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Sökning: L773:0903 1936 OR L773:1399 3003

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1.
  • Wang, Gang, et al. (författare)
  • Assessment of chronic bronchitis and risk factors in young adults : results from BAMSE
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: European Respiratory Journal. - Stockholm : Karolinska Institutet, Dept of Clinical Science and Education, Södersjukhuset. - 0903-1936 .- 1399-3003.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Chronic bronchitis is associated with substantial morbidity among elderly adults, but little is known about its prevalence and risk factors in young adults. Our aim was to assess the prevalence and early life risk factors for chronic bronchitis in young adults. METHODS: Questionnaire data and clinical measures from the 24-year follow-up of the Swedish BAMSE cohort were used. We assessed chronic bronchitis (CB) as the combination of cough and mucus production in the morning during winter. Environmental and clinical data from birth and onwards were used for analyses of risk factors. RESULTS: At the 24-year follow-up, 75% (n=3064) participants completed the questionnaire and 2030 performed spirometry. The overall prevalence of CB was 5.5% (n=158) with similar estimates in males and females. Forty-nine percent of CB cases experienced more than 3 self-reported respiratory infections in the last year compared to 18% in non-CB subjects (p<0.001), and 37% of cases were current smokers (versus 19%). Statistically significant lower post-FEV(1)/FVC were observed in CB compared to non-CB subjects (mean z-score -0.06 versus 0.13, p=0.027). Daily smoking (adjusted Odds Ratio, aOR=3.85, p<0.001), air pollution exposure (black carbon during ages 1-4 years old, aOR=1.71 per 1 μg·m(3) increase, p=0.009) and exclusive breast-feeding during four months or more (aOR=0.66, p=0.044) were associated with CB. CONCLUSION: Chronic bronchitis in young adults is associated with recurrent respiratory infections. Besides smoking, our results support role of early life exposures, such as air pollution and exclusive breast-feeding, for respiratory health later in life.
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  • Nordenhäll, C, et al. (författare)
  • Airway inflammation following exposure to diesel exhaust : a study of time kinetics using induced sputum
  • 2000
  • Ingår i: European Respiratory Journal. - : European Respiratory Society (ERS). - 0903-1936 .- 1399-3003. ; 15:6, s. 1046-1051
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The adverse health effects of particulate matter pollution are of increasing concern. In a recent bronchoscopic study in healthy volunteers, pronounced airway inflammation was detected following exposure to diesel exhaust (DE). The present study was conducted in order to evaluate the time kinetics of the inflammatory response following exposure to DE using induced sputum from healthy volunteers. Fifteen healthy nonsmoking volunteers were exposed to DE particles with a 50% cut-off aerodynamic diameter of 10 microm 300 microg x m(-3) and air for 1 h on two separate occasions. Sputum induction with hypertonic saline was performed 6 and 24 h after each exposure. Analyses of sputum differential cell counts and soluble protein concentrations were performed. Six hours after exposure to DE, a significant increase was found in the percentage of sputum neutrophils (37.7 versus 26.2% p=0.002) together with increases in the concentrations of interleukin-6 (12.0 versus 6.3 pg x mL(-1), p=0.006) and methylhistamine (0.11 versus 0.12 microg x L(-1), p=0.024). Irrespective of exposure, a significant increase was found in the percentage of sputum neutrophils at 24 as compared to 6 h, indicating that the procedure of sputum induction itself may change the composition of sputum. This study demonstrates that exposure to diesel exhaust induces inflammatory response in healthy human airways, represented by an early increase in interleukin-6 and methylhistamine concentration and the percentage of neutrophils. Induced sputum provides a safe tool for the investigation of the inflammatory effects of diesel exhaust, but care must be taken when interpreting results from repeated sputum inductions.
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  • Riikjarv, M.-A., et al. (författare)
  • Similar prevalence of respiratory symptoms and atopy in estonian schoolchildren with changing lifestyle over 4 yrs
  • 2000
  • Ingår i: European Respiratory Journal. - : European Respiratory Society (ERS). - 0903-1936 .- 1399-3003. ; 16:1, s. 86-90
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The prevalence of allergic sensitization and clinical manifestations is low in Eastern Europe, despite a continuous increase in industrialized countries with a market economy. The aim of the present study was to study changes in the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and atopic sensitization over time among schoolchildren in Estonia, in relation to environmental changes as the country transformed into a market economy. A cross-sectional study of 10-yr-old children was carried out between October 1996 and April 1997, employing a questionnaire regarding the prevalence of wheezing, rhinitis and itching rash (n=979) and skin-prick tests with seven inhalant allergens (n=640). The results were compared with those of a similar study performed in 19921993. The 12-month prevalence of wheeze was 8.3%, as compared to 9.4% in 1992-1993 (NS) and of asthma was 2.5 versus 3.2% (NS). The prevalence of a positive skin-prick test result was 14.3% in both studies. Furthermore, the prevalence of sensitivity to the individual allergens was similar, except for a significantly higher prevalence of dog sensitivity in 1996-1997 (4.7 versus 2.0%). The prevalence of respiratory and other potentially allergic symptoms, as well as the prevalence of atopic sensitization, remains low in Estonian 10-yr-old children, despite a changing lifestyle over the past 4 yrs. This could indicate that the time period was too short for environmental changes to affect the prevalence of allergy, or alternatively that risk factors associated with a 'western lifestyle' are of particular significance earlier in life. (C)ERS Journals Ltd 2000.
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  • Zetterquist, W, et al. (författare)
  • Salivary contribution to exhaled nitric oxide
  • 1999
  • Ingår i: The European respiratory journal. - : European Respiratory Society (ERS). - 0903-1936 .- 1399-3003. ; 13:2, s. 327-333
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)
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