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  • Mantripragada, K K, et al. (författare)
  • Identification of novel deletion breakpoints bordered by segmental duplications in the NF1 locus using high resolution array-CGH.
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Journal of medical genetics. - : BMJ. - 1468-6244 .- 0022-2593. ; 43:1, s. 28-38
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Segmental duplications flanking the neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) gene locus on 17q11 mediate most gene deletions in NF1 patients. However, the large size of the gene and the complexity of the locus architecture pose difficulties in deletion analysis. We report the construction and application of the first NF1 locus specific microarray, covering 2.24 Mb of 17q11, using a non-redundant approach for array design. The average resolution of analysis for the array is approximately 12 kb per measurement point with an increased average resolution of 6.4 kb for the NF1 gene. METHODS: We performed a comprehensive array-CGH analysis of 161 NF1 derived samples and identified heterozygous deletions of various sizes in 39 cases. The typical deletion was identified in 26 cases, whereas 13 samples showed atypical deletion profiles. RESULTS: The size of the atypical deletions, contained within the segment covered by the array, ranged from 6 kb to 1.6 Mb and their breakpoints could be accurately determined. Moreover, 10 atypical deletions were observed to share a common breakpoint either on the proximal or distal end of the deletion. The deletions identified by array-CGH were independently confirmed using multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. Bioinformatic analysis of the entire locus identified 33 segmental duplications. CONCLUSIONS: We show that at least one of these segmental duplications, which borders the proximal breakpoint located within the NF1 intron 1 in five atypical deletions, might represent a novel hot spot for deletions. Our array constitutes a novel and reliable tool offering significantly improved diagnostics for this common disorder.
  • Masciari, S., et al. (författare)
  • Germline E-cadherin mutations in familial lobular breast cancer
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Journal of Medical Genetics. - : BMJ Publishing Group. - 0022-2593 .- 1468-6244. ; 44:11, s. 726-731
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: The cell surface glycoprotein E-cadherin (CDH1) is a key regulator of adhesive properties in epithelial cells. Germline mutations in CDH1 are well established as the defects underlying hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC) syndrome, and an increased risk of lobular breast cancer (LBC) has been described in HDGC kindreds. However, germline CDH1 mutations have not been described in patients with LBC in non-HDGC families. This study aimed to investigate the frequency of germline CDH1 mutations in patients with LBC with early onset disease or family histories of breast cancer without DGC. Methods: Germline DNA was analysed in 23 women with invasive lobular or mixed ductal and lobular breast cancers who had at least one close relative with breast cancer or had themselves been diagnosed before the age of 45 years, had tested negative for a germline BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation, and reported no personal or family history of diffuse gastric cancer. The full coding sequence of CDH1 including splice junctions was amplified using PCR and screened for mutations using DHPLC and sequencing. Results: A novel germline CDH1 truncating mutation in the extracellular portion of the protein (517insA) was identified in one woman who had LBC at the age of 42 years and a first degree relative with invasive LBC. Conclusions: Germline CDH1 mutations can be associated with invasive LBC in the absence of diffuse gastric cancer. The finding, if confirmed, may have implications for management of individuals at risk for this breast cancer subtype. Clarification of the cancer risks in the syndrome is essential.
  • Moghadasi, Setareh, et al. (författare)
  • The BRCA1 c. 5096G>A p.Arg1699Gln (R1699Q) intermediate risk variant : Breast and ovarian cancer risk estimation and recommendations for clinical management from the ENIGMA consortium
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Journal of Medical Genetics. - : BMJ Publishing Group. - 0022-2593 .- 1468-6244. ; 55:1, s. 15-20
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background We previously showed that the BRCA1 variant c.5096G>A p.Arg1699Gln (R1699Q) was associated with an intermediate risk of breast cancer (BC) and ovarian cancer (OC). This study aimed to assess these cancer risks for R1699Q carriers in a larger cohort, including follow-up of previously studied families, to further define cancer risks and to propose adjusted clinical management of female BRCA1*R1699Q carriers. Methods Data were collected from 129 BRCA1*R1699Q families ascertained internationally by ENIGMA (Evidence-based Network for the Interpretation of Germline Mutant Alleles) consortium members. A modified segregation analysis was used to calculate BC and OC risks. Relative risks were calculated under both monogenic model and major gene plus polygenic model assumptions. Results In this cohort the cumulative risk of BC and OC by age 70 years was 20% and 6%, respectively. The relative risk for developing cancer was higher when using a model that included the effects of both the R1699Q variant and a residual polygenic component compared with monogenic model (for BC 3.67 vs 2.83, and for OC 6.41 vs 5.83). Conclusion Our results confirm that BRCA1*R1699Q confers an intermediate risk for BC and OC. Breast surveillance for female carriers based on mammogram annually from age 40 is advised. Bilateral salpingooophorectomy should be considered based on family history.
  • Molin, Anna-Maja, et al. (författare)
  • A novel microdeletion syndrome at 3q13.31 characterised by developmental delay, postnatal overgrowth, hypoplastic male genitals, and characteristic facial features
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Journal of Medical Genetics. - : BMJ. - 0022-2593 .- 1468-6244. ; 49:2, s. 104-109
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Congenital deletions affecting 3q11q23 have rarely been reported and only five cases have been molecularly characterised. Genotype. phenotype correlation has been hampered by the variable sizes and breakpoints of the deletions. In this study, 14 novel patients with deletions in 3q11q23 were investigated and compared with 13 previously reported patients. Methods Clinical data were collected from 14 novel patients that had been investigated by high resolution microarray techniques. Molecular investigation and updated clinical information of one cytogenetically previously reported patient were also included. Results The molecular investigation identified deletions in the region 3q12.3q21.3 with different boundaries and variable sizes. The smallest studied deletion was 580 kb, located in 3q13.31. Genotype. phenotype comparison in 24 patients sharing this shortest region of overlapping deletion revealed several common major characteristics including significant developmental delay, muscular hypotonia, a high arched palate, and recognisable facial features including a short philtrum and protruding lips. Abnormal genitalia were found in the majority of males, several having micropenis. Finally, a postnatal growth pattern above the mean was apparent. The 580 kb deleted region includes five RefSeq genes and two of them are strong candidate genes for the developmental delay: DRD3 and ZBTB20. Conclusion A newly recognised 3q13.31 microdeletion syndrome is delineated which is of diagnostic and prognostic value. Furthermore, two genes are suggested to be responsible for the main phenotype.
  • Morison, LD, et al. (författare)
  • In-depth characterisation of a cohort of individuals with missense and loss-of-function variants disrupting FOXP2
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Journal of medical genetics. - : BMJ. - 1468-6244 .- 0022-2593. ; 60:6, s. 597-607
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Heterozygous disruptions ofFOXP2were the first identified molecular cause for severe speech disorder: childhood apraxia of speech (CAS), and yet few cases have been reported, limiting knowledge of the condition.MethodsHere we phenotyped 28 individuals from 17 families with pathogenicFOXP2-only variants (12 loss-of-function, five missense variants; 14 males; aged 2 to 62 years). Health and development (cognitive, motor, social domains) were examined, including speech and language outcomes with the first cross-linguistic analysis of English and German.ResultsSpeech disorders were prevalent (23/25, 92%) and CAS was most common (22/25, 88%), with similar speech presentations across English and German. Speech was still impaired in adulthood, and some speech sounds (eg, ‘th’, ‘r’, ‘ch’, ‘j’) were never acquired. Language impairments (21/25, 84%) ranged from mild to severe. Comorbidities included feeding difficulties in infancy (10/26, 38%), fine (13/26, 50%) and gross (13/26, 50%) motor impairment, anxiety (5/27, 19%), depression (6/27, 22%) and sleep disturbance (10/24, 42%). Physical features were common (22/27, 81%) but with no consistent pattern. Cognition ranged from average to mildly impaired and was incongruent with language ability; for example, seven participants with severe language disorder had average non-verbal cognition.ConclusionsAlthough we identify an increased prevalence of conditions like anxiety, depression and sleep disturbance, we confirm that the consequences ofFOXP2dysfunction remain relatively specific to speech disorder, as compared with other recently identified monogenic conditions associated with CAS. Thus, our findings reinforce thatFOXP2provides a valuable entry point for examining the neurobiological bases of speech disorder.
  • Nylander, P O, et al. (författare)
  • Anticipation in Swedish families with bipolar affective disorder.
  • 1994
  • Ingår i: Journal of Medical Genetics. - 0022-2593 .- 1468-6244. ; 31:9, s. 686-9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Anticipation describes an inheritance pattern within a pedigree with an increase in disease severity or decrease in age at onset or both in successive generations. The phenomenon of anticipation has recently been shown to be correlated with the expansion of trinucleotide repeat sequences in different disorders. We have studied differences of age at onset and disease severity between two generations in 14 families with unilinear inheritance of bipolar affective disorder (BPAD). There was a significant difference in age at onset (p < 0.008), in episodes per year with (p < 0.006) and without (p < 0.03) lithium treatment, and in total episodes per year (p < 0.002) between generations I and II. Furthermore, there was a highly significant correlation (p < 0.001) in age at onset between generations I and II. No evidence for specific paternal or maternal inheritance was found. We found evidence of anticipation and could rule out ascertainment bias or some other artefact. Anticipation is thus an inheritance pattern in BPAD which suggests that the expansion of trinucleotide repeat sequences is a possible mode of inheritance in BPAD.
  • Nyström, Anna-Maja, et al. (författare)
  • Noonan and cardio-facio-cutanenous syndromes : two clinically and genetically overlapping disorders
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Journal of Medical Genetics. - : BMJ. - 0022-2593 .- 1468-6244. ; 45:8, s. 500-506
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Noonan syndrome (NS) and cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome (CFC) are related disorders associated with disrupted RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK signalling. NS, characterised by facial dysmorphism, congenital heart defects and short stature, is caused by mutations in the genes PTPN11, SOS1, KRAS and RAF1. CFC is distinguished from NS by the presence of ectodermal abnormalities and more severe mental retardation in addition to the NS phenotype. The genetic aetiology of CFC was recently assigned to four genes: BRAF, KRAS, MEK1 and MEK2. Methods: A comprehensive mutation analysis of BRAF, KRAS, MEK1, MEK2 and SOS1 in 31 unrelated patients without mutations in PTPN11 is presented. Results: Mutations were identified in seven patients with CFC (two in BRAF, one in KRAS, one in MEK1, two in MEK2 and one in SOS1). Two mutations were novel: MEK1 E203Q and MEK2 F57L. The SOS1 E433K mutation, identified in a patient diagnosed with CFC, has previously been reported in patients with NS. In one patient with NS, we also identified a mutation, BRAF K499E, that has previously been reported in patients with CFC. We thus suggest involvement of BRAF in the pathogenesis of NS also. Conclusions: Taken together, our results indicate that the molecular and clinical overlap between CFC and NS is more complex than previously suggested and that the syndromes might even represent allelic disorders. Furthermore, we suggest that the diagnosis should be refined to, for example, NS–PTPN11-associated or CFC–BRAF-associated syndromes after the genetic defect has been established, as this may affect the prognosis and treatment of the patients.
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