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Sökning: L773:1468 330X > (2010-2014)

  • Resultat 41-50 av 52
  • Föregående 1234[5]6Nästa
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41.
  • Pyykkö, O. T., et al. (författare)
  • APOE4 predicts amyloid-β in cortical brain biopsy but not idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry. - : BMJ. - 0022-3050 .- 1468-330X. ; 83:11, s. 1119-1124
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: To investigate the association of apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype, especially the APOE4 allele, to (1) idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) and (2) amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques in cortical brain biopsies of presumed NPH patients with and without a final clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Methods: 202 patients with presumed NPH were evaluated by intraventricular pressure monitoring and frontal cortical biopsy immunostained against Aβ (134 semiquantified by Aβ plaques/mm 2). The 202 patients and 687 cognitively healthy individuals were genotyped for APOE. The final clinical diagnoses in a median follow-up of 3.9 years were: 113 iNPH (94 shunt responsive, 16 shunt non-responsive, three not shunted); 36 AD (12 mixed iNPH + AD); 53 others. Results: The APOE genotypes distributed similarly in the 94 shunt responsive and 16 non-responsive iNPH patients and healthy controls. In multivariate analysis, the APOE4 allele correlated independently with Aβ plaques in the cortical biopsies (OR 8.7, 95% CI 3.6 to 20, p<0.001). The APOE4 allele in presumed NPH predicted later AD as follows: sensitivity 61%; specificity 77%; positive predictive value 37%; negative predictive value 90%. Conclusion: In presumed NPH patients, APOE4 associates independently with the presence of Aβ plaques in the frontal cortical biopsy. APOE4 is not a risk factor for iNPH and does not predict the response to shunt. Our data further support the view that the iNPH syndrome is a distinct dementing disease.
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42.
  • Qvarlander, Sara, et al. (författare)
  • Pulsatility in CSF dynamics : pathophysiology of idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry. - : BMJ Publishing Group. - 0022-3050 .- 1468-330X. ; 84:7, s. 735-741
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: It is suggested that disturbed CSF dynamics are involved in the pathophysiology of idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (INPH). The pulsatility curve describes the relationship between intracranial pressure (ICP) and the amplitude of cardiac related ICP pulsations. The position of baseline ICP on the curve provides information about the physiological state of the CSF dynamic system. The objective of the study was to investigate if shunt surgery modifies the pulsatility curve and the baseline position on the curve, and how this relates to gait improvement in INPH.Methods: 51 INPH patients were investigated with lumbar CSF dynamic investigations preoperatively and 5 months after shunt surgery. During the investigation, ICP was measured at baseline, and then a CSF sample was removed, resulting in pressure reduction. After this, ICP was regulated with an automated infusion protocol, with a maximum increase of 24 mm Hg above baseline. The pulsatility curve was thus determined in a wide range of ICP values. Gait improvement was defined as a gait speed increase >= 0.1 m/s.Results: The pulsatility curve was unaltered by shunting. Baseline ICP and amplitude were reduced (-3.0 +/- 2.9 mm Hg; -1.1 +/- 1.5 mm Hg; p < 0.05, n = 51). Amplitude reduction was larger for gait improvers (-1.2 +/- 1.6 mm Hg, n = 42) than non-improvers (-0.2 +/- 0.5 mm Hg, n = 9) (p < 0.05) although mean ICP reduction did not differ.Conclusions: The pulsatility curve was not modified by shunt surgery, while the baseline position was shifted along the curve. Observed differences between gait improvers and non-improvers support cardiac related ICP pulsations as a component of INPH pathophysiology.
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43.
  • Rydenhag, Bertil, 1954, et al. (författare)
  • Surgical outcomes in patients with epileptogenic tumours and cavernomas in Sweden : good seizure control but late referrals.
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry. - : BMJ. - 0022-3050 .- 1468-330X. ; 84:1, s. 49-53
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • PURPOSE: Seizure outcome after epilepsy surgery is to an important extent related to underlying aetiology. In this study of patients who underwent epilepsy surgery with a lesional aetiology in Sweden 1990-2004, the aim was to investigate seizure outcome and prognostic factors. METHODS: All patients operated on during the time period with a histopathological diagnosis of an epileptogenic tumour (ganglioglioma (GGL), dysembryoblastic neuroepithelial tumour (DNET) and low grade astrocytoma (AST)) or a cavernous haemangioma (CAH) were identified in the population based Swedish National Epilepsy Surgery Register. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to determine the independent contribution of the following variables to seizure outcome: age at surgery; epilepsy duration; preoperative seizure frequency; localisation of the resection; and histopathology. RESULTS: Of the 156 identified patients who had a 2 year follow-up (103 adults and 53 children), 71% had temporal, 16% frontal and 13% parietal and occipital lobe resections. Mean presurgical epilepsy duration was 13 years in adults and 5 years in children. Main histopathological diagnosis was GGL or DNET in 67, CAH in 42 and AST in 47 patients. 77% of patients had sustained seizure freedom (with or without aura) 2 years after surgery. In the multivariate analysis, only diagnosis other than AST was independently associated with becoming seizure free. CONCLUSION: In this population based series, 120/156 patients (77%) with epileptogenic tumours and cavernomas were seizure free 2 years after surgery. Many had a very long epilepsy history. Seizure outcome can be improved if epilepsy surgery is considered earlier in patients with epileptogenic lesions.
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44.
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45.
  • Synofzik, Matthis, et al. (författare)
  • The human G93A SOD1 phenotype closely resembles sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry. - : BMJ. - 0022-3050 .- 1468-330X. ; 81:7, s. 764-767
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Transgenic mouse models of human SOD1 mutations have opened up an area of intense investigation into the pathogenesis of familial and sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). However, the human phenotype of the G93A SOD1 mutation-the most commonly studied mutation in rodent models-has remained essentially unknown. This complicates the interpretation and transfer of results from animal models. Here clinical, electrophysiological and genealogical data are presented from a large German pedigree with a G93A mutation in the SOD1 gene. This pedigree shows a highly homogenous phenotype which closely resembles the typical phenotype of sporadic ALS, thus implicating comparable disease pathology of G93A SOD1 ALS and sporadic ALS.
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46.
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47.
  • van Es, Michael A, et al. (författare)
  • Large-scale SOD1 mutation screening provides evidence for genetic heterogeneity in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry. - : BMJ Publishing Group. - 0022-3050 .- 1468-330X. ; 81:5, s. 562-566
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: To estimate the frequency of SOD1 mutations in a large referral cohort of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (FALS) and sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (SALS) patients from The Netherlands and to compare this frequency with that of other developed countries. METHODS: A total of 451 sporadic and 55 FALS patients were screened for SOD1 mutations. The authors performed PCR amplification of all five coding exons of SOD1 followed by direct DNA sequencing using forward and reverse primers. RESULTS: One novel mutation (p.I99V) and a homozygous p.D90A mutation were identified in SALS patients. In a pedigree with Mendelian dominant FALS, one patient was found to be heterozygous for the p.D90A mutation. SOD1 mutation frequency was found to be significantly lower in The Netherlands compared with other countries with p=0.0004 for FALS (21.9% vs 2.5%) and p=0.005 for SALS (2.5% vs 0.44%). CONCLUSIONS: The authors demonstrate that SOD1 mutations are rare in The Netherlands in familial and SALS. This observation suggests that the genetic background of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis differs between different populations, countries and regions. This may have consequences for the interpretation of association studies and explain why replication of association studies has proven difficult in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.
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48.
  • Verdelho, A., et al. (författare)
  • Depressive symptoms predict cognitive decline and dementia in older people independently of cerebral white matter changes: the LADIS study
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Journal of Neurology Neurosurgery and Psychiatry. - : BMJ. - 0022-3050 .- 1468-330X. ; 84:11, s. 1250-1254
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective Depressive symptoms (DS) have been associated with increased risk of cognitive decline. Our aim was to evaluate the longitudinal influence of DS on cognition in independent older people, accounting for the severity of white matter changes (WMC). Methods The LADIS (Leukoaraiosis And DISability in the elderly) prospective study evaluated the impact of WMC on the transition of independent older subjects into disability. Subjects were evaluated annually over a 3 year period with a comprehensive clinical and neuropsychological evaluation. Previous episodes of depression and current DS were assessed during each interview. Severity of DS was assessed using the self-rated 15 item Geriatric Depression Scale. A neuropsychological battery and clinical criteria for cognitive impairments were applied in all clinical visits, and cognitive compound measures were made based on neuropsychological results. MRI was performed at baseline and at year 3. Results 639 subjects were included (74.1 +/- 5 years old, 55% women, 9.6 +/- 3.8 years of schooling). Dementia was diagnosed in 90 patients and cognitive impairment not dementia in 147 patients at the last clinical evaluation. DS were an independent predictor of cognitive impairment (dementia and not dementia) during follow-up, independent of the effect of the severity of WMC, medial temporal lobe atrophy, age, education or global cognitive function at baseline. Conclusions DS are associated with an increase risk of cognitive decline, independent of the effect of WMC, probably due to an additive or synergistic effect. In this context, DS probably represent a subtle ongoing organic dysfunction
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49.
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50.
  • Warnke, C., et al. (författare)
  • Changes to anti-JCV antibody levels in a Swedish national MS cohort
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Journal of Neurology Neurosurgery and Psychiatry. - : BMJ. - 0022-3050 .- 1468-330X. ; 84:11, s. 1199-1205
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background The anti-JC virus (JCV) antibody status has been introduced to stratify patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) for higher or lower risk of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). Objective To assess the potential utility of anti-JCV antibody levels for earlier diagnosis or prediction of PML. Methods An analytically validated antibody assay was used to determine serological status, normalised optical density values, and dilution titres for anti-JCV antibodies. The method was applied to stored sera of 1157 patients with MS including five cases of PML, all enrolled in the Swedish pharmacovigilance study for natalizumab (NAT). Anticytomegalovirus (CMV) and antivaricella-zoster (VZV) antibody levels served as controls. Results Prior to treatment with NAT, anti-JCV antibody levels were stable in the anti-JCV positive patients. During therapy, a slight decrease in anti-JCV and anti-VZV antibody levels, but not anti-CMV antibody levels, was observed. All five patients who developed PML showed a mild to moderate increase in anti-JCV antibody levels at time of PML diagnosis; pre-PML samples suggested that this increase might start already prior to diagnosis of PML. Conclusions Treatment initiation with NAT may lead to a slight decrease in anti-JCV and anti-VZV antibody levels, suggestive of a mild suppressive effect of NAT on antibody levels. Our findings in five cases of PML demonstrate that the onset of PML can be accompanied by increasing anti-JCV antibodies in serum. Monitoring of anti-JCV antibody levels could potentially be used as a tool for prediction or earlier diagnosis of PML during NAT treatment for MS. Further studies are warranted.
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