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  • Ambrus, Livia, et al. (författare)
  • Hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis hyperactivity is associated with decreased brain-derived neurotrophic factor in female suicide attempters
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry. - : Informa Healthcare. - 0803-9488 .- 1502-4725. ; 70:8, s. 575-581
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Introduction: Both decreased levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis dysregulation may be involved in the pathophysiology of suicidal behaviour, as well as cognitive symptoms of depression. Pre-clinical and clinical studies have shown interactions between HPA-axis activity and BDNF, but this has not been studied in a clinical cohort of suicidal subjects. The purpose of this study was, therefore, to investigate associations between HPA-axis activity and BDNF in suicide attempters. Furthermore, this study examined the relationship between the HPA-axis, BDNF, and cognitive symptoms in suicidal patients. Since previous data indicate gender-related differences in BDNF and the HPA axis, males and females were examined separately. Method: Seventy-five recent suicide attempters (n = 41 females; n = 34 males) were enrolled in the study. The Dexamethasone Suppression Test (DST) was performed and BDNF in plasma were analysed. Patients were evaluated with the Comprehensive Psychopathological Rating Scale (CPRS) from which items ‘Concentration difficulties’ and ‘Failing memory’ were extracted. Results: Only among females, DST non-suppressors had significantly lower BDNF compared to DST suppressors (p = 0.022), and there was a significant correlation between post-DST serum cortisol at 8 a.m. and BDNF (rs = −0.437, p = 0.003). Concentration difficulties correlated significantly with post-DST cortisol in all patients (rs = 0.256, p = 0.035), in females (rs = 0.396, p = 0.015), and with BDNF in females (rs = −0.372, p = 0.020). Conclusion: The findings suggest an inverse relationship between the HPA-axis and BDNF in female suicide attempters. Moreover, concentration difficulties may be associated with low BDNF and DST non-suppression in female suicide attempters.
  • Ambrus, Livia, et al. (författare)
  • Inverse association between serum albumin and depressive symptoms among drug-free individuals with a recent suicide attempt
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry. - : Informa Healthcare. - 1502-4725 .- 0803-9488. ; 73:4-5, s. 229-232
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND AND AIM: Albumin is a protein with multifaceted functions in the human body. According to many studies, lower serum albumin may be associated with depression in various groups of psychiatric and non-psychiatric patients, as well as with attempted suicide. As more severe depressive symptoms have been identified as a reliable risk factor for suicide in patients with high suicide risk, it would be of interest to study whether, the inverse association between depressive symptoms and albumin may exist among patients with attempted suicide. Therefore, the aim of the study was to investigate the possible association between albumin and depressive symptoms among individuals who recently attempted suicide.METHODS: One-hundred twenty-seven individuals with a recent suicide attempt were involved in the study between 1987 and 2001. Albumin was analyzed in serum. Patients were evaluated with the Comprehensive Psychopathological Rating Scale (CPRS) from which the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) and the item assessing Apparent sadness were derived.RESULTS: Only among patients aged ≥45, serum albumin levels were significantly and negatively correlated with total scores of MADRS and the item Apparent sadness (all p values <.00625).CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate an inverse association between serum albumin and the severity of depressive symptoms in individuals who attempted suicide, older than 45 years.
  • Anckarsäter, Henrik, 1966, et al. (författare)
  • Autism spectrum disorders in institutionalized subjects.
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry. - : Informa UK Limited. - 0803-9488 .- 1502-4725. ; 62:2, s. 160-167
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • What do we know about the prevalence and the specific features of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) among subjects in forensic psychiatry and special youth centres? A clinical case series consisting of 42 subjects with ASD, recruited from three well-characterized populations in forensic psychiatry and special youth care, was used to determine: 1) the prevalence of ASD in these institutions (at least 13%), 2) the distribution of diagnostic criteria in this special population (mostly social interaction and communication problems, few or atypical flexibility problems), 3) the degree of comorbidity (the rule rather than the exception), 4) neuropsychological test profiles (lowered IQ with uneven profiles), 5) types of crimes and offences (very heterogeneous, often stress-related with dissociated features), 6) mental health care needs (high), and 7) special clinical features (especially expressions of flexibility deficits in non-classical areas and proneness to dissociation). This descriptive study indicates that ASD is a clinically relevant problem among forensic populations that has to be considered in diagnostics, assessments of needs and treatment planning.
  • Andersson, Gerhard, 1966-, et al. (författare)
  • Screening of psychiatric disorders via the Internet. A pilot study with tinnitus patients
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry. - : Informa UK Limited. - 0803-9488 .- 1502-4725. ; 58:4, s. 287-291
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Tinnitus has been associated with psychiatric disorders and more recently diagnostic tools have been used in a systematic manner. In the present study, we administered the World Health Organisation's Composite International Diagnostic Interview - Short form (CIDI-SF) in a computerized Internet-based version to a self-selected sample of tinnitus patients (n=48). Using the cut-off for 'probable case' (12-month prevalence), 69% of the tinnitus patients fulfilled the criteria for depression, 60% for generalized anxiety disorder, 83% for specific phobia, 67% for social phobia, 58% for agoraphobia, 21% panic attack, 83% obsessive - compulsive disorder, 2% alcohol dependence and 0% drug dependence. Decreased percentages were found for depression (4%), specific phobia (62%) and social phobia (27%) when applying a more conservative criteria (maximum case criteria). In conclusion, the findings suggest that the Internet version of CIDI-SF can be used as a screening tool for psychiatric disturbance in somatic patients, but that diagnostic criteria need to be adjusted for Internet use.
  • Andre, Kadri, et al. (författare)
  • SERT and NET polymorphisms, temperament and antidepressant response
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry. - : Informa UK Limited. - 0803-9488 .- 1502-4725. ; 69:7, s. 531-538
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: The genetic variations in norepinephrine transporter (NET) and serotonin transporter (SERT) genes have been associated with personality traits, several psychiatric disorders and the efficacy of antidepressant treatment. Aims: We investigated the separate effects and possible interactions between NET T-182C (rs2242446) and SERT 5-HTTLPR (rs4795541) polymorphisms on selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) treatment response and temperamental traits assessed by the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) in a clinical sample of subjects with major depressive disorder (MDD). Methods: Our sample of 97 patients with major depression completed the 107-item TCI temperament questionnaire (version IX) at the initial assessment of the study and after 6 weeks of follow-up. All subjects received selective SSRI medications. Temperament dimension scores at baseline (1) and endpoint (2) during antidepressant treatment were analyzed between NET and SERT genotypes. Results: SS-genotype of 5-HTTLPR was associated with higher baseline Persistence scores than SL- or LL-genotype. A corresponding but weaker association was found at endpoint. No differences were found between 5-HTTLPR genotypes and other temperament dimensions and 5-HTTLPR genotypes had no effect on treatment response. Conclusions: Our results suggest that the SS-genotype of 5-HTTLPR is associated with Persistence scores in patients with MDD. Higher Persistence could be viewed as a negative trait when recovering from stress and its association with short and "weaker" S-allele may be related to less efficient serotonin neurotransmission, possibly resulting in less effective coping strategies on a behavioral level.
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