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  • Monbaliu, E., et al. (författare)
  • Clinical presentation and management of dyskinetic cerebral palsy
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Lancet Neurology. - 1474-4422 .- 1474-4465. ; 16:9, s. 741-749
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Cerebral palsy is the most frequent cause of severe physical disability in childhood. Dyskinetic cerebral palsy (DCP) is the second most common type of cerebral palsy after spastic forms. DCP is typically caused by non-progressive lesions to the basal ganglia or thalamus, or both, and is characterised by abnormal postures or movements associated with impaired tone regulation or movement coordination. In DCP, two major movement disorders, dystonia and choreoathetosis, are present together most of the time. Dystonia is often more pronounced and severe than choreoathetosis, with a major effect on daily activity, quality of life, and societal participation. The pathophysiology of both movement disorders is largely unknown. Some emerging hypotheses are an imbalance between indirect and direct basal ganglia pathways, disturbed sensory processing, and impaired plasticity in the basal ganglia. Rehabilitation strategies are typically multidisciplinary. Use of oral drugs to provide symptomatic relief of the movement disorders is limited by adverse effects and the scarcity of evidence that the drugs are effective. Neuromodulation interventions, such as intrathecal baclofen and deep brain stimulation, are promising options.
  • Ngugi, Anthony K., et al. (författare)
  • Prevalence of active convulsive epilepsy in sub-Saharan Africa and associated risk factors : cross-sectional and case-control studies
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Lancet Neurology. - 1474-4422 .- 1474-4465. ; 12:3, s. 253-263
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background The prevalence of epilepsy in sub-Saharan Africa seems to be higher than in other parts of the world, but estimates vary substantially for unknown reasons. We assessed the prevalence and risk factors of active convulsive epilepsy across five centres in this region. Methods We did large population-based cross-sectional and case-control studies in five Health and Demographic Surveillance System centres: Kilifi, Kenya (Dec 3, 2007-July 31, 2008); Agincourt, South Africa (Aug 4, 2008-Feb 27, 2009); Iganga-Mayuge, Uganda (Feb 2, 2009-Oct 30, 2009); Ifakara, Tanzania (May 4, 2009-Dec 31, 2009); and Kintampo, Ghana (Aug 2, 2010-April 29, 2011). We used a three-stage screening process to identify people with active convulsive epilepsy. Prevalence was estimated as the ratio of confirmed cases to the population screened and was adjusted for sensitivity and attrition between stages. For each case, an age-matched control individual was randomly selected from the relevant centre's census database. Fieldworkers masked to the status of the person they were interviewing administered questionnaires to individuals with active convulsive epilepsy and control individuals to assess sociodemographic variables and historical risk factors (perinatal events, head injuries, and diet). Blood samples were taken from a randomly selected subgroup of 300 participants with epilepsy and 300 control individuals from each centre and were screened for antibodies to Toxocara canis, Toxoplasma gondii, Onchocerca volvulus, Plasmodium falciparum, Taenia solium, and HIV. We estimated odds ratios (ORs) with logistic regression, adjusted for age, sex, education, employment, and marital status. Results 586 607 residents in the study areas were screened in stage one, of whom 1711 were diagnosed as having active convulsive epilepsy. Prevalence adjusted for attrition and sensitivity varied between sites: 7.8 per 1000 people (95% CI 7.5-8.2) in Kilifi, 7.0 (6.2-7.4) in Agincourt, 10.3 (9.5-11.1) in Iganga-Mayuge, 14.8 (13.8-15.4) in Ifakara, and 10.1 (9.5-10.7) in Kintampo. The 1711 individuals with the disorder and 2032 control individuals were given questionnaires. In children (aged <18 years), the greatest relative increases in prevalence were associated with difficulties feeding, crying, or breathing after birth (OR 10.23, 95% CI 5 85-1788; p<0.0001); abnormal antenatal periods (2.15, 1.53-3.02; p<0.0001); and head injury (1.97, 1.28-3.03; p=0.002). In adults (aged >= 18 years), the disorder was significantly associated with admission to hospital with malaria or fever (2.28, 1.06-4.92; p=0.036), exposure to T canis (1.74, 1.27-2.40; p=0.0006), exposure to T gondii (1.39, 1.05-1.84; p=0.021), and exposure to 0 volvulus (2.23, 1.56-3.19; p<0.0001). Hypertension (2.13, 1.08-4.20; p=0.029) and exposure to T solium (7.03, 2.06-24.00; p=0.002) were risk factors for adult-onset disease. Interpretation The prevalence of active convulsive epilepsy varies in sub-Saharan Africa and that the variation is probably a result of differences in risk factors. Programmes to control parasitic diseases and interventions to improve antenatal and perinatal care could substantially reduce the prevalence of epilepsy in this region.
  • Nichols, Emma, et al. (författare)
  • Global, regional, and national burden of Alzheimer's disease and other dementias, 1990-2016 : a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Lancet Neurology. - : Elsevier. - 1474-4422 .- 1474-4465. ; 18:1, s. 88-106
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: The number of individuals living with dementia is increasing, negatively affecting families, communities, and health-care systems around the world. A successful response to these challenges requires an accurate understanding of the dementia disease burden. We aimed to present the first detailed analysis of the global prevalence, mortality, and overall burden of dementia as captured by the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors (GBD) Study 2016, and highlight the most important messages for clinicians and neurologists.Methods: GBD 2016 obtained data on dementia from vital registration systems, published scientific literature and surveys, and data from health-service encounters on deaths, excess mortality, prevalence, and incidence from 195 countries and territories from 1990 to 2016, through systematic review and additional data-seeking efforts. To correct for differences in cause of death coding across time and locations, we modelled mortality due to dementia using prevalence data and estimates of excess mortality derived from countries that were most likely to code deaths to dementia relative to prevalence. Data were analysed by standardised methods to estimate deaths, prevalence, years of life lost (YLLs), years of life lived with disability (YLDs), and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs; computed as the sum of YLLs and YLDs), and the fractions of these metrics that were attributable to four risk factors that met GBD criteria for assessment (high body-mass index [BMI], high fasting plasma glucose, smoking, and a diet high in sugarsweetened beverages).Findings: In 2016, the global number of individuals who lived with dementia was 43.8 million (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 3 7. 8-51.0), increased from 20.2 million (17. 4-23 5) in 1990. This increase of 117% (95% UI 114-121) contrasted with a minor increase in age-standardised prevalence of 1.7% (1.0-2.4), from 701 cases (95% UI 602-815) per 100 000 population in 1990 to 712 cases (614-828) per 100 000 population in 2016. More women than men had dementia in 2016 (27.0 million, 95% UI 23 .3-31. 4, vs 16.8 million, 14.4-19.6), and dementia was the fifth leading cause of death globally, accounting for 2.4 million (95% UI 2.1-2.8) deaths. Overall, 28.8 million (95% UI 24. 5-34. 0) DALYs were attributed to dementia; 6.4 million (95% UI 3 .4-10. 5) of these could be attributed to the modifiable GBD risk factors of high BMI, high fasting plasma glucose, smoking, and a high intake of sugar-sweetened beverages.Interpretation: The global number of people living with dementia more than doubled from 1990 to 2016, mainly due to increases in population ageing and growth. Although differences in coding for causes of death and the heterogeneity in case-ascertainment methods constitute major challenges to the estimation of the burden of dementia, future analyses should improve on the methods for the correction of these biases. Until breakthroughs are made in prevention or curative treatment, dementia will constitute an increasing challenge to health-care systems worldwide.
  • Petzold, Axel, et al. (författare)
  • Diagnosis and classification of optic neuritis
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Lancet Neurology. - : ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. - 1474-4422 .- 1474-4465. ; 21:12, s. 1120-1134
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • There is no consensus regarding the classification of optic neuritis, and precise diagnostic criteria are not available. This reality means that the diagnosis of disorders that have optic neuritis as the first manifestation can be challenging. Accurate diagnosis of optic neuritis at presentation can facilitate the timely treatment of individuals with multiple sclerosis, neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder, or myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody-associated disease. Epidemiological data show that, cumulatively, optic neuritis is most frequently caused by many conditions other than multiple sclerosis. Worldwide, the cause and management of optic neuritis varies with geographical location, treatment availability, and ethnic background. We have developed diagnostic criteria for optic neuritis and a classification of optic neuritis subgroups. Our diagnostic criteria are based on clinical features that permit a diagnosis of possible optic neuritis; further paraclinical tests, utilising brain, orbital, and retinal imaging, together with antibody and other protein biomarker data, can lead to a diagnosis of definite optic neuritis. Paraclinical tests can also be applied retrospectively on stored samples and historical brain or retinal scans, which will be useful for future validation studies. Our criteria have the potential to reduce the risk of misdiagnosis, provide information on optic neuritis disease course that can guide future treatment trial design, and enable physicians to judge the likelihood of a need for long-term pharmacological management, which might differ according to optic neuritis subgroups.
  • Pressler, Ronit M., et al. (författare)
  • Bumetanide for the treatment of seizures in newborn babies with hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy (NEMO) : an open-label, dose finding, and feasibility phase 1/2 trial
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Lancet Neurology. - 1474-4422 .- 1474-4465. ; 14:5, s. 469-477
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Predinical data suggest that the loop-diuretic bumetanide might be an effective treatment for neonatal seizures. We aimed to assess dose and feasibility of intravenous bumetanide as an add-on to phenobarbital for treatment of neonatal seizures. Methods In this open-label, dose finding, and feasibility phase 1/2 trial, we recruited full-term infants younger than 48 h who had hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy and electrographic seizures not responding to a loading-dose of phenobarbital from eight neonatal intensive care units across Europe. Newborn babies were allocated to receive an additional dose of phenobarbital and one of four bumetanide dose levels by use of a bivariate Bayesian sequential dose-escalation design to assess safety and efficacy. We assessed adverse events, pharmacokinetics, and seizure burden during 48 h continuous electroencephalogram (EEG) monitoring. The primary efficacy endpoint was a reduction in electrographic seizure burden of more than 80% without the need for rescue antiepileptic drugs in more than 50% of infants. The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01434225. Findings Between Sept 1, 2011, and Sept 28, 2013, we screened 30 infants who had electrographic seizures due to hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy. 14 of these infants (10 boys) were included in the study (dose allocation: 0.05 mg/kg, n=4; 0.1 mg/kg, n=3; 0. 2 mg/kg, n=6; 0.3 mg/kg, n=1). All babies received at least one dose of bumetanide with the second dose of phenobarbital; three were withdrawn for reasons unrelated to bumetanide, and one because of dehydration. All but one infant also received aminoglycosides. Five infants met EEG criteria for seizure reduction (one on 0.05 mg/kg, one on 0.1 mg/kg and three on 0.2 mg/kg), and only two did not need rescue antiepileptic drugs (ie, met rescue criteria; one on 0.05 mg/kg and one on 0.3 mg/kg). We recorded no short-term dose-limiting toxic effects, but three of 11 surviving infants had hearing impairment confirmed on auditory testing between 17 and 108 days of age. The most common non-serious adverse reactions were moderate dehydration in one, mild hypotension in seven, and mild to moderate electrolyte disturbances in 12 infants. The trial was stopped early because of serious adverse reactions and limited evidence for seizure reduction. Interpretation Our findings suggest that bumetanide as an add-on to phenobarbital does not improve seizure control in newborn infants who have hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy and might increase the risk of hearing loss, highlighting the risks associated with the off-label use of drugs in newborn infants before safety assessment in controlled trials.
  • Rostedt Punga, Anna, et al. (författare)
  • Epidemiology, diagnostics, and biomarkers of autoimmune neuromuscular junction disorders
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Lancet Neurology. - : Elsevier. - 1474-4422 .- 1474-4465. ; 21:2, s. 176-188
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Autoimmune neuromuscular junction disorders are rare. However, myasthenia gravis is being increasingly recognised in people older than 50 years. In the past 5-10 years, epidemiological studies worldwide suggest an incidence of acetylcholine receptor antibody-positive myasthenia gravis of up to 29 cases per 1 million people per year. Muscle-specific tyrosine kinase antibody-positive myasthenia gravis and Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome are about 20 times less common. Several diagnostic methods are available for autoimmune neuromuscular junction disorders, including serological antibody, electrophysiological, imaging, and pharmacological tests. The course of disease can be followed up with internationally accepted clinical scores or patient-reported outcome measures. For prognostic purposes, determining whether the disease is paraneoplastic is of great importance, as myasthenia gravis can be associated with thymoma and Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome with small-cell lung cancer. However, despite well defined diagnostic parameters to classify patients into subgroups, objective biomarkers for use in the clinic or in clinical trials to predict the course of myasthenia gravis and Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome are needed.
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