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  • Dewdney, Alice, et al. (författare)
  • Multicenter Randomized Phase II Clinical Trial Comparing Neoadjuvant Oxaliplatin, Capecitabine, and Preoperative Radiotherapy With or Without Cetuximab Followed by Total Mesorectal Excision in Patients With High-Risk Rectal Cancer (EXPERT-C)
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Oncology. - 0732-183X .- 1527-7755. ; 30:14, s. 1620-1627
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose To evaluate the addition of cetuximab to neoadjuvant chemotherapy before chemoradiotherapy in high-risk rectal cancer. Patients and Methods Patients with operable magnetic resonance imaging-defined high-risk rectal cancer received four cycles of capecitabine/oxaliplatin (CAPOX) followed by capecitabine chemoradiotherapy, surgery, and adjuvant CAPOX (four cycles) or the same regimen plus weekly cetuximab (CAPOX + C). The primary end point was complete response (CR; pathologic CR or, in patients not undergoing surgery, radiologic CR) in patients with KRAS/BRAF wild-type tumors. Secondary end points were radiologic response (RR), progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and safety in the wild-type and overall populations and a molecular biomarker analysis. Results One hundred sixty-five eligible patients were randomly assigned. Ninety (60%) of 149 assessable tumors were KRAS or BRAF wild type (CAPOX, n = 44; CAPOX + C, n = 46), and in these patients, the addition of cetuximab did not improve the primary end point of CR (9% v 11%, respectively; P = 1.0; odds ratio, 1.22) or PFS (hazard ratio [ HR], 0.65; P = .363). Cetuximab significantly improved RR (CAPOX v CAPOX + C: after chemotherapy, 51% v 71%, respectively; P = .038; after chemoradiation, 75% v 93%, respectively; P = .028) and OS (HR, 0.27; P = .034). Skin toxicity and diarrhea were more frequent in the CAPOX + C arm. Conclusion Cetuximab led to a significant increase in RR and OS in patients with KRAS/BRAF wild-type rectal cancer, but the primary end point of improved CR was not met.
  • Drilon, Alexander, et al. (författare)
  • Clinicopathologic Features and Response to Therapy of NRG1 Fusion-Driven Lung Cancers : The eNRGy1 Global Multicenter Registry
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Oncology. - : LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. - 0732-183X .- 1527-7755. ; 39:25, s. 2791-2802
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • PURPOSE Although NRG1 fusions are oncogenic drivers across multiple tumor types including lung cancers, these are difficult to study because of their rarity. The global eNRGy1 registry was thus established to characterize NRG1 fusion-positive lung cancers in the largest and most diverse series to date. METHODS From June 2018 to February 2020, a consortium of 22 centers from nine countries in Europe, Asia, and the United States contributed data from patients with pathologically confirmed NRG1 fusion-positive lung cancers. Profiling included DNA-based and/or RNA-based next-generation sequencing and fluorescence in situ hybridization. Anonymized clinical, pathologic, molecular, and response (RECIST v1.1) data were centrally curated and analyzed. RESULTS Although the typified never smoking (57%), mucinous adenocarcinoma (57%), and nonmetastatic (71%) phenotype predominated in 110 patients with NRG1 fusion-positive lung cancer, further diversity, including in smoking history (43%) and histology (43% nonmucinous and 6% nonadenocarcinoma), was elucidated. RNA-based testing identified most fusions (74%). Molecularly, six (of 18) novel 5 ' partners, 20 unique epidermal growth factor domain-inclusive chimeric events, and heterogeneous 5 '/3 ' breakpoints were found. Platinum-doublet and taxane-based (post-platinum-doublet) chemotherapy achieved low objective response rates (ORRs 13% and 14%, respectively) and modest progression-free survival medians (PFS 5.8 and 4.0 months, respectively). Consistent with a low programmed death ligand-1 expressing (28%) and low tumor mutational burden (median: 0.9 mutations/megabase) immunophenotype, the activity of chemoimmunotherapy and single-agent immunotherapy was poor (ORR 0%/PFS 3.3 months and ORR 20%/PFS 3.6 months, respectively). Afatinib achieved an ORR of 25%, not contingent on fusion type, and a 2.8-month median PFS. CONCLUSION NRG1 fusion-positive lung cancers were molecularly, pathologically, and clinically more heterogeneous than previously recognized. The activity of cytotoxic, immune, and targeted therapies was disappointing. Further research examining NRG1-rearranged tumor biology is needed to develop new therapeutic strategies.
  • D'Souza, Anita, et al. (författare)
  • Improved Outcomes After Autologous Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation for Light Chain Amyloidosis : A Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research Study
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Oncology. - 0732-183X .- 1527-7755. ; 33:32, s. 3741-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose Autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation, or autotransplantation, is effective in light-chain amyloidosis (AL), but it is associated with a high risk of early mortality (EM). In a multicenter randomized comparison against oral chemotherapy, autotransplantation was associated with 24% EM. We analyzed trends in outcomes after autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation for AL in North America. Patients and Methods Between 1995 and 2012, 1,536 patients with AL who underwent autotransplantation at 134 centers were identified in the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research database. EM and overall survival (OS) were analyzed in three time cohorts: 1995 to 2000 (n = 140), 2001 to 2006 (n = 596), and 2007 to 2012 (n = 800). Hematologic and renal responses and factors associated with EM, relapse and/or progression, progression-free survival and OS were analyzed in more recent subgroups from 2001 to 2006 (n = 197) and from 2007 to 2012 (n = 157). Results Mortality at 30 and 100 days progressively declined over successive time periods from 11% and 20%, respectively, in 1995 to 2000 to 5% and 11%, respectively, in 2001 to 2006, and to 3% and 5%, respectively, in 2007 to 2012. Correspondingly, 5-year OS improved from 55% in 1995 to 2000 to 61% in 2001 to 2006 and to 77% in 2007 to 2012. Hematologic response to transplantation improved in the latest cohort. Renal response rate was 32%. Centers performing more than four AL transplantations per year had superior survival outcomes. In the multivariable analysis, cardiac AL was associated with high EM and inferior progression-free survival and OS. Autotransplantation in 2007 to 2012 and use of higher dosages of melphalan were associated with a lowered relapse risk. A Karnofsky score less than 80 and creatinine levels 2 mg/m(2) or greater were associated with worsened OS. Conclusion Post-transplantation survival in AL has improved, with a dramatic reduction in early post-transplantation mortality and excellent 5-year survival. The risk-benefit ratio for autotransplantation has changed, and randomized comparison with nontransplantation approaches is again warranted.
  • du Bois, Andreas, et al. (författare)
  • Phase III trial of carboplatin plus paclitaxel with or without gemcitabine in first-line treatment of epithelial ovarian cancer.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Oncology. - : American society of clinical oncology. - 0732-183X .- 1527-7755. ; 28:27, s. 4162-4169
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • PURPOSE: One attempt to improve long-term survival in patients with advanced ovarian cancer was thought to be the addition of more non-cross-resistant drugs to platinum-paclitaxel combination regimens. Gemcitabine was among the candidates for a third drug.PATIENTS AND METHODS: We performed a prospective, randomized, phase III, intergroup trial to compare carboplatin plus paclitaxel (TC; area under the curve [AUC] 5 and 175 mg/m(2), respectively) with the same combination and additional gemcitabine 800 mg/m(2) on days 1 and 8 (TCG) in previously untreated patients with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer. TC was administered intravenously (IV) on day 1 every 21 days for a planned minimum of six courses. Gemcitabine was administered by IV on days 1 and 8 of each cycle in the TCG arm.RESULTS: Between 2002 and 2004, 1,742 patients were randomly assigned; 882 and 860 patients received TC and TCG, respectively. Grades 3 to 4 hematologic toxicity and fatigue occurred more frequently in the TCG arm. Accordingly, quality-of-life analysis during chemotherapy showed a disadvantage in the TCG arm. Although objective response was slightly higher in the TCG arm, this did not translate into improved progression-free survival (PFS) or overall survival (OS). Median PFS was 17.8 months for the TCG arm and 19.3 months for the TC arm (hazard ratio [HR], 1.18; 95% CI, 1.06 to 1.32; P = .0044). Median OS was 49.5 for the TCG arm and 51.5 months for the TC arm (HR, 1.05; 95% CI, 0.91 to 1.20; P = .5106).CONCLUSION: The addition of gemcitabine to carboplatin plus paclitaxel increased treatment burden, reduced PFS time, and did not improve OS in patients with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer. Therefore, we recommend no additional clinical use of TCG in this population.
  • Durno, C., et al. (författare)
  • Survival Benefit for Individuals With Constitutional Mismatch Repair Deficiency Undergoing Surveillance
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Oncology. - : American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO). - 0732-183X .- 1527-7755. ; 39:25, s. 2779-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • PURPOSE Constitutional mismatch repair deficiency syndrome (CMMRD) is a lethal cancer predisposition syndrome characterized by early-onset synchronous and metachronous multiorgan tumors. We designed a surveillance protocol for early tumor detection in these individuals. PATIENTS AND METHODS Data were collected from patients with confirmed CMMRD who were registered in the International Replication Repair Deficiency Consortium. Tumor spectrum, efficacy of the surveillance protocol, and malignant transformation of low-grade lesions were examined for the entire cohort. Survival outcomes were analyzed for patients followed prospectively from the time of surveillance implementation. RESULTS A total of 193 malignant tumors in 110 patients were identified. Median age of first cancer diagnosis was 9.2 years (range: 1.7-39.5 years). For patients undergoing surveillance, all GI and other solid tumors, and 75% of brain cancers were detected asymptomatically. By contrast, only 16% of hematologic malignancies were detected asymptomatically (P < .001). Eighty-nine patients were followed prospectively and used for survival analysis. Five-year overall survival (OS) was 90% (95% CI, 78.6 to 100) and 50% (95% CI, 39.2 to 63.7) when cancer was detected asymptomatically and symptomatically, respectively (P = .001). Patient outcome measured by adherence to the surveillance protocol revealed 4-year OS of 79% (95% CI, 54.8 to 90.9) for patients undergoing full surveillance, 55% (95% CI, 28.5 to 74.5) for partial surveillance, and 15% (95% CI, 5.2 to 28.8) for those not under surveillance (P < .0001). Of the 64 low-grade tumors detected, the cumulative likelihood of transformation from low-to high-grade was 81% for GI cancers within 8 years and 100% for gliomas in 6 years. CONCLUSION Surveillance and early cancer detection are associated with improved OS for individuals with CMMRD.
  • Ejlertsen, Bent, et al. (författare)
  • Similar efficacy for ovarian ablation compared with cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and fluorouracil: from a randomized comparison of premenopausal patients with node-positive, hormone receptor-positive breast cancer
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: J Clin Oncol. - : American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO). - 1527-7755. ; 24:31, s. 4956-4962
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To compare the efficacy of ovarian ablation versus chemotherapy in early breast cancer patients with hormone receptor–positive disease. Patients and Methods We conducted an open, randomized, multicenter trial including premenopausal breast cancer patients with hormone receptor–positive tumors and either axillary lymph node metastases or tumors with a size of 5 cm or more. Patients were randomly assigned to ovarian ablation by irradiation or to nine courses of chemotherapy with intravenous cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and fluorouracil (CMF) administered every 3 weeks. Results Between 1990 and May 1998, 762 patients were randomly assigned, and the present analysis is based on 358 first events. After a median follow-up time of 8.5 years, the unadjusted hazard ratio for disease-free survival in the ovarian ablation group compared with the CMF group was 0.99 (95% CI, 0.81 to 1.22). After a median follow-up time of 10.5 years, overall survival (OS) was similar in the two groups, with a hazard ratio of 1.11 (95% CI, 0.88 to 1.42) for the ovarian ablation group compared with the CMF group. Conclusion In this study, ablation of ovarian function in premenopausal women with hormone receptor–positive breast cancer had a similar effect to CMF on disease-free and OS. No significant interactions were demonstrated between treatment modality and hormone receptor content, age, or any of the well-known prognostic factors.
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