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  • Lannfelt, Lars, et al. (författare)
  • Safety, efficacy, and biomarker findings of PBT2 in targeting Abeta as a modifying therapy for Alzheimer's disease: a phase IIa, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial.
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Lancet neurology. - 1474-4422 .- 1474-4465. ; 7:9, s. 779-86
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: PBT2 is a metal-protein attenuating compound (MPAC) that affects the Cu2(+)-mediated and Zn2(+)-mediated toxic oligomerisation of Abeta seen in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Strong preclinical efficacy data and the completion of early, clinical safety studies have preceded this phase IIa study, the aim of which was to assess the effects of PBT2 on safety, efficacy, and biomarkers of AD. METHODS: Between December 6, 2006, and September 21, 2007, community-dwelling patients over age 55 years were recruited to this 12-week, double-blind, randomised trial of PBT2. Patients were randomly allocated to receive 50 mg PBT2, 250 mg PBT2, or placebo. Inclusion criteria were early AD (mini-mental state examination [MMSE] score between 20 and 26 points or Alzheimer's disease assessment scale-cognitive subscale (ADAS-cog) score between 10 and 25 points), taking a stable dose of acetylcholinesterase inhibitor (donepezil, galantamine, or rivastigmine) for at least 4 months, a modified Hachinski score of 4 points or less, and CT or MRI results that were consistent with AD. The principal outcomes were safety and tolerability. Secondary outcomes were plasma and CSF biomarkers and cognition. Analysis was intention to treat. The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00471211. FINDINGS: 78 patients were randomly assigned (29 to placebo, 20 to PBT2 50 mg, and 29 to PBT2 250 mg) and 74 (95%) completed the study. 42 (54%) patients had at least one treatment emergent adverse event (10 [50%] on PBT2 50 mg, 18 [62%] on PBT2 250 mg, and 14 [48%] on placebo). No serious adverse events were reported by patients on PBT2. Patients treated with PBT2 250 mg had a dose-dependent (p=0.023) and significant reduction in CSF Abeta(42) concentration compared with those treated with placebo (difference in least squares mean change from baseline was -56.0 pg/mL, 95% CI -101.5 to -11.0; p=0.006). PBT2 had no effect on plasma biomarkers of AD or serum Zn(2+) and Cu(2+) concentrations. Cognition testing included ADAS-cog, MMSE, and a neuropsychological test battery (NTB). Of these tests, two executive function component tests of the NTB showed significant improvement over placebo in the PBT2 250 mg group: category fluency test (2.8 words, 0.1 to 5.4; p=0.041) and trail making part B (-48.0 s, -83.0 to -13.0; p=0.009). INTERPRETATION: The safety profile is favourable for the ongoing development of PBT2. The effect on putative biomarkers for AD in CSF but not in plasma is suggestive of a central effect of the drug on Abeta metabolism. Cognitive efficacy was restricted to two measures of executive function. Future trials that are larger and longer will establish if the effects of PBT2 on biomarkers and cognition that are reported here translate into clinical effectiveness.
  • Lundström, Erik, 1964-, et al. (författare)
  • Safety and efficacy of fluoxetine on functional recovery after acute stroke (EFFECTS): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: The Lancet. Neurology. - 1474-4465 .- 1474-4422. ; 19:8, s. 661-669
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Studies have suggested that fluoxetine could improve neurological recovery after stroke. The Efficacy oF Fluoxetine-a randomisEd Controlled Trial in Stroke (EFFECTS) trial aimed to assess whether administration of oral fluoxetine for 6 months after acute stroke improves functional outcome.EFFECTS was an investigator-led, multicentre, randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel group trial that enrolled patients aged 18 years or older between 2 and 15 days after stroke onset in 35 stroke and rehabilitation centres in Sweden. Eligible patients had a clinical diagnosis of ischaemic or intracerebral haemorrhage, brain imaging that was consistent with intracerebral haemorrhage or ischaemic stroke, and had at least one persisting focal neurological deficit. A web-based randomisation system that incorporated a minimisation algorithm was used to randomly assign (1:1) participants to receive oral fluoxetine 20 mg once daily or matching placebo capsules for 6 months. Patients, care providers, investigators, and outcomes assessors were masked to the allocation. The primary outcome was functional status, measured with the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) at 6 months, analysed in all patients with available mRS data at the 6-month follow-up; we did an ordinal analysis adjusted for the minimisation variables used in the randomisation. This trial is registered with EudraCT, 2011-006130-16; ISRCTN, 13020412; and ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02683213.Between Oct 20, 2014, and June 28, 2019, 1500 patients were enrolled, of whom 750 were randomly assigned to fluoxetine and 750 were randomly assigned to placebo. At 6 months, mRS data were available for 737 (98%) patients in the fluoxetine group and 742 (99%) patients in the placebo group. There was no effect of fluoxetine on the primary outcome-distribution across mRS score categories-compared with placebo (adjusted common odds ratio 0·94 [95% CI 0·78 to 1·13]; p=0·42). The proportion of patients with a new diagnosis of depression was lower with fluoxetine than with placebo (54 [7%] patients vs 81 [11%] patients; difference -3·60% [-6·49 to -0·71]; p=0·015), but fluoxetine was associated with more bone fractures (28 [4%] vs 11 [2%]; difference 2·27% [0·66 to 3·87]; p=0·0058) and hyponatraemia (11 [1%] vs one [<1%]; difference 1·33% [0·43 to 2·23]; p=0·0038) at 6 months.Functional outcome after acute stroke did not improve with oral fluoxetine 20 mg once daily for 6 months. Fluoxetine reduced the occurrence of depression but increased the risk of bone fractures and hyponatraemia. Our results do not support the use of fluoxetine after acute stroke.The Swedish Research Council, the Swedish Heart-Lung Foundation, the Swedish Brain Foundation, the Swedish Society of Medicine, King Gustav V and Queen Victoria's Foundation of Freemasons, and the Swedish Stroke Association (STROKE-Riksförbundet).
  • Monbaliu, E., et al. (författare)
  • Clinical presentation and management of dyskinetic cerebral palsy
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Lancet Neurology. - 1474-4422 .- 1474-4465. ; 16:9, s. 741-749
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Cerebral palsy is the most frequent cause of severe physical disability in childhood. Dyskinetic cerebral palsy (DCP) is the second most common type of cerebral palsy after spastic forms. DCP is typically caused by non-progressive lesions to the basal ganglia or thalamus, or both, and is characterised by abnormal postures or movements associated with impaired tone regulation or movement coordination. In DCP, two major movement disorders, dystonia and choreoathetosis, are present together most of the time. Dystonia is often more pronounced and severe than choreoathetosis, with a major effect on daily activity, quality of life, and societal participation. The pathophysiology of both movement disorders is largely unknown. Some emerging hypotheses are an imbalance between indirect and direct basal ganglia pathways, disturbed sensory processing, and impaired plasticity in the basal ganglia. Rehabilitation strategies are typically multidisciplinary. Use of oral drugs to provide symptomatic relief of the movement disorders is limited by adverse effects and the scarcity of evidence that the drugs are effective. Neuromodulation interventions, such as intrathecal baclofen and deep brain stimulation, are promising options.
  • Ngugi, Anthony K., et al. (författare)
  • Prevalence of active convulsive epilepsy in sub-Saharan Africa and associated risk factors : cross-sectional and case-control studies
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Lancet Neurology. - 1474-4422 .- 1474-4465. ; 12:3, s. 253-263
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background The prevalence of epilepsy in sub-Saharan Africa seems to be higher than in other parts of the world, but estimates vary substantially for unknown reasons. We assessed the prevalence and risk factors of active convulsive epilepsy across five centres in this region. Methods We did large population-based cross-sectional and case-control studies in five Health and Demographic Surveillance System centres: Kilifi, Kenya (Dec 3, 2007-July 31, 2008); Agincourt, South Africa (Aug 4, 2008-Feb 27, 2009); Iganga-Mayuge, Uganda (Feb 2, 2009-Oct 30, 2009); Ifakara, Tanzania (May 4, 2009-Dec 31, 2009); and Kintampo, Ghana (Aug 2, 2010-April 29, 2011). We used a three-stage screening process to identify people with active convulsive epilepsy. Prevalence was estimated as the ratio of confirmed cases to the population screened and was adjusted for sensitivity and attrition between stages. For each case, an age-matched control individual was randomly selected from the relevant centre's census database. Fieldworkers masked to the status of the person they were interviewing administered questionnaires to individuals with active convulsive epilepsy and control individuals to assess sociodemographic variables and historical risk factors (perinatal events, head injuries, and diet). Blood samples were taken from a randomly selected subgroup of 300 participants with epilepsy and 300 control individuals from each centre and were screened for antibodies to Toxocara canis, Toxoplasma gondii, Onchocerca volvulus, Plasmodium falciparum, Taenia solium, and HIV. We estimated odds ratios (ORs) with logistic regression, adjusted for age, sex, education, employment, and marital status. Results 586 607 residents in the study areas were screened in stage one, of whom 1711 were diagnosed as having active convulsive epilepsy. Prevalence adjusted for attrition and sensitivity varied between sites: 7.8 per 1000 people (95% CI 7.5-8.2) in Kilifi, 7.0 (6.2-7.4) in Agincourt, 10.3 (9.5-11.1) in Iganga-Mayuge, 14.8 (13.8-15.4) in Ifakara, and 10.1 (9.5-10.7) in Kintampo. The 1711 individuals with the disorder and 2032 control individuals were given questionnaires. In children (aged <18 years), the greatest relative increases in prevalence were associated with difficulties feeding, crying, or breathing after birth (OR 10.23, 95% CI 5 85-1788; p<0.0001); abnormal antenatal periods (2.15, 1.53-3.02; p<0.0001); and head injury (1.97, 1.28-3.03; p=0.002). In adults (aged >= 18 years), the disorder was significantly associated with admission to hospital with malaria or fever (2.28, 1.06-4.92; p=0.036), exposure to T canis (1.74, 1.27-2.40; p=0.0006), exposure to T gondii (1.39, 1.05-1.84; p=0.021), and exposure to 0 volvulus (2.23, 1.56-3.19; p<0.0001). Hypertension (2.13, 1.08-4.20; p=0.029) and exposure to T solium (7.03, 2.06-24.00; p=0.002) were risk factors for adult-onset disease. Interpretation The prevalence of active convulsive epilepsy varies in sub-Saharan Africa and that the variation is probably a result of differences in risk factors. Programmes to control parasitic diseases and interventions to improve antenatal and perinatal care could substantially reduce the prevalence of epilepsy in this region.
  • Nichols, Emma, et al. (författare)
  • Global, regional, and national burden of Alzheimer's disease and other dementias, 1990-2016 : a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Lancet Neurology. - : Elsevier. - 1474-4422 .- 1474-4465. ; 18:1, s. 88-106
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: The number of individuals living with dementia is increasing, negatively affecting families, communities, and health-care systems around the world. A successful response to these challenges requires an accurate understanding of the dementia disease burden. We aimed to present the first detailed analysis of the global prevalence, mortality, and overall burden of dementia as captured by the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors (GBD) Study 2016, and highlight the most important messages for clinicians and neurologists.Methods: GBD 2016 obtained data on dementia from vital registration systems, published scientific literature and surveys, and data from health-service encounters on deaths, excess mortality, prevalence, and incidence from 195 countries and territories from 1990 to 2016, through systematic review and additional data-seeking efforts. To correct for differences in cause of death coding across time and locations, we modelled mortality due to dementia using prevalence data and estimates of excess mortality derived from countries that were most likely to code deaths to dementia relative to prevalence. Data were analysed by standardised methods to estimate deaths, prevalence, years of life lost (YLLs), years of life lived with disability (YLDs), and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs; computed as the sum of YLLs and YLDs), and the fractions of these metrics that were attributable to four risk factors that met GBD criteria for assessment (high body-mass index [BMI], high fasting plasma glucose, smoking, and a diet high in sugarsweetened beverages).Findings: In 2016, the global number of individuals who lived with dementia was 43.8 million (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 3 7. 8-51.0), increased from 20.2 million (17. 4-23 5) in 1990. This increase of 117% (95% UI 114-121) contrasted with a minor increase in age-standardised prevalence of 1.7% (1.0-2.4), from 701 cases (95% UI 602-815) per 100 000 population in 1990 to 712 cases (614-828) per 100 000 population in 2016. More women than men had dementia in 2016 (27.0 million, 95% UI 23 .3-31. 4, vs 16.8 million, 14.4-19.6), and dementia was the fifth leading cause of death globally, accounting for 2.4 million (95% UI 2.1-2.8) deaths. Overall, 28.8 million (95% UI 24. 5-34. 0) DALYs were attributed to dementia; 6.4 million (95% UI 3 .4-10. 5) of these could be attributed to the modifiable GBD risk factors of high BMI, high fasting plasma glucose, smoking, and a high intake of sugar-sweetened beverages.Interpretation: The global number of people living with dementia more than doubled from 1990 to 2016, mainly due to increases in population ageing and growth. Although differences in coding for causes of death and the heterogeneity in case-ascertainment methods constitute major challenges to the estimation of the burden of dementia, future analyses should improve on the methods for the correction of these biases. Until breakthroughs are made in prevention or curative treatment, dementia will constitute an increasing challenge to health-care systems worldwide.
  • Petzold, Axel, et al. (författare)
  • Diagnosis and classification of optic neuritis
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Lancet Neurology. - : ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. - 1474-4422 .- 1474-4465. ; 21:12, s. 1120-1134
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • There is no consensus regarding the classification of optic neuritis, and precise diagnostic criteria are not available. This reality means that the diagnosis of disorders that have optic neuritis as the first manifestation can be challenging. Accurate diagnosis of optic neuritis at presentation can facilitate the timely treatment of individuals with multiple sclerosis, neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder, or myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody-associated disease. Epidemiological data show that, cumulatively, optic neuritis is most frequently caused by many conditions other than multiple sclerosis. Worldwide, the cause and management of optic neuritis varies with geographical location, treatment availability, and ethnic background. We have developed diagnostic criteria for optic neuritis and a classification of optic neuritis subgroups. Our diagnostic criteria are based on clinical features that permit a diagnosis of possible optic neuritis; further paraclinical tests, utilising brain, orbital, and retinal imaging, together with antibody and other protein biomarker data, can lead to a diagnosis of definite optic neuritis. Paraclinical tests can also be applied retrospectively on stored samples and historical brain or retinal scans, which will be useful for future validation studies. Our criteria have the potential to reduce the risk of misdiagnosis, provide information on optic neuritis disease course that can guide future treatment trial design, and enable physicians to judge the likelihood of a need for long-term pharmacological management, which might differ according to optic neuritis subgroups.
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