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  • Helgadottir, Hildur, et al. (författare)
  • High risk of tobacco-related cancers in CDKN2A mutation-positive melanoma families.
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Journal of Medical Genetics. - : BMJ Publishing Group. - 0022-2593 .- 1468-6244. ; 51:8, s. 545-552
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Germline mutations in the tumour suppressor gene CDKN2A occur in 5-20% of familial melanoma cases. A single founder mutation, p.Arg112dup, accounts for the majority of CDKN2A mutations in Swedish carriers. In a national program, carriers of p.Arg112dup mutation have been identified. The aim of this study was to assess cancer risks in p.Arg112dup carriers and their first degree relatives (FDRs) and second degree relatives (SDRs).
  • Hofmeister, Wolfgang, et al. (författare)
  • CTNND2-a candidate gene for reading problems and mild intellectual disability.
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Journal of Medical Genetics. - : BMJ. - 0022-2593 .- 1468-6244. ; 52:2, s. 111-22
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Cytogenetically visible chromosomal translocations are highly informative as they can pinpoint strong effect genes even in complex genetic disorders.METHODS AND RESULTS: Here, we report a mother and daughter, both with borderline intelligence and learning problems within the dyslexia spectrum, and two apparently balanced reciprocal translocations: t(1;8)(p22;q24) and t(5;18)(p15;q11). By low coverage mate-pair whole-genome sequencing, we were able to pinpoint the genomic breakpoints to 2 kb intervals. By direct sequencing, we then located the chromosome 5p breakpoint to intron 9 of CTNND2. An additional case with a 163 kb microdeletion exclusively involving CTNND2 was identified with genome-wide array comparative genomic hybridisation. This microdeletion at 5p15.2 is also present in mosaic state in the patient's mother but absent from the healthy siblings. We then investigated the effect of CTNND2 polymorphisms on normal variability and identified a polymorphism (rs2561622) with significant effect on phonological ability and white matter volume in the left frontal lobe, close to cortical regions previously associated with phonological processing. Finally, given the potential role of CTNND2 in neuron motility, we used morpholino knockdown in zebrafish embryos to assess its effects on neuronal migration in vivo. Analysis of the zebrafish forebrain revealed a subpopulation of neurons misplaced between the diencephalon and telencephalon.CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, our human genetic and in vivo data suggest that defective migration of subpopulations of neuronal cells due to haploinsufficiency of CTNND2 contribute to the cognitive dysfunction in our patients.
  • Huesing, Anika, et al. (författare)
  • Prediction of breast cancer risk by genetic risk factors, overall and by hormone receptor status
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Journal of Medical Genetics. - : BMJ. - 0022-2593 .- 1468-6244. ; 49:9, s. 601-608
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective There is increasing interest in adding common genetic variants identified through genome wide association studies (GWAS) to breast cancer risk prediction models. First results from such models showed modest benefits in terms of risk discrimination. Heterogeneity of breast cancer as defined by hormone-receptor status has not been considered in this context. In this study we investigated the predictive capacity of 32 GWAS-detected common variants for breast cancer risk, alone and in combination with classical risk factors, and for tumours with different hormone receptor status. Material and methods Within the Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium, we analysed 6009 invasive breast cancer cases and 7827 matched controls of European ancestry, with data on classical breast cancer risk factors and 32 common gene variants identified through GWAS. Discriminatory ability with respect to breast cancer of specific hormone receptor-status was assessed with the age adjusted and cohort-adjusted concordance statistic (AUROC(a)). Absolute risk scores were calculated with external reference data. Integrated discrimination improvement was used to measure improvements in risk prediction. Results We found a small but steady increase in discriminatory ability with increasing numbers of genetic variants included in the model (difference in AUROC(a) going from 2.7% to 4%). Discriminatory ability for all models varied strongly by hormone receptor status. Discussion and conclusions Adding information on common polymorphisms provides small but statistically significant improvements in the quality of breast cancer risk prediction models. We consistently observed better performance for receptor-positive cases, but the gain in discriminatory quality is not sufficient for clinical application.
  • Järvelä, I, et al. (författare)
  • Rapid diagnostic test for the major mutation underlying Batten disease
  • 1996
  • Ingår i: Journal of Medical Genetics. - 0022-2593 .- 1468-6244. ; 33:12, s. 1041-1042
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Batten disease is the most common progressive neurodegenerative disorder of childhood in western countries. A novel cDNA responsible for Batten disease has recently been identified. We have developed a rapid diagnostic solid phase minisequencing test to detect the major 1.02 kb deletion which is responsible for 81% of affected chromosomes in Batten disease worldwide. In Finland, 90% of Batten chromosomes carry the major deletion owing to the enrichment of the CLN3 gene in the isolated Finnish population.
  • Kalokairinou, Louiza, et al. (författare)
  • Regulating the advertising of genetic tests in Europe : a balancing act
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Journal of Medical Genetics. - : BMJ. - 0022-2593 .- 1468-6244. ; 54:10, s. 651-656
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Direct-to-consumer (DTC) genetic tests (GT) have provoked criticism over their potential adverse impact on public health. The European Parliament called for a ban on DTC advertising of GT during the debate for the adoption of a European Regulation on in vitro diagnostic medical devices. This proposal, however, was not ultimately retained in the final text. Instead, the regulation includes an article prohibiting misleading claims for this kind of advertising. These two different approaches raise questions about the optimal degree of regulation. Herein, we provide an overview of the ways GT have been advertised and related ethical issues. Subsequently, the laws regulating the advertising of GT at the European Union and national level are examined. Finally, recent regulatory developments are discussed.
  • Karppinen, S. -M., et al. (författare)
  • Nordic collaborative study of the BARD1 Cys557Ser allele in 3956 patients with cancer: enrichment in familial BRCA1/BRCA2 mutation-negative breast cancer but not in other malignancies
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Journal of Medical Genetics. - : BMJ Publishing Group. - 0022-2593 .- 1468-6244. ; 43:11, s. 856-862
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: BARD1 was originally identified as a BRCA1- interacting protein but has also been described in tumour-suppressive functions independent of BRCA1. Several studies have indicated that the BARD1 gene is a potential target for germline changes predisposing to breast and ovarian cancer. The C- terminal Cys557Ser change has previously been uncovered to associate with an increased risk of breast cancer and was recently shown to result in defective apoptotic activities. Aim and methods: Conformation- sensitive gel electrophoresis, minisequencing, TaqMan assays, denaturing high- performance liquid chromatography analysis and DNA sequencing were used to investigate the prevalence of the Cys557Ser allele in a large Nordic case - control study cohort consisting of 2906 patients with breast or ovarian cancer, 734 with prostate cancer, 188 with colorectal cancer, 128 men with breast cancer, and 3591 controls from Finland, Iceland, Denmark, Sweden and Norway. Results: The frequency of the BARD1 Cys557Ser variant seemed to increase among patients from families with breast or ovarian cancer lacking BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations: a significant difference was obtained compared with controls ( 6.8% v 2.7%; p < 0.001; odds ratio ( OR) 2.6; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.7 to 4.0) and with patients from BRCA1/ BRCA2 mutation- positive families ( 6.8% v 2.2%; p = 0.01; OR 3.2; 95% CI 1.2 to 8.3). In contrast, no major association with male breast, ovarian, colorectal or prostate cancer was observed. Additionally, a novel BARD1 allele resulting in Ser558Pro was identified in familial breast cancer cases. Conclusion: These results provide further evidence that BARD1 Cys557Ser confers a slightly increased risk of breast cancer in women.
  • Klar, Joakim, et al. (författare)
  • Fibroblast growth factor 10 haploinsufficiency causes chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Journal of Medical Genetics. - : BMJ. - 0022-2593 .- 1468-6244. ; 48:10, s. 705-709
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Genetic factors influencing lung function may predispose to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The fibroblast growth factor 10 (FGF10) signalling pathway is critical for lung development and lung epithelial renewal. The hypothesis behind this study was that constitutive FGF10 insufficiency may lead to pulmonary disorder. Therefore investigation of the pulmonary functions of patients heterozygous for loss of function mutations in the FGF10 gene was performed. METHODS: The spirometric measures of lung function from patients and non-carrier siblings were compared and both groups were related to matched reference data for normal human lung function. RESULTS: The patients show a significant decrease in lung function parameters when compared to control values. The average FEV1/IVC quota (FEV1%) for the patients is 0.65 (80% of predicted) and reversibility test using Terbutalin resulted in a 3.7% increase in FEV1. Patients with FGF10 haploinsufficiency have lung function parameters indicating COPD. A modest response to Terbutalin confirms an irreversible obstructive lung disease. CONCLUSION: These findings support the idea that genetic variants affecting the FGF10 signalling pathway are important determinants of lung function that may ultimately contribute to COPD. Specifically, the results show that FGF10 haploinsufficiency affects lung function measures providing a model for a dosage sensitive effect of FGF10 in the development of COPD.
  • Klar, Joakim, et al. (författare)
  • Whole exome sequencing identifies LRP1 as a pathogenic gene in autosomal recessive keratosis pilaris atrophicans
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Journal of Medical Genetics. - : BMJ. - 0022-2593 .- 1468-6244. ; 52:9, s. 599-606
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Keratosis pilaris atrophicans (KPA) is a group of rare genodermatoses characterised by perifollicular keratosis and inflammation that progresses to atrophy and scars of the facial skin. Keratosis pilaris of extensor areas of limbs is a common associated finding. Most cases with KPA are sporadic and no consistent inheritance pattern has been documented.Methods A large consanguineous Pakistani pedigree segregating autosomal recessive KPA of a mixed type was subject to autozygosity mapping and whole exome sequencing. Quantification of mRNA and protein levels was performed on fibroblasts from affected individuals. Cellular uptake of the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) ligand alpha 2-macroglobulin (alpha M-2) was quantified using fluorescence confocal microscopy.Results Genetic analyses identified a unique homozygous missense variant (K1245R) in the LRP1 in all affected family members. LRP1 encodes the LRP1, a multifunctional cell surface receptor with endocytic functions that belongs to the LDL receptor family. The LRP1 mRNA and LRP1 protein levels in fibroblasts of affected individuals were markedly reduced when compared with controls. Similarly, the LRP1-mediated cellular uptake of alpha M-2 was reduced in patient fibroblasts. Conclusions This is the first report on LRP1 as a pathogenic gene for autosomal recessive KPA and keratosis pilaris. The inflammatory characteristics of the KPA entity in our family suggest a link to the immune-regulatory functions of LRP1.
  • Kostjukovits, Svetlana, et al. (författare)
  • Decreased telomere length in children with cartilage-hair hypoplasia
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Journal of Medical Genetics. - : BMJ PUBLISHING GROUP. - 0022-2593 .- 1468-6244. ; 54:5, s. 365-370
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Cartilage-hair hypoplasia (CHH) is an autosomal recessive chondrodysplasia caused by RMRP (RNA component of mitochondrial RNA processing endoribonuclease) gene mutations. Manifestations include short stature, variable immunodeficiency, anaemia and increased risk of malignancies, all of which have been described also in telomere biology disorders. RMRP interacts with the telomerase RT (TERT) subunit, but the influence of RMRP mutations on telomere length is unknown. We measured relative telomere length (RTL) in patients with CHH, their first-degree relatives and healthy controls and correlated RTL with clinical and laboratory features. Methods The study cohort included 48 patients with CHH with homozygous (n=36) or compound heterozygous RMRP mutations (median age 38.2 years, range 6.0-70.8 years), 86 relatives (74 with a heterozygous RMRP mutation) and 94 unrelated healthy controls. We extracted DNA from peripheral blood, sequenced the RMRP gene and measured RTL by qPCR. Results Compared with age-matched and sex-matched healthy controls, median RTL was significantly shorter in patients with CHH (n=40 pairs, 1.05 vs 1.21, p=0.017), but not in mutation carriers (n=48 pairs, 1.16 vs 1.10, p=0.224). RTL correlated significantly with age in RMRP mutation carriers (r=-0.482, p < 0.001) and non-carriers (r=-0.498, p<0.001), but not in patients (r=-0.236, p=0.107). In particular children (< 18 years) with CHH had shorter telomeres than controls (median RTL 1.12 vs 1.26, p=0.008). In patients with CHH, RTL showed no correlation with genotype, clinical or laboratory characteristics. Conclusions Telomere length was decreased in children with CHH. We found no correlation between RTL and clinical or laboratory parameters.
  • Kristjansdottir, Gudlaug, et al. (författare)
  • Interferon Regulatory Factor 5 (IRF5) Gene Variants are Associated with Multiple Sclerosis in Three Distinct Populations
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Journal of Medical Genetics. - : BMJ. - 0022-2593 .- 1468-6244. ; 45:6, s. 362-369
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: IRF5 is a transcription factor involved both in the type I interferon and the toll-like receptor signalling pathways. Previously, IRF5 has been found to be associated with systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis and inflammatory bowel diseases. Here we investigated whether polymorphisms in the IRF5 gene would be associated with yet another disease with features of autoimmunity, multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODS: We genotyped nine single nucleotide polymorphisms and one insertion-deletion polymorphism in the IRF5 gene in a collection of 2337 patients with MS and 2813 controls from three populations: two case-control cohorts from Spain and Sweden, and a set of MS trio families from Finland. RESULTS: Two single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) (rs4728142, rs3807306), and a 5 bp insertion-deletion polymorphism located in the promoter and first intron of the IRF5 gene, showed association signals with values of p<0.001 when the data from all cohorts were combined. The predisposing alleles were present on the same common haplotype in all populations. Using electrophoretic mobility shift assays we observed allele specific differences in protein binding for the SNP rs4728142 and the 5 bp indel, and by a proximity ligation assay we demonstrated increased binding of the transcription factor SP1 to the risk allele of the 5 bp indel. CONCLUSION: These findings add IRF5 to the short list of genes shown to be associated with MS in more than one population. Our study adds to the evidence that there might be genes or pathways that are common in multiple autoimmune diseases, and that the type I interferon system is likely to be involved in the development of these diseases.
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