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  • Giffin, Andrew, et al. (författare)
  • Pyrimethanil and chlorpyrifos air concentrations and pregnant women's urinary metabolites in the Infants’ Environmental Health Study (ISA), Costa Rica
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Environment International. - : Elsevier. - 0160-4120. ; 166
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Only few studies have compared environmental pesticide air concentrations with specific urinary metabolites to evaluate pathways of exposure. Therefore, we compared pyrimethanil and chlorpyrifos concentrations in air with urinary 4-hydroxypyrimethanil (OHP, metabolite of pyrimethanil) and 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPy, metabolite of chlorpyrifos) among pregnant women from the Infant's Environmental Health Study (ISA) in Matina County, Costa Rica. Methods: During pregnancy, we obtained repeat urinary samples from 448 women enrolled in the ISA study. We extrapolated pyrimethanil and chlorpyrifos concentrations measured with passive air samplers (PAS) (n = 48, from 12 schools), across space and time using a Bayesian spatiotemporal model. We subsequently compared these concentrations with urinary OHP and TCPy in 915 samples from 448 women, using separate mixed models and considering several covariables. Results: A 10% increase in air pyrimethanil (ng/m3) was associated with a 5.7% (95% confidence interval (CI 4.6, 6.8) increase in OHP (μg/L). Women living further from banana plantations had lower OHP: −0.7% (95% CI −1.2, −0.3) for each 10% increase in distance (meters) as well as women who ate rice and beans ≥15 times a week −23% (95% CI −38, −4). In addition, each 1 ng/m3 increase in chlorpyrifos in air was associated with a 1.5% (95% CI 0.2, 2.8) increase in TCPy (μg/L), and women working in agriculture tended to have increased TCPy (21%, 95% CI −2, 49). Conclusion: The Bayesian spatiotemporal models were useful to estimate pyrimethanil and chlorpyrifos air concentrations across space and time. Our results suggest inhalation of pyrimethanil and chlorpyrifos is a pathway of environmental exposure. PAS seems a useful technique to monitor environmental current-use pesticide exposures. For future studies, we recommend increasing the number of locations of environmental air measurements, obtaining all air and urine measurements during the same month, and, ideally, including dermal exposure estimates as well.
  • Gómez-Ramírez, P, et al. (författare)
  • An overview of existing raptor contaminant monitoring activities in Europe
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Environment International. - : Elsevier. - 0160-4120. ; 67, s. 12-21
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Biomonitoring using raptors as sentinels can provide early warning of the potential impacts of contaminants on humans and the environment and also a means of tracking the success of associated mitigation measures. Examples include detection of heavy metal-induced immune system impairment, PCB-induced altered reproductive impacts, and toxicity associated with lead in shot game. Authorisation of such releases and implementation of mitigation is now increasingly delivered through EU-wide directives but there is little established pan-European monitoring to quantify outcomes. We investigated the potential for EU-wide coordinated contaminant monitoring using raptors as sentinels. We did this using a questionnaire to ascertain the current scale of national activity across 44 European countries. According to this survey, there have been 52 different contaminant monitoring schemes with raptors over the last 50 years. There were active schemes in 15 (predominantly western European) countries and 23 schemes have been running for >20 years; most monitoring was conducted for >5 years. Legacy persistent organic compounds (specifically organochlorine insecticides and PCBs), and metals/metalloids were monitored in most of the 15 countries. Fungicides, flame retardants and anticoagulant rodenticides were also relatively frequently monitored (each in at least 6 countries). Common buzzard (Buteo buteo), common kestrel (Falco tinnunculus), golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos), white-tailed sea eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla), peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus), tawny owl (Strix aluco) and barn owl (Tyto alba) were most commonly monitored (each in 6–10 countries). Feathers and eggs were most widely analysed although many schemes also analysed body tissues. Our study reveals an existing capability across multiple European countries for contaminant monitoring using raptors. However, coordination between existing schemes and expansion of monitoring into Eastern Europe is needed. This would enable assessment of the appropriateness of the EU-regulation of substances that are hazardous to humans and the environment, the effectiveness of EU level mitigation policies, and identify pan-European spatial and temporal trends in current and emerging contaminants of concern.
  • Gunnarsson, L., et al. (författare)
  • Pharmacology beyond the patient - The environmental risks of human drugs
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Environment International. - : Elsevier BV. - 0160-4120. ; 129, s. 320-332
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: The presence of pharmaceuticals in the environment is a growing global concern and although environmental risk assessment is required for approval of new drugs in Europe and the USA, the adequacy of the current triggers and the effects-based assessments has been questioned. Objective: To provide a comprehensive analysis of all regulatory compliant aquatic ecotoxicity data and evaluate the current triggers and effects-based environmental assessments to facilitate the development of more efficient approaches for pharmaceuticals toxicity testing. Methods: Publicly-available regulatory compliant ecotoxicity data for drugs targeting human proteins was compiled together with pharmacological information including drug targets, Cmax and lipophilicity. Possible links between these factors and the ecotoxicity data for effects on, growth, mortality and/or reproduction, were evaluated. The environmental risks were then assessed based on a combined analysis of drug toxicity and predicted environmental concentrations based on European patient consumption data. Results: For most (88%) of the of 975 approved small molecule drugs targeting human proteins a complete set of regulatory compliant ecotoxicity data in the public domain was lacking, highlighting the need for both intelligent approaches to prioritize legacy human drugs for a tailored environmental risk assessment and a transparent database that captures environmental data. We show that presence/absence of drug-target orthologues are predictive of susceptible species for the more potent drugs. Drugs that target the endocrine system represent the highest potency and greatest risk. However, for most drugs ( > 80%) with a full set of ecotoxicity data, risk quotients assuming worst-case exposure assessments were below one in all European countries indicating low environmental risks for the endpoints assessed. Conclusion: We believe that the presented analysis can guide improvements to current testing procedures, and provide valuable approaches for prioritising legacy drugs (i.e. those registered before 2006) for further ecotoxicity testing. For drugs where effects of possible concern (e.g. behaviour) are not captured in regulatory tests, additional mechanistic testing may be required to provide the highest confidence for avoiding environmental impacts.
  • Kamali, Mohammadreza, et al. (författare)
  • Sustainability criteria for assessing nanotechnology applicability in industrial wastewater treatment : Current status and future outlook
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Environment International. - : Elsevier. - 0160-4120. ; 125, s. 261-276
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Application of engineered nanomaterials for the treatment of industrial effluents and to deal with recalcitrant pollutants has been noticeably promoted in recent years. Laboratory, pilot and full-scale studies emphasize the potential of this technology to offer promising treatment options to meet the future needs for clean water resources and to comply with stringent environmental regulations. The technology is now in the stage of being transferred to the real applications. Therefore, the assessment of its performance according to sustainability criteria and their incorporation into the decision-making process is a key task to ensure that long term benefits are achieved from the nano-treatment technologies. In this study, the importance of sustainability criteria for the conventional and novel technologies for the treatment of industrial effluents was determined in a general approach assisted by a fuzzy-Delphi method. The criteria were categorized in technical, economic, environmental and social branches and the current situation of the nanotechnology regarding the criteria was critically discussed. The results indicate that the efficiency and safety are the most important parameters to make sustainable choices for the treatment of industrial effluents. Also, in addition to the need for scaling-up the nanotechnology in various stages, the study on their environmental footprint must continue in deeper scales under expected environmental conditions, in particular the synthesis of engineered nanomaterials and the development of reactors with the ability of recovery and reuse the nanomaterials. This paper will aid to select the most sustainable types of nanomaterials for the real applications and to guide the future studies in this field.
  • Li, Longxiang, et al. (författare)
  • A spatiotemporal ensemble model to predict gross beta particulate radioactivity across the contiguous United States
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Environment International. - : Elsevier. - 0160-4120. ; 156
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Particulate radioactivity, a characteristic of particulate matter, is primarily determined by the abundance of radionuclides that are bound to airborne particulates. Exposure to high levels of particulate radioactivity has been associated with negative health outcomes. However, there are currently no spatially and temporally resolved particulate radioactivity data for exposure assessment purposes. We estimated the monthly distributions of gross beta particulate radioactivity across the contiguous United States from 2001 to 2017 with a spatial resolution of 32 km, via a multi-stage ensemble-based model. Particulate radioactivity was measured at 129 RadNet monitors across the contiguous U.S. In stage one, we built 264 base learning models using six methods, then selected nine base models that provide different predictions. In stage two, we used a non-negative geographically and temporally weighted regression method to aggregate the selected base learner predictions based on their local performance. The results of block cross-validation analysis suggested that the non-negative geographically and temporally weighted regression ensemble learning model outperformed all base learning model with the smallest rooted mean square error (0.094 mBq/m3). Our model provided an accurate estimation of particulate radioactivity, thus can be used in future health studies.
  • Lindén, Jenny, 1975, et al. (författare)
  • Intra-urban air pollution in a rapidly growing Sahelian city
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Environmental International. - : Elsevier BV. - 0160-4120. ; 40, s. 51-62
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In this paper we analyze spatial and temporal variations of air pollution (PM1, PM2.5, PM10, CO, NOx, O3, Toluene and Benzene) and climate in areas of different development typology in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. Analyses are based on measurements from fixed sites and car traverse measurements during field studies in 2007 and 2010. Large spatial and temporal variations were found, showing a generally poor air quality situation, with extreme levels of PM10, commonly exceeding air quality guidelines of WHO. Pollution levels increase considerably with increased atmospheric stability. Important sources were transported dust and re-suspension of dust from unpaved roads, but also traffic emissions and biomass burning. The spatial variations are examined with focus on effects for variations in potential exposure depending on for example area of residence and daily activity pattern, showing that great differences are likely to exist. Ouagadougou, like most developing countries worldwide, currently experiences an extremely rapid population growth in combination with limited financial means. This is likely to create increasingly harmful air pollution situations for the rapidly growing populations of these areas, and shows an urgent need for increased understanding of the pollution situation as well as development of mitigation strategies.
  • Maitre, Léa, et al. (författare)
  • State-of-the-art methods for exposure-health studies: Results from the exposome data challenge event
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Environment International. - 0160-4120. ; 168
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The exposome recognizes that individuals are exposed simultaneously to a multitude of different environmental factors and takes a holistic approach to the discovery of etiological factors for disease. However, challenges arise when trying to quantify the health effects of complex exposure mixtures. Analytical challenges include dealing with high dimensionality, studying the combined effects of these exposures and their interactions, integrating causal pathways, and integrating high-throughput omics layers. To tackle these challenges, the Barcelona Institute for Global Health (ISGlobal) held a data challenge event open to researchers from all over the world and from all expertises. Analysts had a chance to compete and apply state-of-the-art methods on a common partially simulated exposome dataset (based on real case data from the HELIX project) with multiple correlated exposure variables (P > 100 exposure variables) arising from general and personal environments at different time points, biological molecular data (multi-omics: DNA methylation, gene expression, proteins, metabolomics) and multiple clinical phenotypes in 1301 mother–child pairs. Most of the methods presented included feature selection or feature reduction to deal with the high dimensionality of the exposome dataset. Several approaches explicitly searched for combined effects of exposures and/or their interactions using linear index models or response surface methods, including Bayesian methods. Other methods dealt with the multi-omics dataset in mediation analyses using multiple-step approaches. Here we discuss features of the statistical models used and provide the data and codes used, so that analysts have examples of implementation and can learn how to use these methods. Overall, the exposome data challenge presented a unique opportunity for researchers from different disciplines to create and share state-of-the-art analytical methods, setting a new standard for open science in the exposome and environmental health field.
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