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  • Pressler, Ronit M., et al. (författare)
  • Bumetanide for the treatment of seizures in newborn babies with hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy (NEMO) : an open-label, dose finding, and feasibility phase 1/2 trial
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Lancet Neurology. - 1474-4422 .- 1474-4465. ; 14:5, s. 469-477
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Predinical data suggest that the loop-diuretic bumetanide might be an effective treatment for neonatal seizures. We aimed to assess dose and feasibility of intravenous bumetanide as an add-on to phenobarbital for treatment of neonatal seizures. Methods In this open-label, dose finding, and feasibility phase 1/2 trial, we recruited full-term infants younger than 48 h who had hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy and electrographic seizures not responding to a loading-dose of phenobarbital from eight neonatal intensive care units across Europe. Newborn babies were allocated to receive an additional dose of phenobarbital and one of four bumetanide dose levels by use of a bivariate Bayesian sequential dose-escalation design to assess safety and efficacy. We assessed adverse events, pharmacokinetics, and seizure burden during 48 h continuous electroencephalogram (EEG) monitoring. The primary efficacy endpoint was a reduction in electrographic seizure burden of more than 80% without the need for rescue antiepileptic drugs in more than 50% of infants. The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01434225. Findings Between Sept 1, 2011, and Sept 28, 2013, we screened 30 infants who had electrographic seizures due to hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy. 14 of these infants (10 boys) were included in the study (dose allocation: 0.05 mg/kg, n=4; 0.1 mg/kg, n=3; 0. 2 mg/kg, n=6; 0.3 mg/kg, n=1). All babies received at least one dose of bumetanide with the second dose of phenobarbital; three were withdrawn for reasons unrelated to bumetanide, and one because of dehydration. All but one infant also received aminoglycosides. Five infants met EEG criteria for seizure reduction (one on 0.05 mg/kg, one on 0.1 mg/kg and three on 0.2 mg/kg), and only two did not need rescue antiepileptic drugs (ie, met rescue criteria; one on 0.05 mg/kg and one on 0.3 mg/kg). We recorded no short-term dose-limiting toxic effects, but three of 11 surviving infants had hearing impairment confirmed on auditory testing between 17 and 108 days of age. The most common non-serious adverse reactions were moderate dehydration in one, mild hypotension in seven, and mild to moderate electrolyte disturbances in 12 infants. The trial was stopped early because of serious adverse reactions and limited evidence for seizure reduction. Interpretation Our findings suggest that bumetanide as an add-on to phenobarbital does not improve seizure control in newborn infants who have hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy and might increase the risk of hearing loss, highlighting the risks associated with the off-label use of drugs in newborn infants before safety assessment in controlled trials.
  • Rostedt Punga, Anna, et al. (författare)
  • Epidemiology, diagnostics, and biomarkers of autoimmune neuromuscular junction disorders
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Lancet Neurology. - : Elsevier BV. - 1474-4422 .- 1474-4465. ; 21:2, s. 176-188
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Autoimmune neuromuscular junction disorders are rare. However, myasthenia gravis is being increasingly recognised in people older than 50 years. In the past 5-10 years, epidemiological studies worldwide suggest an incidence of acetylcholine receptor antibody-positive myasthenia gravis of up to 29 cases per 1 million people per year. Muscle-specific tyrosine kinase antibody-positive myasthenia gravis and Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome are about 20 times less common. Several diagnostic methods are available for autoimmune neuromuscular junction disorders, including serological antibody, electrophysiological, imaging, and pharmacological tests. The course of disease can be followed up with internationally accepted clinical scores or patient-reported outcome measures. For prognostic purposes, determining whether the disease is paraneoplastic is of great importance, as myasthenia gravis can be associated with thymoma and Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome with small-cell lung cancer. However, despite well defined diagnostic parameters to classify patients into subgroups, objective biomarkers for use in the clinic or in clinical trials to predict the course of myasthenia gravis and Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome are needed.
  • Ryvlin, Philippe, et al. (författare)
  • Incidence and mechanisms of cardiorespiratory arrests in epilepsy monitoring units (MORTEMUS) : a retrospective study
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Lancet Neurology. - : Elsevier. - 1474-4422 .- 1474-4465. ; 12:10, s. 966-977
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is the leading cause of death in people with chronic refractory epilepsy. Very rarely, SUDEP occurs in epilepsy monitoring units, providing highly informative data for its still elusive pathophysiology. The MORTEMUS study expanded these data through comprehensive evaluation of cardiorespiratory arrests encountered in epilepsy monitoring units worldwide. Methods Between Jan 1,2008, and Dec 29,2009, we did a systematic retrospective survey of epilepsy monitoring units located in Europe, Israel, Australia, and New Zealand, to retrieve data for all cardiorespiratory arrests recorded in these units and estimate their incidence. Epilepsy monitoring units from other regions were invited to report similar cases to further explore the mechanisms. An expert panel reviewed data, including video electroencephalogram (VEEG) and electrocardiogram material at the time of cardiorespiratory arrests whenever available. Findings 147 (92%) of 160 units responded to the survey. 29 cardiorespiratory arrests, including 16 SUDEP (14 at night), nine near SUDEP, and four deaths from other causes, were reported. Cardiorespiratory data, available for ten cases of SUDEP, showed a consistent and previously unrecognised pattern whereby rapid breathing (18-50 breaths per min) developed after secondary generalised tonic-clonic seizure, followed within 3 min by transient or terminal cardiorespiratory dysfunction. Where transient, this dysfunction later recurred with terminal apnoea occurring within 11 min of the end of the seizure, followed by cardiac arrest. SUDEP incidence in adult epilepsy monitoring units was 5.1 (95% CI 2.6-9.2) per 1000 patient-years, with a risk of 1.2 (0.6-2.1) per 10 000 VEEG monitorings, probably aggravated by suboptimum supervision and possibly by antiepileptic drug withdrawal. Interpretation SUDEP in epilepsy monitoring units primarily follows an early postictal, centrally mediated, severe alteration of respiratory and cardiac function induced by generalised tonic-clonic seizure, leading to immediate death or a short period of partly restored cardiorespiratory function followed by terminal apnoea then cardiac arrest. Improved supervision is warranted in epilepsy monitoring units, in particular during night time.
  • Sandercock, Peter, et al. (författare)
  • Effect of thrombolysis with alteplase within 6 h of acute ischaemic stroke on long-term outcomes (the third International Stroke Trial [IST-3]) : 18-month follow-up of a randomised controlled trial.
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Lancet Neurology. - 1474-4422 .- 1474-4465. ; 12:8, s. 768-76
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Few data are available from randomised trials about the effect of thrombolysis with alteplase on long-term functional outcome in patients who have had acute ischaemic stroke and no trial has reported effects on health-related quality of life. A secondary objective of the third International Stroke Trial (IST-3) was to assess the effect of thrombolysis on such outcomes at 18 months.METHODS: In this open-label, international, multicentre, randomised, controlled trial, 3035 patients with ischaemic stroke from 12 countries were randomly allocated within 6 h of onset via a secure central system to either intravenous alteplase (0·9 mg/kg; n=1515) plus standard care or standard care alone (control; n=1520). 2348 patients were scheduled for 18-month follow-up. For our main analysis, survivors were assessed at 18 months with the Oxford handicap scale (OHS; the primary outcome was the adjusted odds of OHS score 0-2). We also used the EuroQoL (EQ) instrument and asked questions about overall functioning and living circumstances. We analysed the OHS and the five EQ domains by ordinal logistic regression and calculated the mean difference between treatment groups in EQ utility index and visual analogue scale score. Analyses were adjusted for key baseline prognostic factors. This study is registered with controlled-trials.com, number ISRCTN25765518.FINDINGS: At 18 months, 408 (34·9%) of 1169 patients in the alteplase group versus 414 (35·1%) of 1179 in the control group had died (p=0·85). 391 (35·0%) of 1117 patients versus 352 (31·4%) of 1122 had an OHS score of 0-2 (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1·28, 95% CI 1·03-1·57; p=0·024). Treatment was associated with a favourable shift in the distribution of OHS grades (adjusted common OR 1·30, 95% CI 1·10-1·55; p=0·002). Alteplase treatment was associated with significantly higher overall self-reported health (adjusted mean difference in EQ utility index 0·060; p=0·019). The differences between the groups in visual analogue scale score and the proportion living at home were not significant.INTERPRETATION: IST-3 provides evidence that thrombolysis with intravenous alteplase for acute ischaemic stroke does not affect survival, but does lead to statistically significant, clinically relevant improvements in functional outcome and health-related quality of life that are sustained for at least 18 months.FUNDING: UK Medical Research Council, Health Foundation UK, Stroke Association UK, Research Council of Norway, AFA Insurances Sweden, Swedish Heart Lung Fund, The Foundation of Marianne and Marcus Wallenberg, Polish Ministry of Science and Education, the Australian Heart Foundation, Australian National Health and Medical Research Council, Swiss National Research Foundation, Swiss Heart Foundation, Assessorato alla Sanita (Regione dell'Umbria, Italy), and Danube University.
  • Shatunov, Aleksey, et al. (författare)
  • Chromosome 9p21 in sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in the UK and seven other countries : a genome-wide association study
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Lancet Neurology. - 1474-4422 .- 1474-4465. ; 9:10, s. 986-994
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We have found strong evidence of a genetic association of two single nucleotide polymorphisms on chromosome 9 with sporadic ALS, in line with findings from previous independent GWAS of ALS and linkage studies of ALS-frontotemporal dementia. Our findings together with these earlier findings suggest that genetic variation at this locus on chromosome 9 causes sporadic ALS and familial ALS-frontotemporal dementia. Resequencing studies and then functional analysis should be done to identify the defective gene.
  • Siclari, Francesca, et al. (författare)
  • Dreams and nightmares in healthy adults and in patients with sleep and neurological disorders
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Lancet Neurology. - : Elsevier. - 1474-4422 .- 1474-4465. ; 19:10, s. 849-859
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Dreams are experiences that occur during sleep, while we are disconnected from the environment. Thanks to recent progress in neuroimaging techniques, it is now becoming possible to relate dream features to specific patterns of brain activity. Some conditions occurring in patients with neurological disorders, such as lucid dreams and parasomnias, not only have diagnostic value, but also offer a window into the dream process. They show that dreaming is reflected in physiological signals, behaviours, and brain activity patterns, and that the body can enact dream content. Yet, the dream body can also be distinct from the real body; in their dreams, patients with congenital paraplegia can walk, those with sleep apnoea rarely suffocate, and phantom limb pain can disappear. These conditions provide valuable models for future studies investigating the mechanisms that underlie oneiric experiences. 
  • Smith, A. David, et al. (författare)
  • Dementia research priorities-2
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Lancet Neurology. - 1474-4422 .- 1474-4465. ; 16:3, s. 181-182
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • Steyerberg., Ewout W, et al. (författare)
  • Case-mix, care pathways, and outcomes in patients with traumatic brain injury in CENTER-TBI : a European prospective, multicentre, longitudinal, cohort study
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Lancet Neurology. - : Elsevier. - 1474-4422 .- 1474-4465. ; 18:10, s. 923-934
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: The burden of traumatic brain injury (TBI) poses a large public health and societal problem, but the characteristics of patients and their care pathways in Europe are poorly understood. We aimed to characterise patient case-mix, care pathways, and outcomes of TBI.METHODS: CENTER-TBI is a Europe-based, observational cohort study, consisting of a core study and a registry. Inclusion criteria for the core study were a clinical diagnosis of TBI, presentation fewer than 24 h after injury, and an indication for CT. Patients were differentiated by care pathway and assigned to the emergency room (ER) stratum (patients who were discharged from an emergency room), admission stratum (patients who were admitted to a hospital ward), or intensive care unit (ICU) stratum (patients who were admitted to the ICU). Neuroimages and biospecimens were stored in repositories and outcome was assessed at 6 months after injury. We used the IMPACT core model for estimating the expected mortality and proportion with unfavourable Glasgow Outcome Scale Extended (GOSE) outcomes in patients with moderate or severe TBI (Glasgow Coma Scale [GCS] score ≤12). The core study was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02210221, and with Resource Identification Portal (RRID: SCR_015582).FINDINGS: Data from 4509 patients from 18 countries, collected between Dec 9, 2014, and Dec 17, 2017, were analysed in the core study and from 22 782 patients in the registry. In the core study, 848 (19%) patients were in the ER stratum, 1523 (34%) in the admission stratum, and 2138 (47%) in the ICU stratum. In the ICU stratum, 720 (36%) patients had mild TBI (GCS score 13-15). Compared with the core cohort, the registry had a higher proportion of patients in the ER (9839 [43%]) and admission (8571 [38%]) strata, with more than 95% of patients classified as having mild TBI. Patients in the core study were older than those in previous studies (median age 50 years [IQR 30-66], 1254 [28%] aged >65 years), 462 (11%) had serious comorbidities, 772 (18%) were taking anticoagulant or antiplatelet medication, and alcohol was contributory in 1054 (25%) TBIs. MRI and blood biomarker measurement enhanced characterisation of injury severity and type. Substantial inter-country differences existed in care pathways and practice. Incomplete recovery at 6 months (GOSE <8) was found in 207 (30%) patients in the ER stratum, 665 (53%) in the admission stratum, and 1547 (84%) in the ICU stratum. Among patients with moderate-to-severe TBI in the ICU stratum, 623 (55%) patients had unfavourable outcome at 6 months (GOSE <5), similar to the proportion predicted by the IMPACT prognostic model (observed to expected ratio 1·06 [95% CI 0·97-1·14]), but mortality was lower than expected (0·70 [0·62-0·76]).INTERPRETATION: Patients with TBI who presented to European centres in the core study were older than were those in previous observational studies and often had comorbidities. Overall, most patients presented with mild TBI. The incomplete recovery of many patients should motivate precision medicine research and the identification of best practices to improve these outcomes.FUNDING: European Union 7th Framework Programme, the Hannelore Kohl Stiftung, OneMind, and Integra LifeSciences Corporation.
  • Svenningsson, Anders, et al. (författare)
  • Safety and efficacy of rituximab versus dimethyl fumarate in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis or clinically isolated syndrome in Sweden: a rater-blinded, phase 3, randomised controlled trial
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Lancet Neurology. - : ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. - 1474-4422 .- 1474-4465. ; 21:8, s. 693-703
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background B-cell depleting therapies are highly efficacious in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis but one such therapy, rituximab, is not approved for multiple sclerosis and no phase 3 trial data are available. We therefore examined the safety and efficacy of rituximab compared with dimethyl fumarate in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis to obtain data that might allow inclusion of rituximab in treatment guidelines. Methods RIFUND-MS was a multicentre, rater-blinded, active-comparator, phase 3, randomised controlled trial done at 17 Swedish university and community hospitals. Key inclusion criteria for participants were: age 18-50 years; relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis or clinically isolated syndrome according to prevailing McDonald criteria; 10 years or less since diagnosis; untreated or only exposed to interferons or glatiramer acetate; and with clinical or neuroradiological disease activity in the past year. Patients were automatically randomly assigned (1:1) by the treating physician using a randomisation module in the Swedish multiple sclerosis registry, without stratification, to oral dimethyl fumarate 240 mg twice daily or to intravenous rituximab 1000 mg followed by 500 mg every 6 months. Relapse evaluation, Expanded Disability Status Scale rating, and assessment of MRI scans were done by examining physicians and radiologists masked to treatment allocation. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients with at least one relapse (defined as subacute onset of new or worsening neurological symptoms compatible with multiple sclerosis with a duration of more than 24 h and preceded by at least 30 days of clinical stability), assessed in an intention-to-treat analysis using log-binomial regression with robust standard errors. This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02746744. Findings Between July 1, 2016, and Dec 18, 2018, 322 patients were screened for eligibility, 200 of whom were randomly assigned to a treatment group (100 assigned to rituximab and 100 assigned to dimethyl fumarate). The last patient completed 24-month follow-up on April 21, 2021. 98 patients in the rituximab group and 97 patients in the dimethyl fumarate group were eligible for the primary outcome analysis. Three (3%) patients in the rituximab group and 16 (16%) patients in the dimethyl fumarate group had a protocol-defined relapse during the trial, corresponding to a risk ratio of 0.19 (95% CI 0.06-0.62; p=0.0060). Infusion reactions (105 events [40.9 per 100 patient-years]) in the rituximab group and gastrointestinal reactions (65 events [47.4 per 100 patient-years]) and flush (65 events [47.4 per 100 patient-years]) in the dimethyl fumarate group were the most prevalent adverse events. There were no safety concerns. Interpretation RIFUND-MS provides evidence that rituximab given as 1000 mg followed by 500 mg every 6 months is superior to dimethyl fumarate in preventing relapses over 24 months in patients with early relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. Health economic and long-term safety studies of rituximab in patients with multiple sclerosis are needed.
  • Tomson, Torbjorn, et al. (författare)
  • Comparative risk of major congenital malformations with eight different antiepileptic drugs : a prospective cohort study of the EURAP registry
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Lancet Neurology. - : ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. - 1474-4422 .- 1474-4465. ; 17:6, s. 530-538
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Evidence for the comparative teratogenic risk of antiepileptic drugs is insufficient, particularly in relation to the dosage used. Therefore, we aimed to compare the occurrence of major congenital malformations following prenatal exposure to the eight most commonly used antiepileptic drugs in monotherapy. Methods We did a longitudinal, prospective cohort study based on the EURAP international registry. We included data from pregnancies in women who were exposed to antiepileptic drug monotherapy at conception, prospectively identified from 42 countries contributing to EURAP. Follow-up data were obtained after each trimester, at birth, and 1 year after birth. The primary objective was to compare the risk of major congenital malformations assessed at 1 year after birth in offspring exposed prenatally to one of eight commonly used antiepileptic drugs (carbamazepine, lamotrigine, levetiracetam, oxcarbazepine, phenobarbital, phenytoin, topiramate, and valproate) and, whenever a dose dependency was identified, to compare the risks at different dose ranges. Logistic regression was used to make direct comparisons between treatments after adjustment for potential confounders and prognostic factors. Findings Between June 20, 1999, and May 20, 2016, 7555 prospective pregnancies met the eligibility criteria. Of those eligible, 7355 pregnancies were exposed to one of the eight antiepileptic drugs for which the prevalence of major congenital malformations was 142 (10.3%) of 1381 pregnancies for valproate, 19 (6.5%) of 294 for phenobarbital, eight (6.4%) of 125 for phenytoin, 107 (5 .5%) of 1957 for carbamazepine, six (3.9%) of 152 for topiramate, ten (3.0%) of 333 for oxcarbazepine, 74 (2.9%) of 2514 for lamotrigine, and 17 (2.8%) of 599 for levetiracetam. The prevalence of major congenital malformations increased with the dose at time of conception for carbamazepine (p=0.0140), lamotrigine (p=0.0145), phenobarbital (13=0.0390), and valproate (p<0.0001). After adjustment, multivariable analysis showed that the prevalence of major congenital malformations was significantly higher for all doses of carbamazepine and valproate as well as for phenobarbital at doses of more than 80 mg/day than for lamotrigine at doses of 325 mg/day or less. Valproate at doses of 650 mg/day or less was also associated with increased risk of major congenital malformations compared with levetiracetam at doses of 250-4000 mg/day (odds ratio [OR] 2.43, 95% CI 1.30-4.55; p=0.0069). Carbamazepine at doses of more than 700 mg/day was associated with increased risk of major congenital malformations compared with levetiracetam at doses of 250-4000 mg/day (OR 2.41, 95% CI 1.33-4.38; p=0.0055) and oxcarbazepine at doses of 75-4500 mg/day (2.37, 1.17-4.80; 13=0.0169). Interpretation Different antiepileptic drugs and dosages have different teratogenic risks. Risks of major congenital malformation associated with lamotrigine, levetiracetam, and oxcarbazepine were within the range reported in the literature for offspring unexposed to antiepileptic drugs. These findings facilitate rational selection of these drugs, taking into account comparative risks associated with treatment alternatives. Data for topiramate and phenytoin should be interpreted cautiously because of the small number of exposures in this study. Copyright (C) 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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