmarks include arrhythmias and systolic dysfunction. We aimed at studying the impact of the implicated gene(s) on the disease course. Methods The Nordic ARVC Registry holds data on a multinational cohort of ARVC families. The effects of genotype on electrocardiographic features, imaging findings and clinical events were analysed. Results We evaluated 419 patients (55% men), with a mean follow-up of 11.2 +/- 7.4 years. A pathogenic desmosomal variant was identified in 62% of the 230 families: PKP2 in 41%, DSG2 in 13%, DSP in 7% and DSC2 in 3%. Reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) <= 45% on cardiac MRI was more frequent among patients with DSC2/DSG2/DSP than PKP2 ARVC (27% vs 4%, p<0.01). In contrast, in Cox regression modelling of patients with definite ARVC, we found a higher risk of arrhythmias among PKP2 than DSC2/DSG2/DSP carriers: HR 0.25 (0.10-0.68, p<0.01) for atrial fibrillation/flutter, HR 0.67 (0.44-1.0, p=0.06) for ventricular arrhythmias and HR 0.63 (0.42-0.95, p<0.05) for any arrhythmia. Gene-negative patients had an intermediate risk (16%) of LVEF <= 45% and a risk of the combined arrhythmic endpoint comparable with DSC2/DSG2/DSP carriers. Male sex was a risk factor for both arrhythmias and reduced LVEF across all genotype groups (p<0.01). Conclusion In this large cohort of ARVC families with long-term follow-up, we found PKP2 genotype to be more arrhythmic than DSC2/DSG2/DSP or gene-negative carrier status, whereas reduced LVEF was mostly seen among DSC2/DSG2/DSP carriers. Male sex was associated with a more severe phenotype.
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