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  • Darnerud, Per Ola, et al. (författare)
  • Critical review on disposition of chlorinated paraffins in animals and humans
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Environment International. - : Elsevier. - 0160-4120 .- 1873-6750. ; 163
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Even though the chlorinated paraffins (CPs) have been on the environmental pollution agenda throughout the last 50 years it is a class of chemicals that only now is discussed in terms of an emerging issue with extensive annual publication rates. Major reviews on CPs have been produced, but a deeper understanding of the chemical fate of CPs, including formation of metabolites in animals and humans, is still missing. Thus, the present review aims to critically compile our present knowledge on the disposition, i.e. Adsorption, Disposition, Metabolism, and Excretion (ADME) of CPs in biota and to identify research needs. We conclude that CPs could be effectively absorbed from the gastro-intestinal tract (GI) tract, and probably also from the lungs, and transported to various organs. A biphasic elimination is suggested, with a rapid initial phase followed by a terminal phase, the latter (e.g., fat tissues) covering half-lives of weeks and months. CPs are metabolized in the liver and excreted mainly via the bile and faeces, and the metabolic rate and type of metabolites are dependent on chlorine content and chain length. Results that strengthen CP metabolism are in vivo findings of phase II metabolites in bile, and CP degradation to carbon fragments in experimental animals. Still the metabolic transformations of CPs are poorly studied, and no metabolic scheme has yet been presented. Further, toxicokinetic mass balance calculations suggest that a large part of a given dose (not found as parent compound) is transformation products of CPs, and in vitro metabolism studies present numerous CP metabolites (e.g., chloroalkenes, chlorinated ketones, aldehydes, and carboxylic acids).
  • Darnerud, P. O., et al. (författare)
  • POP levels in breast milk and maternal serum and thyroid hormone levels in mother-child pairs from Uppsala, Sweden
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Environment International. - : Elsevier BV. - 0160-4120 .- 1873-6750. ; 36:2, s. 180-187
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In experimental studies, it has frequently been observed that the homeostasis of thyroid hormones (THs) is affected by exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such as dioxins and PCBs. In man, similar effects have been indicated in several epidemiological studies. In order to investigate the possible effect on THs at low background exposures found among the Swedish population the following study was performed. Primiparous women (n=395) in the Uppsala region were recruited between 1996 and 1999. Of these, 325 mothers agreed to donate a serum sample in late pregnancy and breast milk was obtained from 211 women 3 weeks after delivery. Babies were sampled for blood at 3 weeks (n=150) and 3 months (n=115) after birth. In connection to the sampling, questions on personal characteristics were asked. Levels of low (tri- to penta-) chlorinated PCB, di-ortho PCB, p,p'-DDE, (mono-ortho) PCB TEQ and PCDD/DF TEQ were monitored in breast milk and in mother's blood (not PCDD/DF). The results showed that the measured TH levels (thyroid-stimulating hormone - TSH, total tri-iodothyronine - TT3, free thyroxine - FT4) in mothers and children were within the reference range. Some significant associations were seen between POP exposures and TH levels in mother or child after simple regression analysis. Following adjustment for important confounding factors, the significant associations mostly disappeared. However, significantly decreasing TT3 levels with increasing prenatal low-chlorinated PCB exposure were still seen in 3 week old children, and on TT3 in mothers exposed to PCDD/DF. In conclusion, the study clearly shows the importance of adjustment for important confounding factors in the analysis of possible associations between POP exposure and hormonal effects. The remaining associations are weak in both children and mothers and the clinical consequences of these alterations are uncertain. When comparing studies that investigate associations between TH levels and POP levels during the perinatal stage, no obvious between-study concordance was seen regarding the critical dose for hormonal effects to occur.
  • de Hoogh, Kees, et al. (författare)
  • Comparing land use regression and dispersion modelling to assess residential exposure to ambient air pollution for epidemiological studies
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Environment International. - : Elsevier BV. - 0160-4120 .- 1873-6750. ; 73, s. 382-392
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Land-use regression (LUR) and dispersion models (DM) are commonly used for estimating individual air pollution exposure in population studies. Few comparisons have however been made of the performance of these methods.OBJECTIVES: Within the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE) we explored the differences between LUR and DM estimates for NO2, PM10 and PM2.5.METHODS: The ESCAPE study developed LUR models for outdoor air pollution levels based on a harmonised monitoring campaign. In thirteen ESCAPE study areas we further applied dispersion models. We compared LUR and DM estimates at the residential addresses of participants in 13 cohorts for NO2; 7 for PM10 and 4 for PM2.5. Additionally, we compared the DM estimates with measured concentrations at the 20-40 ESCAPE monitoring sites in each area.RESULTS: The median Pearson R (range) correlation coefficients between LUR and DM estimates for the annual average concentrations of NO2, PM10 and PM2.5 were 0.75 (0.19-0.89), 0.39 (0.23-0.66) and 0.29 (0.22-0.81) for 112,971 (13 study areas), 69,591 (7) and 28,519 (4) addresses respectively. The median Pearson R correlation coefficients (range) between DM estimates and ESCAPE measurements were of 0.74 (0.09-0.86) for NO2; 0.58 (0.36-0.88) for PM10 and 0.58 (0.39-0.66) for PM2.5.CONCLUSIONS: LUR and dispersion model estimates correlated on average well for NO2 but only moderately for PM10 and PM2.5, with large variability across areas. DM predicted a moderate to large proportion of the measured variation for NO2 but less for PM10 and PM2.5.
  • de Wit, Cynthia A., et al. (författare)
  • Organohalogen compounds of emerging concern in Baltic Sea biota : Levels, biomagnification potential and comparisons with legacy contaminants
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Environment International. - : Elsevier BV. - 0160-4120 .- 1873-6750. ; 144
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • While new chemicals have replaced major toxic legacy contaminants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), knowledge of their current levels and biomagnification potential in Baltic Sea biota is lacking. Therefore, a suite of chemicals of emerging concern, including organophosphate esters (OPEs), short-chain, medium-chain and long-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs, MCCPs, LCCPs), halogenated flame retardants (HFRs), and per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), were analysed in blue mussel (Mytilus edulis), viviparous eelpout (Zoarces viviparus), Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus), grey seal (Halichoerus grypus), harbor seal (Phoca vitulina), harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena), common eider (Somateria mollissima), common guillemot (Uria aalge) and white-tailed eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) from the Baltic Proper, sampled between 2006 and 2016. Results were benchmarked with existing data for legacy contaminants. The mean concentrations for Sigma OPEs ranged from 57 to 550 ng g(-1) lipid weight (lw), for Sigma CPs from 110 to 640 ng g(-1) lw for Sigma HFRs from 0.42 to 80 ng g(-1) lw, and for Sigma PFAS from 1.1 to 450 ng g(-1) wet weight. Perfluoro-4-ethyl-cyclohexanesulfonate (PFECHS) was detected in most species. Levels of OPEs, CPs and HFRs were generally similar or higher than those of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and/or hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD). OPE, CP and HFR concentrations were also similar to PCBs and DDTs in blue mussel, viviparous eelpout and Atlantic herring. In marine mammals and birds, PCB and DDT concentrations remained orders of magnitude higher than those of OPEs, CPs, HFRs and PFAS. Predator-prey ratios for individual OPEs (0.28-3.9) and CPs (0.40-5.0) were similar or somewhat lower than those seen for BDE-47 (5.0-29) and HBCDD (2.4-13). Ratios for individual HFRs (0.010-37) and PFAS (0.15-47) were, however, of the same order of magnitude as seen for p,p'-DDE (4.7-66) and CB-153 (31-190), indicating biomagnification potential for many of the emerging contaminants. Lack of toxicity data, including for complex mixtures, makes it difficult to assess the risks emerging contaminants pose. Their occurence and biomagnification potential should trigger risk management measures, particularly for MCCPs, HFRs and PFAS.
  • de Wit, Cynthia A., et al. (författare)
  • Tri-decabrominated diphenyl ethers and hexabromocyclododecane in indoor air and dust from Stockholm microenvironments 2 : Indoor sources and human exposure
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Environment International. - : Elsevier BV. - 0160-4120 .- 1873-6750. ; 39:1, s. 141-147
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Data on polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) concentrations from Stockholm, Sweden, indoor microenvironments were combined with information from detailed questionnaires regarding the sampling location characteristics, including furnishing and equipment present. These were used to elucidate relationships between possible flame-retarded sources and the contaminant concentrations found in air and dust. Median concentration ranges of Sigma Penta-, Sigma Octa-, Sigma DecaBDE and HBCD from all microenvironments were 19-570, 1.7-280, 29-3200 and <1.6-2 pg/m(3) in air and 22-240, 6.1-80, 330-1400 and 45-340 ng/g in dust, respectively. Significant correlations were found between concentrations of some PBDEs and HBCD in air and/or dust and the presence of electronic/electrical devices, foam furniture, PUF mattresses and synthetic bed pillows in, as well as floor area and construction year of the microenvironment. Car interiors were a source to indoor air in dealership halls. Using median and maximum concentrations of Sigma Penta-, Sigma Octa-, Sigma DecaBDE and HBCD in air and dust, adult and toddler (12-24 months) intakes from inhalation and dust ingestion were estimated. Toddlers had higher estimated intakes of Sigma Penta-, Sigma DecaBDE and HBCD (7.8, 43, 7.6 ng/d, respectively) from dust ingestion than adults (5.8, 38, 6.0 ng/d, respectively). Air inhalation in offices was also an important exposure pathway for Sigma Penta-, Sigma Octa- and Sigma DecaBDE in adults. For Sigma PentaBDE and HBCD, air inhalation and dust ingestion play minor roles when compared to previously published Swedish dietary intakes (median exposures). However, in worst case scenarios using maximum concentrations, dust ingestion may represent 77 and 95% of toddler intake for Sigma PentaBDE and HBCD, respectively.
  • Derakhshan, Arash, et al. (författare)
  • Association of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances with thyroid homeostasis during pregnancy in the SELMA study
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Environment International. - : Elsevier. - 0160-4120 .- 1873-6750. ; 167
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • ObjectivesTo investigate the association of exposure to per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) during early pregnancy with markers of the maternal thyroid system.MethodsSerum concentrations of seven PFAS as well as thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free and total thyroxine (FT4 and TT4), free and total triiodothyronine (FT3 and TT3) were measured in pregnant women in early pregnancy in the Swedish Environmental Longitudinal, Mother and child, Asthma and allergy (SELMA) study. Outcomes were concentrations of TSH and thyroid hormones, FT4/FT3 or TT4/TT3 ratios, TSH/FT4 ratio as a marker of the negative feedback loop, TT4/FT4 or TT3/FT3 ratios as markers of the binding of thyroid hormones to binding proteins.ResultsThe study population comprised 2,008 women with median (95% range) gestational age of 10 (6–14) weeks. There was no association between PFAS and TSH. Higher PFNA, PFDA, PFHpA and PFOA levels were associated with a higher FT4 (largest effect estimate for PFDA: β [95% CI]: 0.27 [0.10 to 0.45], P = 0.002). Higher PFUnDA levels, but no other PFAS, were associated with a lower FT3 (β [95% CI]: −0.05 [-0.09 to −0.01], P = 0.005). Higher PFUnDA levels were associated with lower TT4 (β [95% CI]: −1.58 [-3.07 to −0.09]) and there was an inverted U-shaped association of PFOS with TT4 (P = 0.03). Higher PFDA, PFUnDA, PFHpA levels were associated with a lower TT3. Overall, higher PFAS concentrations were associated with a higher FT4/FT3 ratio and a higher TT4/TT3 ratio. There was no association of PFAS with the TSH/FT4 ratio. Higher concentrations of several PFAS were associated with lower TT4/FT4 and TT3/FT3 ratios.ConclusionsThese findings translate results from experimental studies suggesting that exposure to PFAS may interfere with the thyroid system during pregnancy. Further experimental studies should take into account human evidence to better understand the potential underlying mechanisms of thyroid disruption by PFAS exposure.
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