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61.
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62.
  • Björk, Ingemar, et al. (författare)
  • Probing the functional role of the N-terminal region of cystatins by equilibrium and kinetic studies of the binding of Gly-11 variants of recombinant human cystatin C to target proteinases
  • 1995
  • Ingår i: Biochemical Journal. - : Portland Press. - 0264-6021. ; 306:2, s. 513-518
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The interaction between cystatin C variants, in which the evolutionarily conserved Gly-11 residue was substituted by Ala, Glu or Trp, and the cysteine proteinases, papain, ficin, actinidin and cathepsin B, was characterized. The substitutions reduced the affinity of binding in a manner consistent with the Gly residue of the wild-type inhibitor, allowing the N-terminal region to adopt a conformation that was optimal for interaction with target proteinases. Replacement of Gly-11 by Ala resulted in only a 5- to 100-fold reduction in binding affinity. Comparison with the affinities of wild-type cystatin C lacking the N-terminal region indicated that even this small structural change affects the conformation of this region sufficiently to largely abolish its interaction with the weakly binding proteinases, actinidin and cathepsin B. However, the substitution allows interactions of appreciable strength between the N-terminal region and the tightly binding enzymes, papain or ficin. Replacement of Gly-11 with the larger Glu and Trp residues substantially decreased the affinity of binding to all enzymes, from 10(3)- to 10(5)-fold. These substitutions further affect the conformation of the N-terminal region, so that interactions of this region with papain and ficin are also essentially eliminated. The decreased affinities of the three cystatin C variants for papain, ficin and actinidin were due exclusively to increased dissociation rate constants. In contrast, the decreased affinity between cathepsin B and the Ala-11 variant, the only one for which rate constants could be determined with this enzyme, was due almost entirely to a decreased association rate constant. This behaviour is analogous to that observed for forms of cystatin C lacking the N-terminal region and supports the conclusion that the mode of interaction of this region with target proteinases varies with the enzyme as a result of structural differences in the active-site region of the latter.
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63.
  • Blombach, Fabian, et al. (författare)
  • Archaeal MBF1 binds to 30S and 70S ribosomes via its helix-turn-helix domain
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Biochemical Journal. - 0264-6021 .- 1470-8728. ; 462, s. 373-384
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • MBF1 (multi-protein bridging factor 1) is a protein containing a conserved HTH (helix-turn-helix) domain in both eukaryotes and archaea. Eukaryotic MBF1 has been reported to function as a transcriptional co-activator that physically bridges transcription regulators with the core transcription initiation machinery of RNA polymerase II. In addition, MBF1 has been found to be associated with polyadenylated mRNA in yeast as well as in mammalian cells. aMBF1 (archaeal MBF1) is very well conserved among most archaeal lineages; however, its function has so far remained elusive. To address this, we have conducted a molecular characterization of this aMBF1. Affinity purification of interacting proteins indicates that aMBF1 binds to ribosomal subunits. On sucrose density gradients, aMBF1 co-fractionates with free 30S ribosomal subunits as well as with 70S ribosomes engaged in translation. Binding of aMBF1 to ribosomes does not inhibit translation. Using NMR spectroscopy, we show that aMBF1 contains a long intrinsically disordered linker connecting the predicted N-terminal zinc-ribbon domain with the C-terminal HTH domain. The HTH domain, which is conserved in all archaeal and eukaryotic MBF1 homologues, is directly involved in the association of aMBF1 with ribosomes. The disordered linker of the ribosome-bound aMBF1 provides the N-terminal domain with high flexibility in the aMBF1 ribosome complex. Overall, our findings suggest a role for aMBF1 in the archaeal translation process.
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64.
  • Braga, Tiago, et al. (författare)
  • Serglycin proteoglycan is required for secretory granule integrity in mucosal mast cells
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Biochemical Journal. - 0264-6021 .- 1470-8728. ; 403:1, s. 49-57
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • SG (serglycin) PGs (proteoglycans) are strongly implicated in the assembly of MC (mast cell) granules. However, this notion has mainly been on the basis of studies of MCs of the connective tissue subtype, whereas the role of SG PG in mucosal MCs has not been explored. In the present study, we have addressed the latter issue by using mice with an inactivated SG gene. Bone marrow cells were differentiated in vitro into the mucosal MC phenotype, expressing the markers mMCP (mouse MC protease) -1 and -2. Biosynthetic labelling experiments performed on these cells revealed an ~80% reduction of 35SO42− incorporation into PGs recovered from SG−/− cells as compared with SG+/+ counterparts, indicating that SG is the dominating cell-associated PG of mucosal MCs. Moreover, the absence of SG led to defective metachromatic staining of mucosal MCs, both in vivo and in the in vitro-derived mucosal MCs. Ultrastructural analysis showed that granules were present in similar numbers in SG+/+ and SG−/− cells, but that their morphology was markedly affected by the absence of SG, e.g. with electron-dense core formation only seen in SG+/+ granules. Analysis of the MC-specific proteases showed that mMCP-1 and mMCP-7 were completely independent of SG for storage, whereas mMCP-2 showed a partial dependence. In contrast, mMCP-4 and -6, and carboxypeptidase A were strongly dependent on SG for storage. Together, our data indicate that SG PG is of crucial importance for assembly of mature mucosal MC granules, but that the specific dependence on SG for storage varies between individual granule constituents.
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65.
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66.
  • Brännström, Kristoffer, et al. (författare)
  • Ca2+ enhances Aβ polymerization rate and fibrillar stability in a dynamic manner
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Biochemical Journal. - : Portland Press. - 0264-6021 .- 1470-8728. ; 450, s. 189-197
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Identifying factors that affect the self-assembly of the amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) is of utmost importance in the quest to understand the molecular mechanisms causing Alzheimer's disease (AD). Ca2+ has previously been shown to accelerate both Aβ fibril nucleation and maturation, and a dysregulated Ca2+ homeostasis frequently correlates with development of AD. The mechanisms regarding Ca2+ binding as well as its effect on fibril kinetics are not fully understood. Using a polymerization assay we show that Ca2+ in a dynamic and reversible manner enhances both the elongation rate and fibrillar stability, where specifically the "dock and lock" phase mechanism is enhanced. Through NMR analysis we found that Ca2+ affects the fibrillar architecture. In addition, and unexpectedly, we found that Ca2+ does not bind the free Aβ monomer. This implies that Ca2+ binding requires an architecture adopted by assembled peptides, and consequently is mediated through intermolecular interactions between adjacent peptides. This gives a mechanistic explanation to the enhancing effect on fibril maturation and indicates structural similarities between prefibrillar structures and mature amyloid. Taken together we expose how Ca2+ levels affect the delicate equilibrium between the monomeric and assembled Aβ and how fluctuations in vivo may contribute to development and progression of the disease.
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67.
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68.
  • Buttle, David J, et al. (författare)
  • Human sputum cathepsin B degrades proteoglycan, is inhibited by a2-macroglobulin and modulated by neutrophil elastase cleavage of cathepsin B precursor and cystatin C
  • 1991
  • Ingår i: Biochemical Journal. - : Portland Press. - 0264-6021. ; 276, s. 325-331
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The high-Mr alkali-stable form of cathepsin B was purified from purulent human sputum. It was shown to solubilize proteoglycan monomer entrapped in polyacrylamide at a rate comparable with that of human lysosomal cathepsin B. Like the enzyme from lysosomes, sputum cathepsin B was bound by human alpha 2-macroglobulin, which inhibited its action on proteoglycan. Cystatin C in purulent sputum was shown to be the N-terminally truncated form generated by neutrophil elastase cleavage, and sputum cathepsin B was only weakly inhibited by recombinant cystatin C that had been cleaved by neutrophil elastase in vitro. Addition of neutrophil elastase to mucoid sputum led to a 5-fold increase in cathepsin B activity concomitant with a lowering in Mr of the cysteine proteinase from 40,000 to 37,000, i.e. the size of the active enzyme purified from purulent sputum. It is concluded that the high-Mr form of cathepsin B present in purulent sputum is a functional proteinase, unlike similar forms of the enzyme secreted by mammary gland in organ culture. The activity of cathepsin B in sputum is modulated by neutrophil elastase, by a combination of inhibitor inactivation and zymogen activation.
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69.
  • Capon, C, et al. (författare)
  • Sd(a)-antigen-like structures carried on core 3 are prominent features of glycans from the mucin of normal human descending colon
  • 2001
  • Ingår i: Biochemical Journal. - : Portland Press. - 0264-6021. ; 358:Pt 3, s. 657-664
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This paper describes structural characterization by NMR, MS and degradative studies of mucin glycans from normal human descending colon obtained freshly at autopsy. The saccharides were mainly based on core 3 (GlcNAcbeta1-3GalNAc). Among the terminal saccharide determinants Sd(a)/Cad-antigen-like structures were prominent, and Lewis x, sialyl Lewis x and sulphated Lewis x were found as minor components, whereas blood group H and A antigenic determinants were absent. The saccharides were markedly different from those of mucins from colon cancers or colon cancer cell lines analysed so far, in which cores 1 and 2 are prominent features, and in which various other terminal determinants have been found, but not Sd(a)/Cad.
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70.
  • Carén, Helena, 1979, et al. (författare)
  • High incidence of DNA mutations and gene amplifications of the ALK gene in advanced sporadic neuroblastoma tumours.
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: The Biochemical journal. - 1470-8728 .- 0264-6021. ; 416:2, s. 153-9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • ALK (anaplastic lymphoma kinase) is oncogenic in several tumours and has recently been identified as a predisposition gene for familial NB (neuroblastoma) harbouring mutations in the TKD (tyrosine kinase domain). We have analysed a large set of sporadic human NB primary tumours of all clinical stages for chromosomal re-arrangements using a CGH (comparative genomic hybridization) array (n=108) and mutations of the ALK gene (n=90), and expression of ALK and related genes (n=19). ALK amplification or in-gene re-arrangements were found in 5% of NB tumours and mutations were found in 11%, including two novel not previously published mutations in the TKD, c.3733T>A and c.3735C>A. DNA mutations in the TKD and gene amplifications were only found in advanced large primary tumours or metastatic tumours, and correlated with the expression levels of ALK and downstream genes as well as other unfavourable features, and poor outcome. The results of the present study support that the ALK protein contributes to NB oncogenesis providing a highly interesting putative therapeutic target in a subset of unfavourable NB tumours.
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