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Sökning: L773:1476 5578 > (2020-2022) > (2021)

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  • Föregående 12[3]4567Nästa
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  • Gialluisi, A, et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide association study reveals new insights into the heritability and genetic correlates of developmental dyslexia
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Molecular psychiatry. - : Springer Science and Business Media LLC. - 1476-5578 .- 1359-4184. ; 26:7, s. 3004-3017
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Developmental dyslexia (DD) is a learning disorder affecting the ability to read, with a heritability of 40–60%. A notable part of this heritability remains unexplained, and large genetic studies are warranted to identify new susceptibility genes and clarify the genetic bases of dyslexia. We carried out a genome-wide association study (GWAS) on 2274 dyslexia cases and 6272 controls, testing associations at the single variant, gene, and pathway level, and estimating heritability using single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data. We also calculated polygenic scores (PGSs) based on large-scale GWAS data for different neuropsychiatric disorders and cortical brain measures, educational attainment, and fluid intelligence, testing them for association with dyslexia status in our sample. We observed statistically significant (p  < 2.8 × 10−6) enrichment of associations at the gene level, forLOC388780(20p13; uncharacterized gene), and forVEPH1(3q25), a gene implicated in brain development. We estimated an SNP-based heritability of 20–25% for DD, and observed significant associations of dyslexia risk with PGSs for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (atpT = 0.05 in the training GWAS: OR = 1.23[1.16; 1.30] per standard deviation increase;p  = 8 × 10−13), bipolar disorder (1.53[1.44; 1.63];p = 1 × 10−43), schizophrenia (1.36[1.28; 1.45];p = 4 × 10−22), psychiatric cross-disorder susceptibility (1.23[1.16; 1.30];p = 3 × 10−12), cortical thickness of the transverse temporal gyrus (0.90[0.86; 0.96];p = 5 × 10−4), educational attainment (0.86[0.82; 0.91];p = 2 × 10−7), and intelligence (0.72[0.68; 0.76];p = 9 × 10−29). This study suggests an important contribution of common genetic variants to dyslexia risk, and novel genomic overlaps with psychiatric conditions like bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and cross-disorder susceptibility. Moreover, it revealed the presence of shared genetic foundations with a neural correlate previously implicated in dyslexia by neuroimaging evidence.
  • Göteson, Andreas, 1991, et al. (författare)
  • Cerebrospinal fluid proteomics targeted for central nervous system processes in bipolar disorder
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Molecular Psychiatry. - : Springer Science and Business Media LLC. - 1359-4184 .- 1476-5578. ; 26, s. 7446-53
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The etiopathology of bipolar disorder is largely unknown. We collected cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from two independent case-control cohorts (total n = 351) to identify proteins associated with bipolar disorder. A panel of 92 proteins targeted towards central nervous system processes identified two proteins that replicated across the cohorts: the CSF concentrations of testican-1 were lower, and the CSF concentrations of C-type lectin domain family 1 member B (CLEC1B) were higher, in cases than controls. In a restricted subgroup analysis, we compared only bipolar type 1 with controls and identified two additional proteins that replicated in both cohorts: draxin and tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 21 (TNFRSF21), both lower in cases than controls. This analysis additionally revealed several proteins significantly associated with bipolar type 1 in one cohort, falling just short of replicated statistical significance in the other (tenascin-R, disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain-containing protein 23, cell adhesion molecule 3, RGM domain family member B, plexin-B1, and brorin). Next, we conducted genome-wide association analyses of the case-control-associated proteins. In these analyses, we found associations with the voltage-gated calcium channel subunit CACNG4, and the lipid-droplet-associated gene PLIN5 with CSF concentrations of TNFRSF21 and CLEC1B, respectively. The reported proteins are involved in neuronal cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions, particularly in the developing brain, and in pathways of importance for lithium's mechanism of action. In summary, we report four novel CSF protein associations with bipolar disorder that replicated in two independent case-control cohorts, shedding new light on the central nervous system processes implicated in bipolar disorder.
  • Hampel, H., et al. (författare)
  • The Amyloid-beta Pathway in Alzheimer's Disease
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Molecular Psychiatry. - : Springer Science and Business Media LLC. - 1359-4184 .- 1476-5578. ; 26, s. 5481-5503
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Breakthroughs in molecular medicine have positioned the amyloid-beta (A beta) pathway at the center of Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathophysiology. While the detailed molecular mechanisms of the pathway and the spatial-temporal dynamics leading to synaptic failure, neurodegeneration, and clinical onset are still under intense investigation, the established biochemical alterations of the A beta cycle remain the core biological hallmark of AD and are promising targets for the development of disease-modifying therapies. Here, we systematically review and update the vast state-of-the-art literature of A beta science with evidence from basic research studies to human genetic and multi-modal biomarker investigations, which supports a crucial role of A beta pathway dyshomeostasis in AD pathophysiological dynamics. We discuss the evidence highlighting a differentiated interaction of distinct A beta species with other AD-related biological mechanisms, such as tau-mediated, neuroimmune and inflammatory changes, as well as a neurochemical imbalance. Through the lens of the latest development of multimodal in vivo biomarkers of AD, this cross-disciplinary review examines the compelling hypothesis- and data-driven rationale for A beta-targeting therapeutic strategies in development for the early treatment of AD.
  • Hjorth, Olof, et al. (författare)
  • Expression and co-expression of serotonin and dopamine transporters in social anxiety disorder : a multitracer positron emission tomography study
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Molecular Psychiatry. - : Springer Nature. - 1359-4184 .- 1476-5578. ; 26:8, s. 3970-3979
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Serotonin and dopamine are putatively involved in the etiology and treatment of anxiety disorders, but positron emission tomography (PET) studies probing the two neurotransmitters in the same individuals are lacking. The aim of this multitracer PET study was to evaluate the regional expression and co-expression of the transporter proteins for serotonin (SERT) and dopamine (DAT) in patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD). Voxel-wise binding potentials (BPND) for SERT and DAT were determined in 27 patients with SAD and 43 age- and sex-matched healthy controls, using the radioligands [11C]DASB (3-amino-4-(2-dimethylaminomethylphenylsulfanyl)-benzonitrile) and [11C]PE2I (N-(3-iodopro-2E-enyl)-2beta-carbomethoxy-3beta-(4'-methylphenyl)nortropane). Results showed that, within transmitter systems, SAD patients exhibited higher SERT binding in the nucleus accumbens while DAT availability in the amygdala, hippocampus, and putamen correlated positively with symptom severity. At a more lenient statistical threshold, SERT and DAT BPND were also higher in other striatal and limbic regions in patients, and correlated with symptom severity, whereas no brain region showed higher binding in healthy controls. Moreover, SERT/DAT co-expression was significantly higher in SAD patients in the amygdala, nucleus accumbens, caudate, putamen, and posterior ventral thalamus, while lower co-expression was noted in the dorsomedial thalamus. Follow-up logistic regression analysis confirmed that SAD diagnosis was significantly predicted by the statistical interaction between SERT and DAT availability, in the amygdala, putamen, and dorsomedial thalamus. Thus, SAD was associated with mainly increased expression and co-expression of the transporters for serotonin and dopamine in fear and reward-related brain regions. Resultant monoamine dysregulation may underlie SAD symptomatology and constitute a target for treatment.
  • Jia, TY, et al. (författare)
  • Epigenome-wide meta-analysis of blood DNA methylation and its association with subcortical volumes: findings from the ENIGMA Epigenetics Working Group
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Molecular psychiatry. - : Springer Science and Business Media LLC. - 1476-5578 .- 1359-4184. ; 26:8, s. 3884-3895
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • DNA methylation, which is modulated by both genetic factors and environmental exposures, may offer a unique opportunity to discover novel biomarkers of disease-related brain phenotypes, even when measured in other tissues than brain, such as blood. A few studies of small sample sizes have revealed associations between blood DNA methylation and neuropsychopathology, however, large-scale epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS) are needed to investigate the utility of DNA methylation profiling as a peripheral marker for the brain. Here, in an analysis of eleven international cohorts, totalling 3337 individuals, we report epigenome-wide meta-analyses of blood DNA methylation with volumes of the hippocampus, thalamus and nucleus accumbens (NAcc)—three subcortical regions selected for their associations with disease and heritability and volumetric variability. Analyses of individual CpGs revealed genome-wide significant associations with hippocampal volume at two loci. No significant associations were found for analyses of thalamus and nucleus accumbens volumes. Cluster-based analyses revealed additional differentially methylated regions (DMRs) associated with hippocampal volume. DNA methylation at these loci affected expression of proximal genes involved in learning and memory, stem cell maintenance and differentiation, fatty acid metabolism and type-2 diabetes. These DNA methylation marks, their interaction with genetic variants and their impact on gene expression offer new insights into the relationship between epigenetic variation and brain structure and may provide the basis for biomarker discovery in neurodegeneration and neuropsychiatric conditions.
  • Jia, X. M., et al. (författare)
  • Investigating rare pathogenic/likely pathogenic exonic variation in bipolar disorder
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Molecular Psychiatry. - : Springer Science and Business Media LLC. - 1359-4184 .- 1476-5578. ; 26:9, s. 5239-5250
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Bipolar disorder (BD) is a serious mental illness with substantial common variant heritability. However, the role of rare coding variation in BD is not well established. We examined the protein-coding (exonic) sequences of 3,987 unrelated individuals with BD and 5,322 controls of predominantly European ancestry across four cohorts from the Bipolar Sequencing Consortium (BSC). We assessed the burden of rare, protein-altering, single nucleotide variants classified as pathogenic or likely pathogenic (P-LP) both exome-wide and within several groups of genes with phenotypic or biologic plausibility in BD. While we observed an increased burden of rare coding P-LP variants within 165 genes identified as BD GWAS regions in 3,987 BD cases (meta-analysis OR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.3-2.8, one-sided p = 6.0 x 10(-4)), this enrichment did not replicate in an additional 9,929 BD cases and 14,018 controls (OR = 0.9, one-side p = 0.70). Although BD shares common variant heritability with schizophrenia, in the BSC sample we did not observe a significant enrichment of P-LP variants in SCZ GWAS genes, in two classes of neuronal synaptic genes (RBFOX2 and FMRP) associated with SCZ or in loss-of-function intolerant genes. In this study, the largest analysis of exonic variation in BD, individuals with BD do not carry a replicable enrichment of rare P-LP variants across the exome or in any of several groups of genes with biologic plausibility. Moreover, despite a strong shared susceptibility between BD and SCZ through common genetic variation, we do not observe an association between BD risk and rare P-LP coding variants in genes known to modulate risk for SCZ.
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  • Föregående 12[3]4567Nästa
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