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  • Backman, Helena, et al. (författare)
  • Respiratory symptoms as risk factors for mortality – the Nordic EpiLung Study
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: European Respiratory Journal. - : European Respiratory Society (ERS). - 0903-1936 .- 1399-3003. ; 56:Suppl 64
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Background: Little is known on associations between respiratory symptoms and mortality.Aim: To study whether respiratory symptoms are risk factors for all-cause, respiratory, cardiovascular (CV), and cancer mortality in Sweden and Norway.Methods: In 1995-1997, population samples (20-69y) were surveyed about respiratory symptoms, and n=7,104 (85.3% of invited, median age 45y) and n=54,240 (70.1%, 44y) participated within the OLIN Studies in Northern Sweden and the HUNT Study in Norway. Mortality was studied until December 31st 2015. Hazard ratios (HR) for associations between respiratory symptoms and mortality were estimated by Cox regression models adjusted for age, sex, educational level, and smoking habits.Results: The cumulative 20-year mortality was 14.5% in OLIN and 12.6% in HUNT. Dyspnea (mMRC grade≥2) (HR 1.9, 95%CI 1.6-2.2 in OLIN and 1.6, 1.5-1.7 in HUNT), chronic productive cough (1.5, 1.3-1.8 and 1.5, 1.3-1.6), and wheeze (1.3, 1.1-1.5 and 1.3, 1.2-1.4) were associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality. Women reported dyspnea and wheeze more frequently than men in both countries, but the association with mortality was similar in both sexes. Causes of death were studied in OLIN, where dyspnea associated with increased risk of respiratory (3.6, 2.1-6.1), CV (2.1, 1.6-2.7), and cancer (1.3, 1.0-1.8) mortality. Chronic productive cough was associated with increased risk of respiratory (2.4, 1.3-4.3) and cancer (1.6, 1.2-2.2) mortality, while wheeze was associated with increased risk of respiratory (3.5, 2.1-5.7) and CV (1.3, 1.0-1.6) mortality.Conclusions: Common respiratory symptoms were similarly associated with increased risk of mortality in adults in Sweden and Norway.
  • Backman, Helena, et al. (författare)
  • Risk factors for severe asthma among adults with asthma
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: European Respiratory Journal. - : European Respiratory Society (ERS). - 0903-1936 .- 1399-3003. ; 56:Suppl 64
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Background: Severe asthma is a considerable challenge for patients, health care professionals and society, but there are few long-term studies on risk factors for severe asthma.Aim: To identify baseline risk factors of severe asthma in a longitudinal adult asthma cohort study.Methods: An adult asthma cohort was identified in 1986-2001 by clinical examinations of population samples within the OLIN studies in northern Sweden. The examinations included structured interviews, spirometry with reversibility testing, skin prick testing and metacholine challenge. The cohort was followed up in 2012-2014 when n=1006 participated (mean age 59y). Adjusted Risk Ratios (RR) for baseline factors as risk factors for GINA defined severe asthma (SA) at follow-up (n=51) were estimated by Poisson regression.Results: Older age, impaired lung function, increased reversibility and hyperreactivity, asthmatic wheeze, persistent wheeze, nighttime awakenings due to respiratory symptoms, and dyspnea were significant baseline risk factors for SA. Allergic sensitization, smoking, occupational groups or BMI did not predict SA. When adjusted for age, sex and smoking, post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC<0.7, both present at baseline (RR 4.2, 95%CI 1.8-9.9) and developed during follow-up (2.9, 1.6-5.3), increased the risk. Also FEV1<80% at baseline associated with SA (2.9, 1.6-5.2). Triggers for respiratory symptoms at baseline such as tobacco smoke (2.1, 1.2-3.7) and physical activity (3.5, 1.5-81) associated with SA at follow-up, while pollen and furry animals did not.Conclusion: Among adults with asthma, impaired lung function, wheeze, dyspnea and nighttime awakenings due to respiratory symptoms are important long-term risk factors for severe asthma.
  • Backman, Helena, et al. (författare)
  • Severe asthma among adults : Prevalence and clinical characteristics
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: European Respiratory Journal. - : European Respiratory Society. - 0903-1936 .- 1399-3003. ; 52
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Background: Severe asthma is a considerable challenge for patients, health care professionals and society. Few studies have estimated the prevalence of severe asthma according to modern definitions of which none based on a population study.Methods: We estimated the prevalence and studied characteristics of severe asthma in a large adult population-based asthma cohort followed for 10-28 years in northern Sweden: 1006 subjects participated in a follow-up during 2012-14, when 830 (82.5%) still had current asthma (mean age 59y, 32-92y, 56% women). Severe asthma was defined according to three internationally well-known criteria: the US SARP, ATS/ERS and GINA. All subjects with severe asthma were undergoing respiratory specialist care, and were also contacted by telephone to verify adherence to treatment.Results: The prevalence of severe asthma according to the three definitions was 3.6% (US SARP), 4.8% (ERS/ATS), and 6.1% (GINA) among subjects with current asthma. Although all were using high ICS doses and other maintenance treatment, >40% had uncontrolled asthma and <10% had controlled asthma according to the ACT. Severe asthma was related to age >50 years, nasal polyposis, decreased FEV1, not fully reversible airway obstruction, sensitization to aspergillus, elevated neutrophils and partly to eosinophils, and tended to be more common in women.Conclusion: The prevalence of severe asthma in this asthma cohort was 4-6%, corresponding to approximately 0.5% of the population in northern Sweden. A substantial proportion of those with severe asthma had uncontrolled disease, and severe asthma differed significantly from other asthma in terms of both clinical and inflammatory characteristics.
  • Bakke, PS, et al. (författare)
  • Recommendations for epidemiological studies on COPD
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: European Respiratory Journal. - : European Respiratory Society (ERS). - 1399-3003 .- 0903-1936. ; 38:6, s. 1261-1277
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has been extensively studied, especially in Western Europe and North America. Few of these data are directly comparable because of differences between the surveys regarding composition of study populations, diagnostic criteria of the disease and definitions of the risk factors. Few community studies have examined phenotypes of COPD and included other ways of characterising the disease beyond that of spirometry. The objective of the present Task Force report is to present recommendations for the performance of general population studies in COPD in order to facilitate comparable and valid estimates on COPD prevalence by various risk factors. Diagnostic criteria in epidemiological settings, and standardised methods to examine the disease and its potential risk factors are discussed. The paper also offers practical advice for planning and performing an epidemiological study on COPD. The main message of the paper is that thorough planning is worth half the study. It is crucial to stick to standardised methods and good quality control during sampling. We recommend collecting biological markers, depending on the specific objectives of the study. Finally, studies of COPD in the population at large should assess various phenotypes of the disease
  • Bakolis, I, et al. (författare)
  • Respiratory health and endotoxin : associations and modification by CD14/-260 genotype
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: European Respiratory Journal. - : European Respiratory Society (ERS). - 0903-1936 .- 1399-3003. ; 39:3, s. 573-581
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Exposure to endotoxin has been associated with increased respiratory symptoms and decrements in lung function in occupational settings but little is known about health effects of domestic exposure in adults. We describe the association of respiratory disease, IgE sensitisation, bronchial reactivity and lung function with mattress endotoxin levels in adults and determine whether these associations are modified by polymorphisms in CD14.Endotoxin levels in mattress dust from a population based sample of 972 adults were measured. Associations were examined using generalized linear mixed models, adjusting for individual and household confounders. Effect modification of these associations by CD14/-260 (rs2569190) was assessed.Mattress endotoxin levels varied from 0.1 to 402.6 EU·mg(-1). Although there was no overall association of lung function with endotoxin exposure, there was evidence that the association of FEV1 and FVC with endotoxin was modified by CD14/-260 genotype (p for interaction 0.005 and 0.013 respectively). There was no evidence that symptoms, IgE sensitisation or bronchial reactivity was associated with mattress endotoxin levels.In this large epidemiological study of adults there was no evidence that mattress endotoxin level was associated with respiratory symptoms or IgE sensitisation but the association of lung function with endotoxin levels may be modified by CD14-genotype.
  • Balgoma, D, et al. (författare)
  • Linoleic acid-derived lipid mediators increase in a female-dominated subphenotype of COPD
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: The European respiratory journal. - : European Respiratory Society (ERS). - 1399-3003 .- 0903-1936. ; 47:6, s. 1645-1656
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a leading cause of mortality; however, the role of inflammatory mediators in its pathobiology remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of gender in COPD on lipid mediator levels.Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and serum were obtained from healthy never-smokers, smokers and COPD patients (Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease stage I–II/A–B) (n=114). 94 lipid mediators derived from the cytochrome-P450, lipoxygenase, and cyclooxygenase pathways were analysed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.Multivariate modelling identified a 9-lipid panel in BALF that classified female smokers with COPD from healthy female smokers (p=6×10−6). No differences were observed for the corresponding male population (p=1.0). These findings were replicated in an independent cohort with 92% accuracy (p=0.005). The strongest drivers were the cytochrome P450-derived epoxide products of linoleic acid (leukotoxins) and their corresponding soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH)-derived products (leukotoxin-diols). These species correlated with lung function (r=0.87; p=0.0009) and mRNA levels of enzymes putatively involved in their biosynthesis (r=0.96; p=0.003). Leukotoxin levels correlated with goblet cell abundance (r=0.72; p=0.028).These findings suggest a mechanism by which goblet cell-associated cytochrome-P450 and sEH activity produce elevated leukotoxin-diol levels, which play a putative role in the clinical manifestations of COPD in a female-dominated disease sub-phenotype.
  • Bals, Robert, et al. (författare)
  • Electronic cigarettes : a task force report from the European Respiratory Society
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: European Respiratory Journal. - : EUROPEAN RESPIRATORY SOC JOURNALS LTD. - 0903-1936 .- 1399-3003. ; 53:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • There is a marked increase in the development and use of electronic nicotine delivery systems or electronic cigarettes (ECIGs). This statement covers electronic cigarettes (ECIGs), defined as "electrical devices that generate an aerosol from a liquid" and thus excludes devices that contain tobacco. Database searches identified published articles that were used to summarise the current knowledge on the epidemiology of ECIG use; their ingredients and accompanied health effects; second-hand exposure; use of ECIGs for smoking cessation; behavioural aspects of ECIGs and social impact; in vitro and animal studies; and user perspectives. ECIG aerosol contains potentially toxic chemicals. As compared to conventional cigarettes, these are fewer and generally in lower concentrations. Second-hand exposures to ECIG chemicals may represent a potential risk, especially to vulnerable populations. There is not enough scientific evidence to support ECIGs as an aid to smoking cessation due to a lack of controlled trials, including those that compare ECIGs with licenced stop-smoking treatments. So far, there are conflicting data that use of ECIGs results in a renormalisation of smoking behaviour or for the gateway hypothesis. Experiments in cell cultures and animal studies show that ECIGs can have multiple negative effects. The long-term effects of ECIG use are unknown, and there is therefore no evidence that ECIGs are safer than tobacco in the long term. Based on current knowledge, negative health effects cannot be ruled out.
  • Barbato, A, et al. (författare)
  • Primary ciliary dyskinesia: a consensus statement on diagnostic and treatment approaches in children.
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: The European respiratory journal : official journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology. - : European Respiratory Society (ERS). - 0903-1936. ; 34:6, s. 1264-76
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is associated with abnormal ciliary structure and function, which results in retention of mucus and bacteria in the respiratory tract, leading to chronic oto-sino-pulmonary disease, situs abnormalities and abnormal sperm motility. The diagnosis of PCD requires the presence of the characteristic clinical phenotype and either specific ultrastructural ciliary defects identified by transmission electron microscopy or evidence of abnormal ciliary function. Although the management of children affected with PCD remains uncertain and evidence is limited, it remains important to follow-up these patients with an adequate and shared care system in order to prevent future lung damage. This European Respiratory Society consensus statement on the management of children with PCD formulates recommendations regarding diagnostic and therapeutic approaches in order to permit a more accurate approach in these patients. Large well-designed randomised controlled trials, with clear description of patients, are required in order to improve these recommendations on diagnostic and treatment approaches in this disease.
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