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  • Ben Nasr, Abdelhakim, et al. (författare)
  • Absorption of kininogen from human plasma by Streptococcus pyogenes is followed by the release of bradykinin
  • 1997
  • Ingår i: Biochemical Journal. - : Portland Press. - 0264-6021. ; 326:3, s. 657-660
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • H-kininogen (high-molecular-mass kininogen, HK) is the precursor of the vasoactive peptide hormone bradykinin (BK). Previous work has demonstrated that HK binds to Streptococcus pyogenes through M-proteins, fibrous surface proteins and important virulence factors of these bacteria. Here we find that M-protein-expressing bacteria absorb HK from human plasma. The HK bound to the bacteria was found to be cleaved, and analysis of the degradation pattern suggested that the cleavage of HK at the bacterial surface is associated with the release of BK. Moreover, addition of activated plasma prekallikrein to bacteria preincubated with human plasma, resulted in BK release. This mechanism, by which a potent vasoactive and proinflammatory peptide is generated at the site of infection, should influence the host-parasite relationship during S. pyogenes infections.
  • Ben Nasr, Abdelhakim, et al. (författare)
  • Human kininogens interact with M protein, a bacterial surface protein and virulence determinant.
  • 1995
  • Ingår i: Biochemical Journal. - : Portland Press. - 0264-6021. ; 305:1, s. 80-173
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Streptococcus pyogenes, the most significant streptococcal species in clinical medicine, expresses surface proteins with affinity for several human plasma proteins. Here we report that kininogens, the precursors to the vasoactive kinins, bind to the surface of S. pyogenes. M protein, a surface molecule and a major virulence factor-in these bacteria, occurs in > 80 different serotypes. Among 49 strains of S. pyogenes, all of different M serotypes, 41 bound radiolabelled kininogens, whereas 6 M protein-negative mutant strains showed no affinity. M protein of most serotypes bind fibrinogen, and among the 55 strains tested, binding of kininogens was closely correlated to fibrinogen binding (r = 0.88, P < 0.0001). Western blotting, slot binding and enzyme immunoassay experiments demonstrated that M proteins isolated from S. pyogenes of three different M protein serotypes (M1, M6 and M46) bound kininogens. The affinity between kininogens and M1 protein was determined to be 5 x 10(7) M-1 and < or = 10(6) M-1 for high molecular weight (H-kininogen) and low molecular weight kininogen, respectively. The kininogen binding site was tentatively mapped to the N-terminal portion of M1 protein, and this site does not overlap the specific and separate binding sites for albumin, IgG and fibrinogen using monoclonal antibodies to, and synthetic peptides of, the kininogen sequence, the major M protein-binding site(s) was mapped to the C-terminal portion of the H-kininogen light chain. We anticipate that the kininogen-M protein interaction contributes to the host-parasite relationship in S. pyogenes infections.
  • Berggren Söderlund, Maria, et al. (författare)
  • Expression of human all-trans-retinoic acid receptor beta and its ligand-binding domain in Escherichia coli
  • 1995
  • Ingår i: Biochemical Journal. - : Portland Press. - 0264-6021. ; 308:Pt 1, s. 353-359
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • all-trans-Retinoic acid, one of the hormonally active derivatives of vitamin A, occurs physiologically in plasma at a concentration below 10 nmol/l. The methods currently used for its quantification are based on HPLC, need about 1 ml of serum, are relatively laborious and thus not well suited for mass analysis. The affinity and specificity of retinoic acid receptors for all-trans-retinoic acid encouraged us to express both the entire human retinoic acid receptor beta (RAR-beta) and two versions of its retinoic acid-binding domain in Escherichia coli in the hope that these recombinant proteins might be used as binders in a ligand-binding assay for all-trans-retinoic acid. The recombinant receptors, the whole receptor [RAR-beta-(V7-Q448)], corresponding to domains A-F, and the ligand-binding domain [RAR-beta-(E149-Q448)], corresponding to domains D-F, were expressed in the vector pET 3d/BL21 (DE3) as inclusion bodies, solubilized with guanidinium chloride, renatured and purified by ion-exchange chromatography. RAR-beta-(P193-Q448), corresponding to domains E-F, was expressed in the vector pET 3d/BL21(DE3)pLysS, and purified by reversed-phase chromatography. Under non-denaturing conditions, the expressed whole receptor [RAR-beta-(V7-Q448)] and the D-F construct (RAR-beta-(E149-Q448)] behaved chromatographically as monomeric proteins whereas the E-F construct [RAR-beta-(P193-Q448)] had a strong tendency to aggregate. RAR-beta-(V7-Q448) and RAR-beta-(E149-Q448) had similar Kd values for all-trans-retinoic acid (1.4 and 0.6 nmol/l respectively) whereas RAR-beta-(P193-Q448) bound all-trans-retinoic acid less avidly (Kd 9.6 nmol/l). 9-cis-Retinoic acid bound to RAR-beta-(E149-Q448) and RAR-beta-(V7-Q448) as avidly as all-trans-retinoic acid. Competition experiments showed weak or no binding of 4-oxo-all-trans-retinoic acid, 4-oxo-13-cis-retinoic acid, 13-cis-retinoic acid, acitretin and retinol by RAR-beta-(E149-Q448).
  • Berndt, Carsten, et al. (författare)
  • Chelation of lysosomal iron protects against ionizing radiation.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Biochemical Journal. - 0264-6021 .- 1470-8728. ; 432:2, s. 295-301
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Ionizing radiation causes DNA damage and consequent apoptosis, mainly due to the production of hydroxyl radicals (HO•) that follows radiolytic splitting of water. However, superoxide (O2•-) and H2O2 also form and induce oxidative stress with resulting LMP (lysosomal membrane permeabilization) arising from iron-catalysed oxidative events. The latter will contribute significantly to radiation-induced cell death and its degree largely depends on the quantities of lysosomal redox-active iron present as a consequence of autophagy and endocytosis of iron-rich compounds. Therefore radiation sensitivity might be depressed by lysosome-targeted iron chelators. In the present study, we have shown that cells in culture are significantly protected from ionizing radiation damage if initially exposed to the lipophilic iron chelator SIH (salicylaldehyde isonicotinoyl hydrazone), and that this effect is based on SIH-dependent lysosomal stabilization against oxidative stress. According to its dose-response-modifying effect, SIH is a most powerful radioprotector and a promising candidate for clinical application, mainly to reduce the radiation sensitivity of normal tissue. We propose, as an example, that inhalation of SIH before each irradiation session by patients undergoing treatment for lung malignancies would protect normally aerated lung tissue against life-threatening pulmonary fibrosis, whereas the sensitivity of malignant lung tumours, which usually are non-aerated, will not be affected by inhaled SIH.
  • Bessueille, Laurence, et al. (författare)
  • Plasma membrane microdomains from hybrid aspen cells are involved in cell wall polysaccharide biosynthesis
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Biochemical Journal. - 0264-6021 .- 1470-8728. ; 420, s. 93-103
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Detergent-resistant plasma membrane microdomains [DRMs (detergent-resistant membranes)] were isolated recently from several plant species. As for animal cells, a large range of cellular functions, such as signal transduction, endocytosis and protein trafficking, have been attributed to plant lipid rafts and DRMs. The data available are essentially based on protcomics and more approaches need to be undertaken to elucidate the precise function of individual populations of DRMs in plants. We report here the first isolation of DRMs from purified plasma membranes of a tree species, the hybrid aspen Populus tremula x tremuloides, and their biochemical characterization. Plasma membranes were solubilized with Triton X-100 and the resulting DRMs were isolated by flotation in sucrose density gradients. The DRMs were enriched in sterols, sphingolipids and glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins and thus exhibited similar properties to DRMs from other species. However, they contained key carbohydrate synthases involved in cell wall polysaccharide biosynthesis, namely callose [(1 -> 3)-beta-D-glucan] and cellulose synthases. The association of these enzymes with DRMs was demonstrated using specific glucan synthase assays and antibodies, as well as biochemical and chemical approaches for the characterization of the polysaccharides synthesized in vitro by the isolated DRMs. More than 70% of the total glucan synthase activities present in the original plasma membranes was associated with the DRM fraction. In addition to shedding light on the lipid environment of callose and cellulose synthases, our results demonstrate the involvement of DRMs in the biosynthesis of important cell wall polysaccharides. This novel concept suggests a function of plant membrane microdomains in cell growth and morphogenesis.
  • Bhongir, Ravi K. V., et al. (författare)
  • DNA-fragmentation is a source of bactericidal activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Biochemical Journal. - : Portland Press. - 0264-6021. ; 474:3, s. 411-425
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Pseudomonas aeruginosa airway infection is common in cystic fibrosis (CF), a disease also characterized by abundant extracellular DNA (eDNA) in the airways. The eDNA is mainly derived from neutrophils accumulating in the airways and contributes to a high sputum viscosity. The altered environment in the lower airways also paves the way for chronic P. aeruginosa infection. Here, we show that mice with P. aeruginosa airway infection have increased survival and decreased bacterial load after topical treatment with DNase. Furthermore, DNA from the sputum of CF patients showed increased bactericidal activity after treatment with DNase ex vivo. Both degraded DNA of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) and genomic DNA degraded by serum, acquired bactericidal activity against P. aeruginosa. In vitro, small synthetic DNA-fragments (<100 base pairs) but not large fragments nor genomic DNA, were bactericidal against Gram-negative but not Grampositive bacteria. The addition of divalent cations reduced bacterial killing, suggesting that chelation of divalent cations by DNA results in destabilization of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) envelope. This is a novel antibacterial strategy where fragmentation of eDNA and DNA-fragments can be used to treat P. aeruginosa airway infection.
  • Birkholtz, Lyn-Marie, et al. (författare)
  • Polyamine homoeostasis as a drug target in pathogenic protozoa: peculiarities and possibilities
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Biochemical Journal. - London : Portland Press. - 0264-6021 .- 1470-8728. ; 438, s. 229-244
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • New drugs are urgently needed for the treatment of tropical and subtropical parasitic diseases, such as African sleeping sickness. Chagas' disease, leishmaniasis and malaria. Enzymes in polyamine biosynthesis and thiol metabolism, as well as polyamine transporters, are potential drug targets within these organisms. In the present review, the current knowledge of unique properties of polyamine metabolism in these parasites is outlined. These properties include prozyme regulation of AdoMetDC (S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase) activity in trypanosomatids, co-expression of ODC (ornithine decarboxylase) and AdoMetDC activities in a single protein in plasmodia, and formation of trypanothione, a unique compound linking polyamine and thiol metabolism in trypanosomatids. Particularly interesting features within polyamine metabolism in these parasites are highlighted for their potential in selective therapeutic strategies.
  • Birve, Simon, 1964-, et al. (författare)
  • Secondary structure of NADPH : protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase examined by circular dichroism and prediction methods
  • 1996
  • Ingår i: Biochemical Journal. - 0264-6021 .- 1470-8728. ; 317:2, s. 549-555
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To study the secondary structure of the enzyme NADPH:protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (PCOR), a novel method of enzyme isolation was developed. The detergent isotridecyl poly(ethylene glycol) ether (Genapol X-080) selectively solubilizes the enzyme from a prolamellar-body fraction isolated from wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). The solubilized fraction was further purified by ion-exchange chromatography. The isolated enzyme was studied by fluorescence spectroscopy at 77 K, and by CD spectroscopy. The fluorescence-emission spectra revealed that the binding properties of the substrate and co-substrate were preserved and that photo-reduction occurred. The CD spectra of PCOR were analysed for the relative amounts of the secondary structures, alpha-helix, beta-sheet, turn and random coil. The secondary structure composition was estimated to be 33% alpha-helix, 19% beta-sheet, 20% turn and 28% random coil. These values are in agreement with those predicted by the Predict Heidelberg Deutschland and self-optimized prediction method from alignments methods. The enzyme has some amino acid identity with other NADPH-binding enzymes containing the Rossmann fold. The Rossmann-fold fingerprint motif is localized in the N-terminal region and at the expected positions in the predicted secondary structure. It is suggested that PCOR is anchored to the interfacial region of the membrane by either a beta-sheet or an alpha-helical region containing tryptophan residues. A hydrophobic loop-region could also be involved in membrane anchoring.
  • Bjork, I, et al. (författare)
  • Differential changes in the association and dissociation rate constants for binding of cystatins to target proteinases occurring on N-terminal truncation of the inhibitors indicate that the interaction mechanism varies with different enzymes
  • 1994
  • Ingår i: Biochemical Journal. - : Portland Press. - 0264-6021. ; 299, s. 219-225
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The importance of the N-terminal region of human cystatin C or chicken cystatin for the kinetics of interactions of the inhibitors with four cysteine proteinases was characterized. The association rate constants for the binding of recombinant human cystatin C to papain, ficin, actinidin and recombinant rat cathepsin B were 1.1 x 10(7), 7.0 x 10(6), 2.4 x 10(6) and 1.4 x 10(6) M-1.s-1, whereas the corresponding dissociation rate constants were 1.3 x 10(-7), 9.2 x 10(-6), 4.6 x 10(-2) and 3.5 x 10(-4) s-1. N-Terminal truncation of the first ten residues of the inhibitor negligibly affected the association rate constant with papain or ficin, but increased the dissociation rate constant approx. 3 x 10(4)- to 2 x 10(6)-fold. In contrast, such truncation decreased the association rate constant with cathepsin B approx. 60-fold, while minimally affecting the dissociation rate constant. With actinidin, the truncated cystatin C had both an approx. 15-fold lower association rate constant and an approx. 15-fold higher dissociation rate constant than the intact inhibitor. Similar results were obtained for intact and N-terminally truncated chicken cystatin. The decreased affinity of human cystatin C or chicken cystatin for cysteine proteinases after removal of the N-terminal region is thus due to either a decreased association rate constant or an increased dissociation rate constant, or both, depending on the enzyme. This behaviour indicates that the contribution of the N-terminal segment of the two inhibitors to the interaction mechanism varies with the target proteinase as a result of structural differences in the active-site region of the enzyme.
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