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Sökning: L773:1399 3003 OR L773:0903 1936

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  • Behndig, Annelie, et al. (författare)
  • Airway antioxidant and inflammatory responses to diesel exhaust exposure in healthy humans.
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: European Respiratory Journal. - : European Respiratory Society (ERS). - 0903-1936 .- 1399-3003. ; 27:2, s. 359-365
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Pulmonary cells exposed to diesel exhaust (DE) particles in vitro respond in a hierarchical fashion with protective antioxidant responses predominating at low doses and inflammation and injury only occurring at higher concentrations. In the present study, the authors examined whether similar responses occurred in vivo, specifically whether antioxidants were upregulated following a low-dose DE challenge and investigated how these responses related to the development of airway inflammation at different levels of the respiratory tract where particle dose varies markedly. A total of 15 volunteers were exposed to DE (100 microg x m(-3) airborne particulate matter with a diameter of <10 microm for 2 h) and air in a double-blinded, randomised fashion. At 18 h post-exposure, bronchoscopy was performed with lavage and mucosal biopsies taken to assess airway redox and inflammatory status. Following DE exposure, the current authors observed an increase in bronchial mucosa neutrophil and mast cell numbers, as well as increased neutrophil numbers, interleukin-8 and myeloperoxidase concentrations in bronchial lavage. No inflammatory responses were seen in the alveolar compartment, but both reduced glutathione and urate concentrations were increased following diesel exposure. In conclusion, the lung inflammatory response to diesel exhaust is compartmentalised, related to differing antioxidant responses in the conducting airway and alveolar regions.
  • Bentayeb, Malek, et al. (författare)
  • Indoor air quality, ventilation and respiratory health in elderly residents Living in nursing homes in Europe
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: European Respiratory Journal. - : European Respiratory Society (ERS). - 0903-1936 .- 1399-3003. ; 45:5, s. 1228-1238
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Few data exist on respiratory effects of indoor air quality and comfort parameters in the elderly. In the context of the GERIE study, we investigated for the first time the relationships of these factors to respiratory morbidity among elderly people permanently living in nursing homes in seven European countries. 600 elderly people from 50 nursing homes underwent a medical examination and completed a standardised questionnaire. Air quality and comfort parameters were objectively assessed in situ in the nursing home. Mean concentrations of air pollutants did not exceed the existing standards. Forced expiratory volume in 1 s/forced vital capacity ratio was highly significantly related to elevated levels of particles with a 50% cut-off aerodynamic diameter of <0.1 mu m (PM0.1) (adjusted OR 8.16, 95% CI 2.24-29.3) and nitrogen dioxide (aOR 3.74, 95% CI 1.06-13.1). Excess risks for usual breathlessness and cough were found with elevated PM10 (aOR 1.53 (95% CI 1.15-2.07) and aOR 1.73 (95% CI 1.17-10.3), respectively) and nitrogen dioxide (aOR 1.58 (95% CI 1.15-2.20) and aOR 1.56 (95% CI 1.03-2.41), respectively). Excess risks for wheeze in the past year were found with PM0.1 (aOR 2.82, 95% CI 1.15-7.02) and for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and exhaled carbon monoxide with formaldehyde (aOR 3.49 (95% CI 1.17-10.3) and aOR 1.25 (95% CI 1.02-1.55), respectively). Breathlessness and cough were associated with higher carbon dioxide. Relative humidity was inversely related to wheeze in the past year and usual cough. Elderly subjects aged >= 80 years were at higher risk. Pollutant effects were more pronounced in the case of poor ventilation. Even at low levels, indoor air quality affected respiratory health in elderly people permanently living in nursing homes, with frailty increasing with age. The effects were modulated by ventilation.
  • Bergdahl, I A, et al. (författare)
  • Increased mortality in COPD among construction workers exposed to inorganic dust.
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: European Respiratory Journal. - 0903-1936 .- 1399-3003. ; 23:3, s. 402-406
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aim of this study was to find out if occupational exposure to dust, fumes or gases, especially among never-smokers, increased the mortality from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). A cohort of 317,629 Swedish male construction workers was followed from 1971 to 1999. Exposure to inorganic dust (asbestos, man-made mineral fibres, dust from cement, concrete and quartz), gases and irritants (epoxy resins, isocyanates and organic solvents), fumes (asphalt fumes, diesel exhaust and metal fumes), and wood dust was based on a job-exposure matrix. An internal control group with "unexposed" construction workers was used, and the analyses were adjusted for age and smoking. When all subjects were analysed, there was an increased mortality from COPD among those with any airborne exposure (relative risk 1.12 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03-1.22)). In a Poisson regression model, including smoking, age and the major exposure groups, exposure to inorganic dust was associated with an increased risk (hazard ratio (HR) 1.10 (95% CI 1.06-1.14)), especially among never-smokers (HR 2.30 (95% CI 1.07-4.96)). The fraction of COPD among the exposed attributable to any airborne exposure was estimated as 10.7% overall and 52.6% among never-smokers. In conclusion, occupational exposure among construction workers increases mortality due to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, even among never-smokers.
  • Bergqvist, Matilda, et al. (författare)
  • Dynamic and static quadriceps muscle endurance in people with COPD and healthy age and gender-matched controls
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: European Respiratory Journal. - : European Respiratory Society. - 0903-1936 .- 1399-3003. ; 54:suppl 63
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Introduction: It is commonly known that quadriceps muscle endurance is decreased among people with COPD, however, whether static and dynamic quadriceps muscle endurance is affected to the same extent, remains to be determined. The latter of importance for the design of exercise modalities targeting quadriceps endurance in COPD.Methods: Static (isometric) and dynamic (isokinetic, isotonic) measurements of quadriceps muscle endurance was performed using a computerized dynamometer on 30 of individuals with COPD (FEV1 63% predicted) and 30 healthy age and gender-matched controls. Test order was randomized, separated by 30 min of rest. Comparisons between groups included both relative (seconds/repetitions) and absolute (total work [Nm]) measures of quadriceps endurance. Between-group results are presented as percentage difference (%) and effect sizes (ES).Results: When compared to healthy age and gender matched controls, people with COPD had significantly lower absolute measures of quadriceps endurance (isometric -32%, ES 0.66 [moderate]; isokinetic -29%, ES 0.94 [large], isotonic -38%, ES 0.89 [large], all p <0.05) as well as lower relative measures of dynamic quadriceps endurance (isotonic [repetitions] -20%, ES 0.50 [moderate], p = 0.02) while static quadriceps endurance did not differ between groups (isometric [seconds] -3%, ES 0.06 [trivial], p = 0.617).Conclusion: As evident by larger ES, dynamic quadriceps endurance seems to be reduced to a larger extent than static quadriceps endurance in people with COPD. Thus, exercise modalities that aim to improve quadriceps endurance should preferably be designed to increase dynamic quadriceps muscle enduranceFootnotesCite this article as: European Respiratory Journal 2019; 54: Suppl. 63, OA3814.This is an ERS International Congress abstract. No full-text version is available. Further material to accompany this abstract may be available at www.ers-education.org (ERS member access only).
  • Biselli, P., et al. (författare)
  • Reductions in dead space ventilation with nasal high flow depend on physiological dead space volume: metabolic hood measurements during sleep in patients with COPD and controls
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: European Respiratory Journal. - : European Respiratory Society (ERS). - 0903-1936 .- 1399-3003. ; 51:5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Nasal high flow (NHF) reduces minute ventilation and ventilatory loads during sleep but the mechanisms are not clear. We hypothesised NHF reduces ventilation in proportion to physiological but not anatomical dead space. 11 subjects (five controls and six chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients) underwent polysomnography with transcutaneous carbon dioxide (CO2) monitoring under a metabolic hood. During stable non-rapid eye movement stage 2 sleep, subjects received NHF (20 L center dot min(-1)) intermittently for periods of 5-10 min. We measured CO2 production and calculated dead space ventilation. Controls and COPD patients responded similarly to NHF. NHF reduced minute ventilation (from 5.6 +/- 0.4 to 4.8 +/- 0.4 L center dot min(-1); p< 0.05) and tidal volume (from 0.34 +/- 0.03 to 0.3 +/- 0.03 L; p< 0.05) without a change in energy expenditure, transcutaneous CO2 or alveolar ventilation. There was a significant decrease in dead space ventilation (from 2.5 +/- 0.4 to 1.6 +/- 0.4 L center dot min(-1); p< 0.05), but not in respiratory rate. The reduction in dead space ventilation correlated with baseline physiological dead space fraction (r(2)=0.36; p< 0.05), but not with respiratory rate or anatomical dead space volume. During sleep, NHF decreases minute ventilation due to an overall reduction in dead space ventilation in proportion to the extent of baseline physiological dead space fraction.
  • Blanc, P D, et al. (författare)
  • Occupational exposures and COPD: an ecological analysis of international data.
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: The European respiratory journal : official journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology. - : European Respiratory Society (ERS). - 1399-3003. ; 33:2, s. 298-304
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The occupational contribution to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has yet to be put in a global perspective. In the present study, an ecological approach to this question was used, analysing group-level data from 90 sex-specific strata from 45 sites of the Burden of Obstructive Lung Disease study, the Latin American Project for the Investigation of Obstructive Lung Disease and the European Community Respiratory Health Survey follow-up. These data were used to study the association between occupational exposures and COPD Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) stage II or above. Regression analysis of the sex-specific group-level prevalence rates of COPD at each site against the prevalence of occupational exposure and ever-smoking was performed, taking into account mean smoking pack-yrs and mean age by site, sex, study cohort and sample size. For the entire data set, the prevalence of exposures predicted COPD prevalence (0.8% increase in COPD prevalence per 10% increase in exposure prevalence). By comparison, for every 10% increase in the proportion of the ever-smoking population, the prevalence of COPD GOLD stage II or above increased by 1.3%. Given the observed median population COPD prevalence of 3.4%, the model predicted that a 20% relative reduction in the disease burden (i.e. to a COPD prevalence of 2.7%) could be achieved by a 5.4% reduction in overall smoking rates or an 8.8% reduction in the prevalence of occupational exposures. When the data set was analysed by sex-specific site data, among males, the occupational effect was a 0.8% COPD prevalence increase per 10% change in exposure prevalence; among females, a 1.0% increase in COPD per 10% change in exposure prevalence was observed. Within the limitations of an ecological analysis, these findings support a worldwide association between dusty trades and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease for both females and males, placing this within the context of the dominant role of cigarette smoking in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease causation.
  • Borisov, SE, et al. (författare)
  • Effectiveness and safety of bedaquiline-containing regimens in the treatment of MDR- and XDR-TB: a multicentre study
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: The European respiratory journal. - : European Respiratory Society (ERS). - 1399-3003 .- 0903-1936. ; 49:5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Large studies on bedaquiline used to treat multidrug-resistant (MDR-) and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) are lacking. This study aimed to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of bedaquiline-containing regimens in a large, retrospective, observational study conducted in 25 centres and 15 countries in five continents.428 culture-confirmed MDR-TB cases were analysed (61.5% male; 22.1% HIV-positive, 45.6% XDR-TB). MDR-TB cases were admitted to hospital for a median (interquartile range (IQR)) 179 (92–280) days and exposed to bedaquiline for 168 (86–180) days. Treatment regimens included, among others, linezolid, moxifloxacin, clofazimine and carbapenems (82.0%, 58.4%, 52.6% and 15.3% of cases, respectively).Sputum smear and culture conversion rates in MDR-TB cases were 63.6% and 30.1%, respectively at 30 days, 81.1% and 56.7%, respectively at 60 days; 85.5% and 80.5%, respectively at 90 days and 88.7% and 91.2%, respectively at the end of treatment. The median (IQR) time to smear and culture conversion was 34 (30–60) days and 60 (33–90) days. Out of 247 culture-confirmed MDR-TB cases completing treatment, 71.3% achieved success (62.4% cured; 8.9% completed treatment), 13.4% died, 7.3% defaulted and 7.7% failed. Bedaquiline was interrupted due to adverse events in 5.8% of cases. A single case died, having electrocardiographic abnormalities that were probably non-bedaquiline related.Bedaquiline-containing regimens achieved high conversion and success rates under different nonexperimental conditions.
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