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  • Alerstam, Thomas (författare)
  • Conflicting evidence about long-distance animal navigation
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Science. - : American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). - 1095-9203 .- 0036-8075. ; 313:5788, s. 791-794
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Because of conflicting evidence about several fundamental issues, long-distance animal navigation has yet to be satisfactorily explained. Among the unsolved problems are the nature of genetic spatial control of migration and the relationships between celestial and magnetic compass mechanisms and between different map-related cues in orientation and homing, respectively. In addition, navigation is expected to differ between animal groups depending on sensory capabilities and ecological conditions. Evaluations based on modern long-term tracking techniques of the geometry of migration routes and individual migration history, combined with behavioral experiments and exploration of the sensory and genetic mechanisms, will be crucial for understanding the spatial principles that guide animals on their global journeys.
  • Alerstam, Thomas, et al. (författare)
  • Migration Along Orthodromic Sun Compass Routes by Arctic Birds
  • 2001
  • Ingår i: Science. - : American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). - 1095-9203 .- 0036-8075. ; 291:5502, s. 300-303
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Flight directions of birds migrating at high geographic and magnetic latitudes can be used to test bird orientation by celestial or geomagnetic compass systems under polar conditions. Migration patterns of arctic shorebirds, revealed by tracking radar studies during an icebreaker expedition along the Northwest Passage in 1999, support predicted sun compass trajectories but cannot be reconciled with orientation along either geographic or magnetic loxodromes (rhumb lines). Sun compass routes are similar to orthodromes (great circle routes) at high latitudes, showing changing geographic courses as the birds traverse longitudes and their internal clock gets out of phase with local time. These routes bring the shorebirds from high arctic Canada to the east coast of North America, from which they make transoceanic flights to South America. The observations are also consistent with a migration link between Siberia and the Beaufort Sea region by way of sun compass routes across the Arctic Ocean.
  • Alfvén, Hannes (författare)
  • Filamentary structures
  • 1986
  • Ingår i: Science. - : American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). - 0036-8075 .- 1095-9203. ; 231:4741, s. 907-908
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)
  • Allen, Andrew, et al. (författare)
  • Moving in the Anthropocene: Global reductions in terrestrial mammalian movements
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Science. - : American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). - 0036-8075 .- 1095-9203. ; 359, s. 466-469
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Animal movement is fundamental for ecosystem functioning and species survival, yet the effects of the anthropogenic footprint on animal movements have not been estimated across species. Using a unique GPS-tracking database of 803 individuals across 57 species, we found that movements of mammals in areas with a comparatively high human footprint were on average one-half to one-third the extent of their movements in areas with a low human footprint. We attribute this reduction to behavioral changes of individual animals and to the exclusion of species with long-range movements from areas with higher human impact. Global loss of vagility alters a key ecological trait of animals that affects not only population persistence but also ecosystem processes such as predator-prey interactions, nutrient cycling, and disease transmission.
  • Allen, John (författare)
  • Botany. State transitions--a question of balance
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: Science. - : American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). - 1095-9203 .- 0036-8075. ; 299:5612, s. 1530-1532
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Plant biologists have struggled for decades to identify a crucial kinase that orchestrates the transition of the photosynthetic machinery from state 1 to state 2, an energy conserving-process designed to maximize the light conditions. In his Perspective, Allen reveals the identity this kinase and the mechanism by which it controls transitions
  • Amann, Peter, et al. (författare)
  • The state of zinc in methanol synthesis over a Zn/ZnO/Cu(211) model catalyst
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Science. - : American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). - 0036-8075 .- 1095-9203. ; 376:6593, s. 603-608
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The active chemical state of zinc (Zn) in a zinc-copper (Zn-Cu) catalyst during carbon dioxide/carbon monoxide (CO2/CO) hydrogenation has been debated to be Zn oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles, metallic Zn, or a Zn-Cu surface alloy. We used x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy at 180 to 500 millibar to probe the nature of Zn and reaction intermediates during CO2/CO hydrogenation over Zn/ZnO/Cu(211), where the temperature is sufficiently high for the reaction to rapidly turn over, thus creating an almost adsorbate-free surface. Tuning of the grazing incidence angle makes it possible to achieve either surface or bulk sensitivity. Hydrogenation of CO2 gives preference to ZnO in the form of clusters or nanoparticles, whereas in pure CO a surface Zn-Cu alloy becomes more prominent. The results reveal a specific role of CO in the formation of the Zn-Cu surface alloy as an active phase that facilitates efficient CO2 methanol synthesis.  
  • Anderegg, William R L, et al. (författare)
  • A climate risk analysis of Earth's forests in the 21st century
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Science (New York, N.Y.). - : American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). - 1095-9203 .- 0036-8075. ; 377:6610, s. 1099-1103
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Earth's forests harbor extensive biodiversity and are currently a major carbon sink. Forest conservation and restoration can help mitigate climate change; however, climate change could fundamentally imperil forests in many regions and undermine their ability to provide such mitigation. The extent of climate risks facing forests has not been synthesized globally nor have different approaches to quantifying forest climate risks been systematically compared. We combine outputs from multiple mechanistic and empirical approaches to modeling carbon, biodiversity, and disturbance risks to conduct a synthetic climate risk analysis for Earth's forests in the 21st century. Despite large uncertainty in most regions we find that some forests are consistently at higher risk, including southern boreal forests and those in western North America and parts of the Amazon.
  • Anderson, Christopher J., et al. (författare)
  • Response to Comment on "Estimating the reproducibility of psychological science"
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Science. - : American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). - 0036-8075 .- 1095-9203. ; 351:6277
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt/konstnärligt)abstract
    • Gilbert et al. conclude that evidence from the Open Science Collaboration's Reproducibility Project: Psychology indicates high reproducibility, given the study methodology. Their very optimistic assessment is limited by statistical misconceptions and by causal inferences from selectively interpreted, correlational data. Using the Reproducibility Project: Psychology data, both optimistic and pessimistic conclusions about reproducibility are possible, and neither are yet warranted.
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