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  • Parnetti, Lucilla, et al. (författare)
  • CSF and blood biomarkers for Parkinson's disease.
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: The Lancet. Neurology. - 1474-4465 .- 1474-4422. ; 18:6, s. 573-586
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In the management of Parkinson's disease, reliable diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers are urgently needed. The diagnosis of Parkinson's disease mostly relies on clinical symptoms, which hampers the detection of the earliest phases of the disease-the time at which treatment with forthcoming disease-modifying drugs could have the greatest therapeutic effect. Reliable prognostic markers could help in predicting the response to treatments. Evidence suggests potential diagnostic and prognostic value of CSF and blood biomarkers closely reflecting the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease, such as α-synuclein species, lysosomal enzymes, markers of amyloid and tau pathology, and neurofilament light chain. A combination of multiple CSF biomarkers has emerged as an accurate diagnostic and prognostic model. With respect to early diagnosis, the measurement of CSF α-synuclein aggregates is providing encouraging preliminary results. Blood α-synuclein species and neurofilament light chain are also under investigation because they would provide a non-invasive tool, both for early and differential diagnosis of Parkinson's disease versus atypical parkinsonian disorders, and for disease monitoring. In view of adopting CSF and blood biomarkers for improving Parkinson's disease diagnostic and prognostic accuracy, further validation in large independent cohorts is needed.
  • Roaldsen, M.B., et al. (författare)
  • Safety and efficacy of tenecteplase in patients with wake-up stroke assessed by non-contrast CT (TWIST): a multicentre, open-label, randomised controlled trial
  • 2023
  • Ingår i: The Lancet Neurology. - 1474-4422 .- 1474-4465. ; 22:2, s. 117-126
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Current evidence supports the use of intravenous thrombolysis with alteplase in patients with wake-up stroke selected with MRI or perfusion imaging and is recommended in clinical guidelines. However, access to advanced imaging techniques is often scarce. We aimed to determine whether thrombolytic treatment with intravenous tenecteplase given within 4·5 h of awakening improves functional outcome in patients with ischaemic wake-up stroke selected using non-contrast CT. Methods: TWIST was an investigator-initiated, multicentre, open-label, randomised controlled trial with blinded endpoint assessment, conducted at 77 hospitals in ten countries. We included patients aged 18 years or older with acute ischaemic stroke symptoms upon awakening, limb weakness, a National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score of 3 or higher or aphasia, a non-contrast CT examination of the head, and the ability to receive tenecteplase within 4·5 h of awakening. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to either a single intravenous bolus of tenecteplase 0·25 mg per kg of bodyweight (maximum 25 mg) or control (no thrombolysis) using a central, web-based, computer-generated randomisation schedule. Trained research personnel, who conducted telephone interviews at 90 days (follow-up), were masked to treatment allocation. Clinical assessments were performed on day 1 (at baseline) and day 7 of hospital admission (or at discharge, whichever occurred first). The primary outcome was functional outcome assessed by the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) at 90 days and analysed using ordinal logistic regression in the intention-to-treat population. This trial is registered with EudraCT (2014–000096–80), ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT03181360), and ISRCTN (10601890). Findings: From June 12, 2017, to Sept 30, 2021, 578 of the required 600 patients were enrolled (288 randomly assigned to the tenecteplase group and 290 to the control group [intention-to-treat population]). The median age of participants was 73·7 years (IQR 65·9–81·1). 332 (57%) of 578 participants were male and 246 (43%) were female. Treatment with tenecteplase was not associated with better functional outcome, according to mRS score at 90 days (adjusted OR 1·18, 95% CI 0·88–1·58; p=0·27). Mortality at 90 days did not significantly differ between treatment groups (28 [10%] patients in the tenecteplase group and 23 [8%] in the control group; adjusted HR 1·29, 95% CI 0·74–2·26; p=0·37). Symptomatic intracranial haemorrhage occurred in six (2%) patients in the tenecteplase group versus three (1%) in the control group (adjusted OR 2·17, 95% CI 0·53–8·87; p=0·28), whereas any intracranial haemorrhage occurred in 33 (11%) versus 30 (10%) patients (adjusted OR 1·14, 0·67–1·94; p=0·64). Interpretation: In patients with wake-up stroke selected with non-contrast CT, treatment with tenecteplase was not associated with better functional outcome at 90 days. The number of symptomatic haemorrhages and any intracranial haemorrhages in both treatment groups was similar to findings from previous trials of wake-up stroke patients selected using advanced imaging. Current evidence does not support treatment with tenecteplase in patients selected with non-contrast CT. Funding: Norwegian Clinical Research Therapy in the Specialist Health Services Programme, the Swiss Heart Foundation, the British Heart Foundation, and the Norwegian National Association for Public Health. © 2023 Elsevier Ltd
  • Sorensen, Per Soelberg, et al. (författare)
  • NORdic trial of oral Methylprednisolone as add-on therapy to Interferon beta-1a for treatment of relapsing-remitting Multiple Sclerosis (NORMIMS study) : a randomised, placebo-controlled trial
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Lancet Neurology. - 1474-4422 .- 1474-4465. ; 8:6, s. 519-529
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis with interferon beta is only partly effective, and new more effective and safe strategies are needed. Our aim was to assess the efficacy of oral methylprednisolone as an add-on therapy to subcutaneous interferon beta-1a to reduce the yearly relapse rate in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. METHODS: NORMIMS (NORdic trial of oral Methylprednisolone as add-on therapy to Interferon beta-1a for treatment of relapsing-remitting Multiple Sclerosis) was a randomised, placebo-controlled trial done in 29 neurology departments in Denmark, Norway, Sweden, and Finland. We enrolled outpatients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis who had had at least one relapse within the previous 12 months despite subcutaneous interferon beta-1a treatment (44 microg three times per week). We randomly allocated patients by computer to add-on therapy of either 200 mg methylprednisolone or matching placebo, both given orally on 5 consecutive days every 4 weeks for at least 96 weeks. The primary outcome measure was mean yearly relapse rate. Primary analyses were by intention to treat. This trial is registered, number ISRCTN16202527. FINDINGS: 66 patients were assigned to interferon beta and oral methylprednisolone and 64 were assigned to interferon beta and placebo. A high proportion of patients withdrew from the study before week 96 (26% [17 of 66] on methylprednisolone vs 17% [11 of 64] on placebo). The mean yearly relapse rate was 0.22 for methylprednisolone compared with 0.59 for placebo (62% reduction, 95% CI 39-77%; p<0.0001). Sleep disturbance and neurological and psychiatric symptoms were the most frequent adverse events recorded in the methylprednisolone group. Bone mineral density had not changed after 96 weeks. INTERPRETATION: Oral methylprednisolone given in pulses every 4 weeks as an add-on therapy to subcutaneous interferon beta-1a in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis leads to a significant reduction in relapse rate. However, because of the small number of patients and the high dropout rate, these findings need to be corroborated in larger cohorts.
  • Teunissen, Charlotte E, et al. (författare)
  • Blood-based biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease: towards clinical implementation.
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: The Lancet. Neurology. - 1474-4465 .- 1474-4422. ; 21:1, s. 66-77
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • For many years, blood-based biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease seemed unattainable, but recent results have shown that they could become a reality. Convincing data generated with new high-sensitivity assays have emerged with remarkable consistency across different cohorts, but also independent of the precise analytical method used. Concentrations in blood of amyloid and phosphorylated tau proteins associate with the corresponding concentrations in CSF and with amyloid-PET or tau-PET scans. Moreover, other blood-based biomarkers of neurodegeneration, such as neurofilament light chain and glial fibrillary acidic protein, appear to provide information on disease progression and potential for monitoring treatment effects. Now the question emerges of when and how we can bring these biomarkers to clinical practice. This step would pave the way for blood-based biomarkers to support the diagnosis of, and development of treatments for, Alzheimer's disease and other dementias.
  • Thijssen, Elisabeth H, et al. (författare)
  • Plasma phosphorylated tau 217 and phosphorylated tau 181 as biomarkers in Alzheimer's disease and frontotemporal lobar degeneration: a retrospective diagnostic performance study.
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: The Lancet. Neurology. - 1474-4465 .- 1474-4422. ; 20:9, s. 739-752
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Plasma tau phosphorylated at threonine 217 (p-tau217) and plasma tau phosphorylated at threonine 181 (p-tau181) are associated with Alzheimer's disease tau pathology. We compared the diagnostic value of both biomarkers in cognitively unimpaired participants and patients with a clinical diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment, Alzheimer's disease syndromes, or frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) syndromes.In this retrospective multicohort diagnostic performance study, we analysed plasma samples, obtained from patients aged 18-99 years old who had been diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease syndromes (Alzheimer's disease dementia, logopenic variant primary progressive aphasia, or posterior cortical atrophy), FTLD syndromes (corticobasal syndrome, progressive supranuclear palsy, behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia, non-fluent variant primary progressive aphasia, or semantic variant primary progressive aphasia), or mild cognitive impairment; the participants were from the University of California San Francisco (UCSF) Memory and Aging Center, San Francisco, CA, USA, and the Advancing Research and Treatment for Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration Consortium (ARTFL; 17 sites in the USA and two in Canada). Participants from both cohorts were carefully characterised, including assessments of CSF p-tau181, amyloid-PET or tau-PET (or both), and clinical and cognitive evaluations. Plasma p-tau181 and p-tau217 were measured using electrochemiluminescence-based assays, which differed only in the biotinylated antibody epitope specificity. Receiver operating characteristic analyses were used to determine diagnostic accuracy of both plasma markers using clinical diagnosis, neuropathological findings, and amyloid-PET and tau-PET measures as gold standards. Difference between two area under the curve (AUC) analyses were tested with the Delong test.Data were collected from 593 participants (443 from UCSF and 150 from ARTFL, mean age 64 years [SD 13], 294 [50%] women) between July 1 and Nov 30, 2020. Plasma p-tau217 and p-tau181 were correlated (r=0·90, p<0·0001). Both p-tau217 and p-tau181 concentrations were increased in people with Alzheimer's disease syndromes (n=75, mean age 65 years [SD 10]) relative to cognitively unimpaired controls (n=118, mean age 61 years [SD 18]; AUC=0·98 [95% CI 0·95-1·00] for p-tau217, AUC=0·97 [0·94-0·99] for p-tau181; pdiff=0·31) and in pathology-confirmed Alzheimer's disease (n=15, mean age 73 years [SD 12]) versus pathologically confirmed FTLD (n=68, mean age 67 years [SD 8]; AUC=0·96 [0·92-1·00] for p-tau217, AUC=0·91 [0·82-1·00] for p-tau181; pdiff=0·22). P-tau217 outperformed p-tau181 in differentiating patients with Alzheimer's disease syndromes (n=75) from those with FTLD syndromes (n=274, mean age 67 years [SD 9]; AUC=0·93 [0·91-0·96] for p-tau217, AUC=0·91 [0·88-0·94] for p-tau181; pdiff=0·01). P-tau217 was a stronger indicator of amyloid-PET positivity (n=146, AUC=0·91 [0·88-0·94]) than was p-tau181 (n=214, AUC=0·89 [0·86-0·93]; pdiff=0·049). Tau-PET binding in the temporal cortex was more strongly associated with p-tau217 than p-tau181 (r=0·80 vs r=0·72; pdiff<0·0001, n=230).Both p-tau217 and p-tau181 had excellent diagnostic performance for differentiating patients with Alzheimer's disease syndromes from other neurodegenerative disorders. There was some evidence in favour of p-tau217 compared with p-tau181 for differential diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease syndromes versus FTLD syndromes, as an indication of amyloid-PET-positivity, and for stronger correlations with tau-PET signal. Pending replication in independent, diverse, and older cohorts, plasma p-tau217 and p-tau181 could be useful screening tools to identify individuals with underlying amyloid and Alzheimer's disease tau pathology.US National Institutes of Health, State of California Department of Health Services, Rainwater Charitable Foundation, Michael J Fox foundation, Association for Frontotemporal Degeneration, Alzheimer's Association.
  • van Maurik, Ingrid S., et al. (författare)
  • Biomarker-based prognosis for people with mild cognitive impairment (ABIDE) : a modelling study
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Lancet Neurology. - : The Lancet Publishing Group. - 1474-4422 .- 1474-4465. ; 18:11, s. 1034-1044
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Biomarker-based risk predictions of dementia in people with mild cognitive impairment are highly relevant for care planning and to select patients for treatment when disease-modifying drugs become available. We aimed to establish robust prediction models of disease progression in people at risk of dementia.METHODS: In this modelling study, we included people with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) from single-centre and multicentre cohorts in Europe and North America: the European Medical Information Framework for Alzheimer's Disease (EMIF-AD; n=883), Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI; n=829), Amsterdam Dementia Cohort (ADC; n=666), and the Swedish BioFINDER study (n=233). Inclusion criteria were a baseline diagnosis of MCI, at least 6 months of follow-up, and availability of a baseline Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and MRI or CSF biomarker assessment. The primary endpoint was clinical progression to any type of dementia. We evaluated performance of previously developed risk prediction models-a demographics model, a hippocampal volume model, and a CSF biomarkers model-by evaluating them across cohorts, incorporating different biomarker measurement methods, and determining prognostic performance with Harrell's C statistic. We then updated the models by re-estimating parameters with and without centre-specific effects and evaluated model calibration by comparing observed and expected survival. Finally, we constructed a model combining markers for amyloid deposition, tauopathy, and neurodegeneration (ATN), in accordance with the National Institute on Aging and Alzheimer's Association research framework.FINDINGS: We included all 2611 individuals with MCI in the four cohorts, 1007 (39%) of whom progressed to dementia. The validated demographics model (Harrell's C 0·62, 95% CI 0·59-0·65), validated hippocampal volume model (0·67, 0·62-0·72), and updated CSF biomarkers model (0·72, 0·68-0·74) had adequate prognostic performance across cohorts and were well calibrated. The newly constructed ATN model had the highest performance (0·74, 0·71-0·76).INTERPRETATION: We generated risk models that are robust across cohorts, which adds to their potential clinical applicability. The models could aid clinicians in the interpretation of CSF biomarker and hippocampal volume results in individuals with MCI, and help research and clinical settings to prepare for a future of precision medicine in Alzheimer's disease. Future research should focus on the clinical utility of the models, particularly if their use affects participants' understanding, emotional wellbeing, and behaviour.
  • Visser, Pieter Jelle, et al. (författare)
  • Prevalence and prognostic value of CSF markers of Alzheimer's disease pathology in patients with subjective cognitive impairment or mild cognitive impairment in the DESCRIPA study: a prospective cohort study.
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Lancet neurology. - : The Lancet Publishing Group. - 1474-4422 .- 1474-4465. ; 8:7, s. 619-27
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology is common in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) without dementia, but the prevalence of AD pathology in patients with subjective cognitive impairment (SCI) and non-amnestic mild cognitive impairment (naMCI) is unknown. AD is characterised by decreased CSF concentrations of Abeta(42) and increased concentrations of tau. We investigated the prevalence of a CSF AD profile in patients with SCI, naMCI, or aMCI and the association of this profile with cognitive outcome in each group. METHODS: Patients with SCI, naMCI, aMCI, and neurologically healthy controls were recruited from 20 memory clinics across Europe, between January, 2003, and June, 2005, into this prospective cohort study. A CSF AD profile was defined as an abnormal ratio of Abeta(42):tau. Patients were assessed annually up to 3 years. Outcome measures were changes in memory, overall cognition, mini-mental state examination (MMSE) score, daily function, and progression to AD-type dementia. FINDINGS: The CSF AD profile was more common in patients with SCI (31 of 60 [52%]), naMCI (25 of 37 [68%]), and aMCI (56 of 71 [79%]) than in healthy controls (28 of 89 [31%]). The profile was associated with cognitive decline in patients with naMCI (memory, MMSE, and daily function) and in patients with aMCI (MMSE and daily function). In patients with aMCI, a CSF AD profile was predictive of AD-type dementia (OR 26.8, 95% CI 1.6-456.4). INTERPRETATION: AD is a common cause of SCI, naMCI, and aMCI and is associated with cognitive decline in patients with naMCI or aMCI. Patients with SCI might be in the early stages of AD, and cognitive decline might become apparent only after longer follow-up. FUNDING: European Commission; Ana Aslan International Foundation.
  • Adams, David, et al. (författare)
  • Long-term safety and efficacy of patisiran for hereditary transthyretin-mediated amyloidosis with polyneuropathy : 12-month results of an open-label extension study
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Lancet Neurology. - : Elsevier. - 1474-4422 .- 1474-4465. ; 20:1, s. 49-59
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Hereditary transthyretin-mediated amyloidosis is a rare, inherited, progressive disease caused by mutations in the transthyretin (TTR) gene. We assessed the safety and efficacy of long-term treatment with patisiran, an RNA interference therapeutic that inhibits TTR production, in patients with hereditary transthyretin-mediated amyloidosis with polyneuropathy. Methods This multicentre, open-label extension (OLE) trial enrolled patients at 43 hospitals or clinical centres in 19 countries as of Sept 24, 2018. Patients were eligible if they had completed the phase 3 APOLLO or phase 2 OLE parent studies and tolerated the study drug. Eligible patients from APOLLO (patisiran and placebo groups) and the phase 2 OLE (patisiran group) studies enrolled in this global OLE trial and received patisiran 0.3 mg/kg by intravenous infusion every 3 weeks with plans to continue to do so for up to 5 years. Efficacy assessments included measures of polyneuropathy (modified Neuropathy Impairment Score +7 [mNIS+7]), quality of life, autonomic symptoms, nutritional status, disability, ambulation status, motor function, and cardiac stress, with analysis by study groups (APOLLO-placebo, APOLLO-patisiran, phase 2 OLE patisiran) based on allocation in the parent trial. The global OLE is ongoing with no new enrolment, and current findings are based on the interim analysis of the patients who had completed 12-month efficacy assessments as of the data cutoff. Safety analyses included all patients who received one or more dose of patisiran up to the data cutoff. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02510261. Findings Between July 13, 2015, and Aug 21, 2017, of 212 eligible patients, 211 were enrolled: 137 patients from the APOLLO-patisiran group, 49 from the APOLLO-placebo group, and 25 from the phase 2 OLE patisiran group. At the data cutoff on Sept 24, 2018, 126 (92%) of 137 patients from the APOLLO-patisiran group, 38 (78%) of 49 from the APOLLO-placebo group, and 25 (100%) of 25 from the phase 2 OLE patisiran group had completed 12-month assessments. At 12 months, improvements in mNIS+7 with patisiran were sustained from parent study baseline with treatment in the global OLE (APOLLO-patisiran mean change -4.0, 95 % CI -7.7 to -0.3; phase 2 OLE patisiran -4.7, -11.9 to 2.4). Mean mNIS+7 score improved from global OLE enrolment in the APOLLO-placebo group (mean change from global OLE enrolment -1.4, 95% CI -6.2 to 3.5). Overall, 204 (97%) of 211 patients reported adverse events, 82 (39%) reported serious adverse events, and there were 23 (11%) deaths. Serious adverse events were more frequent in the APOLLO-placebo group (28 [57%] of 49) than in the APOLLO-patisiran (48 [35%] of 137) or phase 2 OLE patisiran (six [24%] of 25) groups. The most common treatment-related adverse event was mild or moderate infusion-related reactions. The frequency of deaths in the global OLE was higher in the APOLLO-placebo group (13 [27%] of 49), who had a higher disease burden than the APOLLO-patisiran (ten [7%] of 137) and phase 2 OLE patisiran (0 of 25) groups. Interpretation In this interim 12-month analysis of the ongoing global OLE study, patisiran appeared to maintain efficacy with an acceptable safety profile in patients with hereditary transthyretin-mediated amyloidosis with polyneuropathy. Continued long-term follow-up will be important for the overall assessment of safety and efficacy with patisiran. Copyright (C) 2020 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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