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  • Bengtsson-Palme, Johan, 1985, et al. (författare)
  • Protection goals must guide risk assessment for antibiotics
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Environment international. - : Elsevier BV. - 1873-6750 .- 0160-4120. ; 111, s. 352-353
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In a recent paper published in Environment International, Le Page et al. (2017) stress that discharge limits for antibiotics need to consider their potency to affect both environmental and human health, a very sound standpoint also from our point of view. It is reasoned that predicted no-effect concentrations for resistance selection (PNECs) derived from the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the most sensitive studied human-associated bacteria (Bengtsson-Palme and Larsson, 2016a), may not be sufficiently protective as environmental cyanobacteria in many cases appear to be more sensitive, according to the authors. The antibiotic resistance health crisis, and the growing understanding of the contribution of the environment in this development, indicates an urgent need for discharge limits for antibiotics, particularly for industrial sources (Bengtsson-Palme and Larsson, 2016b). Such limits would have tremendous value in regulation efforts (Government of India, 2017), for initiatives from the industry themselves (IFPMA, 2016), and for development of environmental criteria within public procurement and generic exchange programs (Bengtsson-Palme et al., 2018; Laurell et al., 2014; SPHS Secreteriat, UNDP Istanbul Regional Hub, 2015). However, somewhat in contrast to what the authors conclude, we do not think there is evidence that cyanobacteria would often be more sensitive to antibiotics than the most sensitive human-associated bacteria. Importantly, we also think that it is a bit unclear from the paper which protection goals are considered (protecting microbial diversity in ecosystems, protecting ecosystem functions and services, or protecting from risks for resistance selection) and particularly in what ways ecotoxicological test data could inform each of these targets.
  • Bergkvist, Charlotte, et al. (författare)
  • Dietary exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and risk of myocardial infarction in men - A population-based prospective cohort study
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Environment International. - : PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD. - 0160-4120 .- 1873-6750. ; 88, s. 9-14
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Major food contaminants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are proposed to play a role in the etiology of cardiovascular disease (CVD), but to date the impact of PCBs on cardiovascular health need to be explored. Methods and results: We assessed the association between validated food frequency questionnaire-based estimates of dietary PCB exposure and risk of myocardial infarction, ascertained through register-linkage, among 36,759 men from the population-based Swedish Cohort of Men, free of cardiovascular disease, diabetes and cancer at baseline (1997). Relative risks were adjusted for known cardiovascular risk factors, long-chain omega-3 fatty acids (eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids) and methyl mercury exposure. During 12 years of follow-up (433,243 person-years), we ascertained 3005 incident cases of myocardial infarction (654 fatal). Compared with the lowest quintile of dietary PCB exposure (median 113 ng/day), men in the highest quintile (median 436 ng/day) had multivariable-adjusted relative risks of 1.74 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.30-2.33; p-trend < 0.001) for total and 1.97 (95% C11.42-2.75; p-trend < 0.001) for non-fatal myocardial infarction. In mutually adjusted models, dietary PCB exposure was associated with an increased risk of myocardial infarction, while the intake of long-chain omega-3 fish fatty acids was associated with a decreased risk. We also observed an effect modification by adiposity on the association between of dietary PCB exposure and myocardial infarction, with higher risk among lean men (p value for interaction = 0.03). Conclusions: Exposure to PCBs via diet was associated with increased risk of myocardial infarction in men. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Bergman, Åke, et al. (författare)
  • A novel abbreviation standard for organobromine, organochlorine and organophosphorus flame retardants and some characteristics of the chemicals
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Environment International. - : Elsevier BV. - 0160-4120 .- 1873-6750. ; 49, s. 57-82
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Ever since the interest in organic environmental contaminants first emerged 50 years ago, there has been a need to present discussion of such chemicals and their transformation products using simple abbreviations so as to avoid the repetitive use of long chemical names. As the number of chemicals of concern has increased, the number of abbreviations has also increased dramatically, sometimes resulting in the use of different abbreviations for the same chemical. In this article, we propose abbreviations for flame retardants (FRs) substituted with bromine or chlorine atoms or including a functional group containing phosphorus, i.e. BFRs, CFRs and PFRs, respectively. Due to the large number of halogenated and organophosphorus FRs, it has become increasingly important to develop a strategy for abbreviating the chemical names of FRs. In this paper, a two step procedure is proposed for deriving practical abbreviations (PRABs) for the chemicals discussed. In the first step, structural abbreviations (STABs) are developed using specific STAB criteria based on the FR structure. However, since several of the derived STABs are complicated and long, we propose instead the use of PRABs. These are, commonly, an extract of the most essential part of the STAB, while also considering abbreviations previously used in the literature. We indicate how these can be used to develop an abbreviation that can be generally accepted by scientists and other professionals involved in FR related work. Tables with PRABs and STABs for BFRs, CFRs and PERs are presented, including CAS (Chemical Abstract Service) numbers, notes of abbreviations that have been used previously, CA (Chemical Abstract) name, common names and trade names, as well as some fundamental physicochemical constants.
  • Björnsdotter, Maria, 1989-, et al. (författare)
  • Presence of diphenyl phosphate and aryl-phosphate flame retardants inindoor dust from different microenvironments in Spain and the Netherlandsand estimation of human exposure
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Environment International. - : Elsevier. - 0160-4120 .- 1873-6750. ; 112, s. 59-67
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Phosphate flame retardants (PFRs) are ubiquitous chemicals in the indoor environment. Diphenyl phosphate (DPHP) is a major metabolite and a common biomarker of aryl-PFRs. Since it is used as a chemical additive and it is a common impurity of aryl-PFRs as well as a degradation product, its presence in indoor dust as an additional source of exposure should not be easily ruled out. In this study, DPHP (and TPHP) are measured in indoor dust in samples collected in Spain and in the Netherlands (n = 80). Additionally, the presence of other emerging aryl-PFRs was monitored by target screening. TPHP and DPHP were present in all samples in the ranges 169-142,459 ng/g and 106-79,661 ng/g, respectively. DPHP concentrations were strongly correlated to the TPHP levels (r = 0.90, p < 0.01), suggesting that DPHP could be present as degradation product of TPHP or other aryl-PFRs. Estimated exposures for adults and toddlers in Spain to TPHP and DPHP via dust ingestion (country for which the number of samples was higher) were much lower than the estimated reference dose (US EPA) for TPHP. However, other routes of exposure may contribute to the overall internal exposure (diet, dermal contact with dust/consumer products and inhalation of indoor air). The estimated urinary DPHP levels for adults and toddlers in Spain (0.002-0.032 ng/mL) as a result of dust ingestion were low in comparison with the reported levels, indicating a low contribution of this source of contamination to the overall DPHP exposure. Other aryl-PFRs, namely cresyl diphenyl phosphate (CDP), resorcinol bis(diphenyl phosphate) (RDP), 2-ethylhexyl diphenyl phosphate (EDPHP), isodecyl diphenyl phosphate (IDP) and bisphenol A bis(diphenyl phosphate) (BDP), were all detected in indoor dust, however, with lower frequency.
  • Björvang, Richelle D., et al. (författare)
  • Persistent organic pollutants and the size of ovarian reserve in reproductive-aged women
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Environment International. - : Elsevier. - 0160-4120 .- 1873-6750. ; 155
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Industrial chemicals such as persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have been associated with reduced fertility in women, including longer time-to-pregnancy (TTP), higher odds for infertility, and earlier reproductive senescence. Fertility is highly dependent on the ovarian reserve, which is composed of a prenatally determined stock of non-growing follicles. The quantity and quality of the follicles decline with age, thereby eventually leading to menopause. In the clinical setting, assessing ovarian reserve directly through the histological analysis of follicular density in ovaries is not practical. Therefore, surrogate markers of ovarian reserve, such as serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) are typically used. Here, we studied associations between chemical exposure and ovarian reserve in a cohort of pregnant women undergoing elective caesarean section (n = 145) in Stockholm, Sweden. Full data (histological, clinical, serum) were available for 50 women. We estimated the size of the reserve both directly by determining the density of follicles in ovarian cortical tissue samples, and indirectly by measuring AMH in associated serum samples. Concentrations of 9 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), 10 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 3 polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) and 9 perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) were determined in serum, and clinical data were retrieved from electronic medical records. Healthy follicle densities (median 0, range 0–193 follicles/mm3) and AMH levels (median 2.33 ng/mL, range 0.1–14.8 ng/mL) varied substantially. AMH correlated with the density of growing follicles. Twenty-three chemicals detected in more than half of the samples were included in the analyses. None of the chemicals, alone or as a mixture, correlated with AMH, growing or atretic follicles. However, HCB, transnonachlor, PCBs 74 and 99 were associated with decreased non-growing follicle densities. HCB and transnonachlor were also negatively associated with healthy follicle density. Further, mixture of lipophilic POPs (PBDE 99, p,p’-DDE, and PCB 187) was associated with lower non-growing follicle densities. In addition, exposure to HCB, p,p’-DDE, and mixture of OCPs were significantly associated with higher odds of infertility. The results suggest that exposure to chemicals may reduce the size of ovarian reserve in humans, and strongly encourage to study mechanisms behind POP-associated infertility in women in more detail.
  • Black, R. R., et al. (författare)
  • Emission factors for PCDD/PCDF and dl-PCB from open burning of biomass
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Environment International. - : Elsevier. - 0160-4120 .- 1873-6750. ; 38:1, s. 62-66
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants includes in its aims the minimisation of unintentional releases of polychlorinated dibenzo-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDF) and dioxin like PCB (dl-PCB) to the environment Development and implementation of policies to achieve this aim require accurate national inventories of releases of PCDD/PCDF/dl-PCB. To support this objective, the Conference of Parties established a process to review and update the UNEP Standardized Toolkit for Identification and Quantification of Dioxin and Furan Releases. An assessment of all emission inventories was that for many countries open burning of biomass and waste was identified as the major source of PCDD/PCDF releases. However, the experimental data underpinning the release estimates used were limited in number and, consequently, confidence in the accuracy of the emissions predictions was low. There has been significant progress in measurement technology since the last edition of the Toolkit in 2005. In this paper we reassess published emission factors for release of PCDD/PCDF and dl-PCB to land and air.In total, four types of biomass and 111 emission factors were assessed. It was found that there are no systematic differences in emission factors apparent between biomass types or fire classes. The data set is best described by a lognormal distribution. The geometric mean emission factors (EFs) for releases of PCDD/PCDF to air for the four biomass classes used in the Toolkit (sugarcane, cereal crops, forest and savannah/grass) are 1.6 mu g TEQ(t fuel)(-1), 0.49 mu g TEQ(t fuel)(-1), 1.0 mu g TEQ(t fuel)(-1) and 0.4 mu g TEQ(t fuel)(-1), respectively. Corresponding EFs for release of PCDD/PCDF to land are 3.0 ng TEQ (kg ash)(-1), 1.1 ng TEQ (kg ash)(-1), 1.1 ng TEQ (kg ash)(-1) and 0.67 ng TEQ (kg ash)(-1). There are now also sufficient published data available to evaluate EFs for dl-PCB release to air for sugarcane, forest and grass/savannah; these are 0.03 mu g TEQ (t fuel)(-1), 0.09 mu g TEQ (t fuel)(-1) and 0.01 mu g TEQ (t fuel)(-1), respectively. The average EF for dl-PCB release to land is 0.19 ng TEQ (kg ash)(-1). Application of these EFs to national emissions of PCDD/PCDF for global estimates from open burning will lower previous estimates of PCDD/PCDF releases to air and to land by 85% and 90%, respectively. For some countries, the ranking of their major sources will be changed and open burning of biomass will become less significant than previously concluded.
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