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31.
  • Diener, Hans Christoph, et al. (författare)
  • Dabigatran compared with warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation and previous transient ischaemic attack or stroke : a subgroup analysis of the RE-LY trial
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Lancet Neurology. - 1474-4422 .- 1474-4465. ; 9:12, s. 1157-1163
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background In the Randomised Evaluation of Long Term Anticoagulation Therapy (RE LY) trial dabigatran reduced occurrence of both stroke and haemorrhage compared with warfarin in patients who had atrial fibrillation and were at increased risk of stroke We aimed to assess the effects of dabigatran compared with warfarin in the subgroup of patients with previous stroke or transient ischaemic attack Methods In the RE LY trial 18113 patients from 967 centres in 44 countries were randomly assigned to 110 mg or 150 mg dabigatran twice daily or to warfarin dose adjusted to international normalised ratio 2 0 to 3 0 Median follow up was 2 0 years (IQR 1 14-2 86) and the primary outcome was stroke or systemic embolism The primary safety outcome was major haemorrhage Patients and investigators were aware of whether patients received warfarin or dabigatran but not of dabigatran dose and event adjudicators were masked to treatment In a predefined analysis we investigated the outcomes of the RE LY trial in subgroups of patients with or without previous stroke or transient ischaemic attack RE LY is registered with ClimcalTriaLs gov NCT00262600 Findings Within the subgroup of patients with previous stroke or transient ischaemic attack, 1195 patients were from the 110 mg dabigatran group 1233 from the 150 mg dabigatran group and 1195 from the warfarin group Stroke or systemic embolism occurred m 65 patients (2 78% per year) on warfarin compared with 55 (2 32% per year) on 110 mg dabigatran (relative risk 0 84, 95% CI 0 58-1 20) and 51 (2 07% per year) on 150 mg dabigatran (0 75 0 52-1 08) The rate of major bleeding was significantly lower in patients on 110 mg dabigatran (RR 0 66 95% CI 0 48-0 90) and similar in those on 150 mg dabigatran (RR 1 01 95% CI 0 77-1 34) compared with those on warfarin The effects of both doses of dabigatran compared with warfarin were not significantly different between patients with previous stroke or transient ischaemic attack and those without for any of the outcomes from RE LY apart from vascular death (110 mg group compared with warfaric group mteraction p=0 038) Interpretation In patients with previous stroke or transient ischaemic attack, the effects of 110 mg dabigatran and 150 mg dabigatran on stroke or systemic embolism were similar to those of warfarin Most effects of both dabigatran doses were consistent in patients with versus those without previous stroke or transient ischaemic attack.
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32.
  • Diener, Hans-Christoph, et al. (författare)
  • Effects of aspirin plus extended-release dipyridamole versus clopidogrel and telmisartan on disability and cognitive function after recurrent stroke in patients with ischaemic stroke in the Prevention Regimen for Effectively Avoiding Second Strokes (PRoFESS) trial : a double-blind, active and placebo-controlled study.
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Lancet Neurology. - : Elsevier. - 1474-4422 .- 1474-4465. ; 7:10, s. 875-884
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: The treatment of ischaemic stroke with neuroprotective drugs has been unsuccessful, and whether these compounds can be used to reduce disability after recurrent stroke is unknown. The putative neuroprotective effects of antiplatelet compounds and the angiotensin II receptor antagonist telmisartan were investigated in the Prevention Regimen for Effectively Avoiding Second Strokes (PRoFESS) trial.METHODS: Patients who had had an ischaemic stroke were randomly assigned in a two by two factorial design to receive either 25 mg aspirin (ASA) and 200 mg extended-release dipyridamole (ER-DP) twice a day or 75 mg clopidogrel once a day, and either 80 mg telmisartan or placebo once per day. The predefined endpoints for this substudy were disability after a recurrent stroke, assessed with the modified Rankin scale (mRS) and Barthel index at 3 months, and cognitive function, assessed with the mini-mental state examination (MMSE) score at 4 weeks after randomisation and at the penultimate visit. Analysis was by intention to treat. The study was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00153062.FINDINGS: 20,332 patients (mean age 66 years) were randomised and followed-up for a median of 2.4 years. Recurrent strokes occurred in 916 (9%) patients randomly assigned to ASA with ER-DP and 898 (9%) patients randomly assigned to clopidogrel; 880 (9%) patients randomly assigned to telmisartan and 934 (9%) patients given placebo had recurrent strokes. mRS scores were not statistically different in patients with recurrent stroke who were treated with ASA and ER-DP versus clopidogrel (p=0.38), or with telmisartan versus placebo (p=0.61). There was no significant difference in the proportion of patients with recurrent stroke with a good outcome, as measured with the Barthel index, across all treatment groups. Additionally, there was no significant difference in the median MMSE scores, the percentage of patients with an MMSE score of 24 points or less, the percentage of patients with a drop in MMSE score of 3 points or more between 1 month and the penultimate visit, and the number of patients with dementia among the treatment groups. There were no significant differences in the proportion of patients with cognitive impairment or dementia among the treatment groups.INTERPRETATION: Disability due to recurrent stroke and cognitive decline in patients with ischaemic stroke were not different between the two antiplatelet regimens and were not affected by the preventive use of telmisartan.
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33.
  • Easton, J. Donald, et al. (författare)
  • Apixaban compared with warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation and previous stroke or transient ischaemic attack : a subgroup analysis of the ARISTOTLE trial
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Lancet Neurology. - 1474-4422 .- 1474-4465. ; 11:6, s. 503-511
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BackgroundIn the ARISTOTLE trial, the rate of stroke or systemic embolism was reduced by apixaban compared with warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Patients with AF and previous stroke or transient ischaemic attack (TIA) have a high risk of stroke. We therefore aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of apixaban compared with warfarin in prespecified subgroups of patients with and without previous stroke or TIA.MethodsBetween Dec 19,2006, and April 2,2010, patients were enrolled in the ARISTOTLE trial at 1034 clinical sites in 39 countries. 18 201 patients with AF or atrial flutter were randomly assigned to receive apixaban 5 mg twice daily or warfarin (target international normalised ratio 2.0-3.0). The median duration of follow-up was 1.8 years (IQR 1.4-2.3). The primary efficacy outcome was stroke or systemic embolism, analysed by intention to treat. The primary safety outcome was major bleeding in the on-treatment population. All participants, investigators, and sponsors were masked to treatment assignments. In this subgroup analysis, we estimated event rates and used Cox models to compare outcomes in patients with and without previous stroke or TIA. The ARISTOTLE trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NTC00412984.FindingsOf the trial population, 3436 (19%) had a previous stroke or TIA. In the subgroup of patients with previous stroke or TIA, the rate of stroke or systemic embolism was 2.46 per 100 patient-years of follow-up in the apixaban group and 3.24 in the warfarin group (hazard ratio [HR] 0.76, 95% CI 0.56 to 1.03); in the subgroup of patients without previous stroke or TLA, the rate of stroke or systemic embolism was 1.01 per 100 patient-years of follow-up with apixaban and 1.23 with warfarin (HR 0.82, 95% CI 0.65 to 1.03; p for interaction=0.71). The absolute reduction in the rate of stroke and systemic embolism with apixaban versus warfarin was 0.77 per 100 patient-years of follow-up (95% CI -0.08 to 1.63) in patients with and 0.22 (-0.03 to 0.47) in those without previous stroke or TIA. The difference in major bleeding with apixaban compared with warfarin was 1.07 per 100 patient-years (95% CI 0.09-2.04) in patients with and 0.93 (0.54-1.32) in those without previous stroke or TIA.InterpretationThe effects of apixaban versus warfarin were consistent in patients with AF with and without previous stroke or TIA. Owing to the higher risk of these outcomes in patients with previous stroke or TIA, the absolute benefits of apixaban might be greater in this population.FundingBristol-Myers Squibb and Pfizer.
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34.
  • Edvardsson, David, et al. (författare)
  • Person-centred care of people with severe Alzheimer's disease : current status and ways forward
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Lancet Neurology. - New York : Elsevier. - 1474-4422 .- 1474-4465. ; 7:4, s. 362-367
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • When caring for people with severe Alzheimer's disease (AD), the concept of the person being central is increasingly advocated in clinical practice and academia as an approach to deliver high-quality care. The aim of person-centred care, which emanates from phenomological perspectives on AD, is to acknowledge the personhood of people with AD in all aspects of their care. It generally includes the recognition that the personality of the person with AD is increasingly concealed rather than lost; personalisation of the person's care and their environment; offering shared decision-making; interpretation of behaviour from the viewpoint of the person; and prioritising the relationship as much as the care tasks. However, questions remain about how to provide, measure, and explore clinical outcomes of person-centred care. In this Review, we summarise the current knowledge about person-centred care for people with severe AD and highlight the areas in need of further research.
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35.
  • Ekman, Urban, et al. (författare)
  • Functional brain activity and presynaptic dopamine uptake in patients with Parkinson's disease and mild cognitive impairment : a cross-sectional study
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Lancet Neurology. - 1474-4422 .- 1474-4465. ; 11:8, s. 679-687
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Many patients with Parkinson's disease have mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Deficits in executive functions and working memory suggest dysfunctional frontostriatal brain circuitry. We aimed to assess brain responses during a working memory task in a cohort of newly diagnosed drug-naive patients with Parkinson's disease with and without MCI.Methods: Participants were recruited within a prospective cohort study of incident patients with idiopathic parkinsonism, including Parkinson's disease. Between Jan 1, 2004, and April 30, 2009, all physicians in the Umea catchment area were requested to refer all individuals with suspected parkinsonism to the Department of Neurology at lima University. Included patients fulfilled the UK Parkinson's Disease Society Brain Bank clinical diagnostic criteria for Parkinson's disease. Control individuals were matched on the basis of age and sex with the first 50 patients included in the study. Participants who scored 1.5 SDs or more below the population mean on at least two cognitive measures were diagnosed with MCI. The primary outcome measures were functional MRI blood-oxygen-level-dependent signal and SPECT presynaptic uptake. Functional MRI was done during a verbal two-back working memory task. Presynaptic dopamine SPECT was done to assess presynaptic striatal dopaminergic system integrity. Event-related transient analyses of functional MRI data were done for the whole brain and for frontostriatal regions of interest, and semi-quantitative SPECT analyses were done for striatal regions of interest.Findings: Compared with controls (n=24), patients with Parkinson's disease (n=77) had under-recruitment in an extensive brain network including bilateral striatal and frontal regions (p<0.001). Within the Parkinson's disease group, patients with Parkinson's disease and MCI (n=30) had additional under-recruitment in the right dorsal caudate nucleus (p=0.005) and the bilateral anterior cingulate cortex (p<0.001) compared with patients with Parkinson's disease without MCI (n=26). In patients with Parkinson's disease and MCI, SPECT uptake in the right caudate was lower than in patients with Parkinson's disease without MCI (p=0.008) and correlated with striatal functional MRI blood-oxygen-level-dependent signal (r=0.32, p=0.031).Interpretation: These altered brain responses in patients with Parkinson's disease and MCI suggest that cognitive impairment is linked to frontostriatal dysfunction.
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36.
  • Feigin, Valery L., et al. (författare)
  • Global, regional, and national burden of stroke and its risk factors, 1990-2019 : a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Lancet Neurology. - : Elsevier. - 1474-4422 .- 1474-4465. ; 20:10, s. 795-820
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Regularly updated data on stroke and its pathological types, including data on their incidence, prevalence, mortality, disability, risk factors, and epidemiological trends, are important for evidence-based stroke care planning and resource allocation. The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) aims to provide a standardised and comprehensive measurement of these metrics at global, regional, and national levels. Methods We applied GBD 2019 analytical tools to calculate stroke incidence, prevalence, mortality, disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), and the population attributable fraction (PAF) of DALYs (with corresponding 95% uncertainty intervals [UIs]) associated with 19 risk factors, for 204 countries and territories from 1990 to 2019. These estimates were provided for ischaemic stroke, intracerebral haemorrhage, subarachnoid haemorrhage, and all strokes combined, and stratified by sex, age group, and World Bank country income level. Findings In 2019, there were 12.2 million (95% UI 11.0-13.6) incident cases of stroke, 101 million (93.2-111) prevalent cases of stroke, 143 million (133-153) DALYs due to stroke, and 6.55 million (6.00-7.02) deaths from stroke. Globally, stroke remained the second-leading cause of death (11.6% [10.8-12.2] of total deaths) and the third-leading cause of death and disability combined (5.7% [5.1-6.2] of total DALYs) in 2019. From 1990 to 2019, the absolute number of incident strokes increased by 70.0% (67.0-73.0), prevalent strokes increased by 85.0% (83.0-88.0), deaths from stroke increased by 43.0% (31.0-55.0), and DALYs due to stroke increased by 32.0% (22.0-42.0). During the same period, age-standardised rates of stroke incidence decreased by 17.0% (15.0-18.0), mortality decreased by 36.0% (31.0-42.0), prevalence decreased by 6.0% (5.0-7.0), and DALYs decreased by 36.0% (31.0-42.0). However, among people younger than 70 years, prevalence rates increased by 22.0% (21.0-24.0) and incidence rates increased by 15.0% (12.0-18.0). In 2019, the age-standardised stroke-related mortality rate was 3.6 (3.5-3.8) times higher in the World Bank low-income group than in the World Bank high-income group, and the age-standardised stroke-related DALY rate was 3.7 (3.5-3.9) times higher in the low-income group than the high-income group. Ischaemic stroke constituted 62.4% of all incident strokes in 2019 (7.63 million [6.57-8.96]), while intracerebral haemorrhage constituted 27.9% (3.41 million [2.97-3.91]) and subarachnoid haemorrhage constituted 9.7% (1.18 million [1.01-1.39]). In 2019, the five leading risk factors for stroke were high systolic blood pressure (contributing to 79.6 million [67.7-90.8] DALYs or 55.5% [48.2-62.0] of total stroke DALYs), high body-mass index (34.9 million [22.3-48.6] DALYs or 24.3% [15.7-33.2]), high fasting plasma glucose (28.9 million [19.8-41.5] DALYs or 20.2% [13.8-29.1]), ambient particulate matter pollution (28.7 million [23.4-33.4] DALYs or 20.1% [16.6-23.0]), and smoking (25.3 million [22.6-28.2] DALYs or 17.6% [16.4-19.0]). Interpretation The annual number of strokes and deaths due to stroke increased substantially from 1990 to 2019, despite substantial reductions in age-standardised rates, particularly among people older than 70 years. The highest age-standardised stroke-related mortality and DALY rates were in the World Bank low-income group. The fastest-growing risk factor for stroke between 1990 and 2019 was high body-mass index. Without urgent implementation of effective primary prevention strategies, the stroke burden will probably continue to grow across the world, particularly in low-income countries.
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37.
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38.
  • Fratiglioni, Laura, et al. (författare)
  • Ageing without dementia : can stimulating psychosocial and lifestyle experiences make a difference?
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Lancet Neurology. - 1474-4422 .- 1474-4465. ; 19:6, s. 533-543
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In a world with an ageing population, dementia has become an urgent threat to global health and wellbeing. Psychosocial and lifestyle factors, such as higher socioeconomic positions, longer times spent in education, greater occupational complexity, reduced stress at work, and engagement in mental, physical, and social activities, have been hypothesised to supply resilience against dementia. Although questions remain surrounding the role of these factors in the development of dementia, scientific advancements have considerably expanded our understanding of modifiable psychosocial and lifestyle factors and their neuroprotective and compensatory influences over a life course. Evidence from observational studies is robust enough to suggest that stimulating psychosocial and lifestyle factors are protective against dementia. And, although the corresponding evidence from intervention studies is still scarce, public health campaigns promoting psychosocial and lifestyle factors might improve the health and wellbeing of people aged 60 years and older.
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39.
  • Fratiglioni, L, et al. (författare)
  • An active and socially integrated lifestyle in late life might protect against dementia
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Lancet Neurology. - 1474-4422 .- 1474-4465. ; 3:6, s. 343-353
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The recent availability of longitudinal data on the possible association of different lifestyles with dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD) allow some preliminary conclusions on this topic. This review systematically analyses the published longitudinal studies exploring the effect of social network, physical leisure, and non-physical activity on cognition and dementia and then summarises the current evidence taking into account the limitations of the studies and the biological plausibility. For all three lifestyle components (social, mental, and physical), a beneficial effect on cognition and a protective effect against dementia are suggested. The three components seem to have common pathways, rather than specific mechanisms, which might converge within three major aetiological hypotheses for dementia and AD: the cognitive reserve hypothesis, the vascular hypothesis, and the stress hypothesis. Taking into account the accumulated evidence and the biological plausibility of these hypotheses, we conclude that an active and socially integrated lifestyle in late life protects against dementia and AD. Further research is necessary to better define the mechanisms of these associations and better delineate preventive and therapeutic strategies.
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40.
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