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  • Baskin, Berivan, et al. (författare)
  • High frequency of copy number variations (CNVs) in the chromosome 11p15 region in patients with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Human Genetics. - : Springer Science and Business Media LLC. - 0340-6717 .- 1432-1203. ; 133:3, s. 321-330
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS), an overgrowth and tumor predisposition syndrome is clinically heterogeneous. Its variable presentation makes molecular diagnosis particularly important for appropriate counseling of patients with respect to embyronal tumor risk and recurrence risk. BWS is characterized by macrosomia, omphalocele, and macroglossia. Additional clinical features can include hemihyperplasia, embryonal tumors, umbilical hernia, and ear anomalies. BWS is etiologically heterogeneous arising from dysregulation of one or both of the chromosome 11p15.5 imprinting centers (IC) and/or imprinted growth regulatory genes on chromosome 11p15.5. Most BWS cases are sporadic and result from loss of maternal methylation at imprinting center 2 (IC2), gain of maternal methylation at imprinting center 1 (IC1) or paternal uniparental disomy (UPD). Heritable forms of BWS (15%) have been attributed mainly to mutations in the growth suppressor gene CDKN1C, but have also infrequently been identified in patients with copy number variations (CNVs) in the chromosome 11p15.5 region. Four hundred and thirty-four unrelated BWS patients referred to the molecular diagnostic laboratory were tested by methylation-specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MS-MLPA). Molecular alterations were detected in 167 patients, where 103 (62%) showed loss of methylation at IC2, 23 (14%) had gain of methylation at IC1, and 41 (25%) showed changes at both ICs usually associated with paternal UPD. In each of the three groups, we identified patients in whom the abnormalities in the chromosome 11p15.5 region were due to CNVs. Surprisingly, 14 patients (9%) demonstrated either deletions or duplications of the BWS critical region that were confirmed using comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) array analysis. The majority of these CNVs were associated with a methylation change at IC1. Our results suggest that CNVs in the 11p15.5 region contribute significantly to the etiology of BWS. We highlight the importance of performing deletion/duplication testing in addition to methylation analysis in the molecular investigation of BWS in order to improve our understanding of the molecular basis of this disorder, and to provide accurate genetic counselling.
  • Baskin, Berivan, et al. (författare)
  • TMEM43 mutations associated with arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy in non-Newfoundland populations
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Human Genetics. - : Springer Science and Business Media LLC. - 0340-6717 .- 1432-1203. ; 132:11, s. 1245-1252
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) is a myocardial disease characterized by fibro-fatty replacement of right ventricular free wall myocardium and life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias. A missense mutation, c.1073C>T (p.S358L) in the transmembrane protein 43 (TMEM43) gene, has been genetically identified to cause ARVC type 5 in a founder population from Newfoundland. It is unclear whether this mutation occurs in other populations outside of this founder population or if other variants of TMEM43 are associated with ARVC disease. We sought to identify non-Newfoundland individuals with TMEM43 variants among patient samples sent for genetic assessment for possible ARVC. Of 195 unrelated individuals with suspected ARVC, mutation of desmosomal proteins was seen in 28 and the p.S358L TMEM43 mutation in six. We identified a de novo p.S358L mutation in a non-Newfoundland patient and five separate rare TMEM43 (four novel) sequence variants in non-Newfoundland patients, each occurring in an evolutionarily conserved amino acid. TMEM43 mutations occur outside of the founder population of the island of Newfoundland where it was originally described. TMEM43 sequencing should be incorporated into clinical genetic testing for ARVC patients.
  • Bien, Stephanie A., et al. (författare)
  • Genetic variant predictors of gene expression provide new insight into risk of colorectal cancer
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Human Genetics. - : Springer. - 0340-6717 .- 1432-1203. ; 138:4, s. 307-326
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Genome-wide association studies have reported 56 independently associated colorectal cancer (CRC) risk variants, most of which are non-coding and believed to exert their effects by modulating gene expression. The computational method PrediXcan uses cis-regulatory variant predictors to impute expression and perform gene-level association tests in GWAS without directly measured transcriptomes. In this study, we used reference datasets from colon (n=169) and whole blood (n=922) transcriptomes to test CRC association with genetically determined expression levels in a genome-wide analysis of 12,186 cases and 14,718 controls. Three novel associations were discovered from colon transverse models at FDR0.2 and further evaluated in an independent replication including 32,825 cases and 39,933 controls. After adjusting for multiple comparisons, we found statistically significant associations using colon transcriptome models with TRIM4 (discovery P=2.2x10(-4), replication P=0.01), and PYGL (discovery P=2.3x10(-4), replication P=6.7x10(-4)). Interestingly, both genes encode proteins that influence redox homeostasis and are related to cellular metabolic reprogramming in tumors, implicating a novel CRC pathway linked to cell growth and proliferation. Defining CRC risk regions as one megabase up- and downstream of one of the 56 independent risk variants, we defined 44 non-overlapping CRC-risk regions. Among these risk regions, we identified genes associated with CRC (P<0.05) in 34/44 CRC-risk regions. Importantly, CRC association was found for two genes in the previously reported 2q25 locus, CXCR1 and CXCR2, which are potential cancer therapeutic targets. These findings provide strong candidate genes to prioritize for subsequent laboratory follow-up of GWAS loci. This study is the first to implement PrediXcan in a large colorectal cancer study and findings highlight the utility of integrating transcriptome data in GWAS for discovery of, and biological insight into, risk loci.
  • Blomqvist, Mia E-L, et al. (författare)
  • Towards compendia of negative genetic association studies: an example for Alzheimer disease.
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Human genetics. - : Springer Science and Business Media LLC. - 0340-6717 .- 1432-1203. ; 119:1-2, s. 29-37
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Most genetic sequence variants that contribute to variability in complex human traits will have small effects that are not readily detectable with population samples typically used in genetic association studies. A potentially valuable tool in the gene discovery process is meta-analysis of the accumulated published data, but in order to be valid these require a sample of studies representative of the true genetic effect and thus hypothetically should include some positive and an abundance of negative reports. A survey of the literature on association studies for Alzheimer disease (AD) from January 2004-April 2005, identified 138 studies, 86 of which reported positive findings other than for apolipoprotein E (APOE), strongly indicative of publication bias. We report here an analysis of 62 genetic markers, tested for association with AD risk as well as for possible effects upon quantitative indices of AD severity (mini-mental state examination scores, age-at-onset, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) beta-amyloid (Abeta) and CSF tau proteins). Within this set, only modest signals were present that, with the exception of APOE are easily lost when corrections for multiple hypotheses are applied. In isolation, results are thus broadly negative. Genes studied encompass both novel candidates as well as several recently claimed to be associated with AD (e.g. urokinase plasminogen activator (PLAU) and acetyl-coenzyme A acetyltransferase 1 (ACAT1)). By reporting these data we hope to encourage the publication of gene compendia to guide further studies and aid future meta-analyses aimed at resolving the involvement of genes in complex human traits.
  • Broberg, K, et al. (författare)
  • Clonal chromosome aberrations are present in vivo in synovia and osteophytes from patients with osteoarthritis
  • 1997
  • Ingår i: Human Genetics. - : Springer. - 0340-6717 .- 1432-1203. ; 101:3, s. 8-295
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We have previously reported recurrent clonal chromosomal aberrations in synovia, osteophytes and articular cartilage from patients with osteoarthritis (OA). In particular, gain of chromosomes 5 and 7 was found to be strongly associated with OA. In order to exclude the possibility of in vitro artefacts, we studied three to four parallel, independent cultures from ten samples of synovia and three samples of osteophytes from ten women with primary OA. In all, 40 cultures were cytogenetically analysed, 39 of which had clonal chromosomal aberrations. The most common aberrations were +7 and +5 which were found in 38 and 12 cultures, respectively. There were striking karyotype similarities among the parallel cultures from each case. Out of a total of 83 clones, only 11 were unique for one culture, 7 from synovia and 4 from osteophytes. The genetic homogeneity among different cultures from the same patients excludes the possibility of in vitro artefacts and indicates a widespread distribution of the cytogenetically aberrant clones in vivo.
  • Brodin, P (författare)
  • New approaches to the study of immune responses in humans
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Human genetics. - : Springer Science and Business Media LLC. - 1432-1203 .- 0340-6717. ; 139:6-7, s. 795-799
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The human immune system consists of multiple, layered mechanisms of sensing and responding to cellular stress, infection and tissue damage to ensure defense from pathogens, maintenance of tissue homeostasis, and the integrity of the holobiont. Every single cell in the body has a role to play, but a few dozen, specialized white blood cells are particularly important in this respect. Understanding the overall state of this multifaceted system in a single individual is challenging, and we are only beginning to do this across populations of individuals, to understand the vast range of inter-individual variation, and the influences of genes and environmental factors that collectively shape the immune system in a given individual. We are also only beginning to understand the changes occurring within this system over time, and how this relates to health and disease susceptibility. Several technological breakthroughs in recent years have enabled these developments and the emergence of a new, complementary approach to studying human immune systems, namely systems immunology. In this paradigm, the focus is shifted from the understanding of individual immune system components and their mechanisms of action, towards analyses of cell–cell interactions, and mechanisms of coordination and regulation within the human immune system.
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