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Sökning: L773:1476 5578 > (2020-2022) > (2021)

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41.
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45.
  • Luptáková, Dominika, et al. (författare)
  • Neuropharmacokinetic visualization of regional and subregional unbound antipsychotic drug transport across the blood-brain barrier.
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Molecular Psychiatry. - : Springer Nature. - 1359-4184 .- 1476-5578. ; 26, s. 7732-7745
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Comprehensive determination of the extent of drug transport across the region-specific blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a major challenge in preclinical studies. Multiple approaches are needed to determine the regional free (unbound) drug concentration at which a drug engages with its therapeutic target. We present an approach that merges in vivo and in vitro neuropharmacokinetic investigations with mass spectrometry imaging to quantify and visualize both the extent of unbound drug BBB transport and the post-BBB cerebral distribution of drugs at regional and subregional levels. Direct imaging of the antipsychotic drugs risperidone, clozapine, and olanzapine using this approach enabled differentiation of regional and subregional BBB transport characteristics at 20-µm resolution in small brain regions, which could not be achieved by other means. Our approach allows investigation of heterogeneity in BBB transport and presents new possibilities for molecular psychiatrists by facilitating interpretation of regional target-site exposure results and decision-making.
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46.
  • McWhinney, Sean R, et al. (författare)
  • Association between body mass index and subcortical brain volumes in bipolar disorders-ENIGMA study in 2735 individuals.
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Molecular psychiatry. - : Springer Science and Business Media LLC. - 1476-5578 .- 1359-4184. ; 26:11, s. 6806-6819
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Individuals with bipolar disorders (BD) frequently suffer from obesity, which is often associated with neurostructural alterations. Yet, the effects of obesity on brain structure in BD are under-researched. We obtained MRI-derived brain subcortical volumes and body mass index (BMI) from 1134 BD and 1601 control individuals from 17 independent research sites within the ENIGMA-BD Working Group. We jointly modeled the effects of BD and BMI on subcortical volumes using mixed-effects modeling and tested for mediation of group differences by obesity using nonparametric bootstrapping. All models controlled for age, sex, hemisphere, total intracranial volume, and data collection site. Relative to controls, individuals with BD had significantly higher BMI, larger lateral ventricular volume, and smaller volumes of amygdala, hippocampus, pallidum, caudate, and thalamus. BMI was positively associated with ventricular and amygdala and negatively with pallidal volumes. When analyzed jointly, both BD and BMI remained associated with volumes of lateral ventricles and amygdala. Adjusting for BMI decreased the BD vs control differences in ventricular volume. Specifically, 18.41% of the association between BD and ventricular volume was mediatedby BMI (Z=2.73, p=0.006). BMI was associated with similar regional brain volumes as BD, including lateral ventricles, amygdala, and pallidum. Higher BMI may in part account for larger ventricles, one of the most replicated findings in BD. Comorbidity with obesity could explain why neurostructural alterations are more pronounced in some individuals with BD. Future prospective brain imaging studies should investigate whether obesity could be a modifiable risk factor for neuroprogression.
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47.
  • Menchon, JM, et al. (författare)
  • A prospective international multi-center study on safety and efficacy of deep brain stimulation for resistant obsessive-compulsive disorder
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Molecular psychiatry. - : Springer Science and Business Media LLC. - 1476-5578 .- 1359-4184. ; 26:4, s. 1234-1247
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been proposed for severe, chronic, treatment-refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients. Although serious adverse events can occur, only a few studies report on the safety profile of DBS for psychiatric disorders. In a prospective, open-label, interventional multi-center study, we examined the safety and efficacy of electrical stimulation in 30 patients with DBS electrodes bilaterally implanted in the anterior limb of the internal capsule. Safety, efficacy, and functionality assessments were performed at 3, 6, and 12 months post implant. An independent Clinical Events Committee classified and coded all adverse events (AEs) according to EN ISO14155:2011. All patients experienced AEs (195 in total), with the majority of these being mild (52% of all AEs) or moderate (37%). Median time to resolution was 22 days for all AEs and the etiology with the highest AE incidence was ‘programming/stimulation’ (in 26 patients), followed by ‘New illness, injury, condition’ (13 patients) and ‘pre-existing condition, worsening or exacerbation’ (11 patients). Sixteen patients reported a total of 36 serious AEs (eight of them in one single patient), mainly transient anxiety and affective symptoms worsening (20 SAEs). Regarding efficacy measures, Y-BOCS reduction was 42% at 12 months and the responder rate was 60%. Improvements in GAF, CGI, and EuroQol-5D index scores were also observed. In sum, although some severe AEs occurred, most AEs were mild or moderate, transient and related to programming/stimulation and tended to resolve by adjustment of stimulation. In a severely treatment-resistant population, this open-label study supports that the potential benefits outweigh the potential risks of DBS.
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48.
  • Meng, Weida, et al. (författare)
  • Genotype-dependent epigenetic regulation of DLGAP2 in alcohol use and dependence
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Molecular Psychiatry. - : Springer Nature. - 1359-4184 .- 1476-5578. ; 26:8, s. 4367-4382
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Alcohol misuse is a major public health problem originating from genetic and environmental risk factors. Alterations in the brain epigenome may orchestrate changes in gene expression that lead to alcohol misuse and dependence. Through epigenome-wide association analysis of DNA methylation from human brain tissues, we identified a differentially methylated region, DMR-DLGAP2, associated with alcohol dependence. Methylation within DMR-DLGAP2 was found to be genotype-dependent, allele-specific and associated with reward processing in brain. Methylation at the DMR-DLGAP2 regulated expression of DLGAP2 in vitro, and Dlgap2-deficient mice showed reduced alcohol consumption compared with wild-type controls. These results suggest that DLGAP2 may be an interface for genetic and epigenetic factors controlling alcohol use and dependence.
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50.
  • O'Connor, A., et al. (författare)
  • Plasma phospho-tau181 in presymptomatic and symptomatic familial Alzheimer's disease: a longitudinal cohort study
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Molecular Psychiatry. - : Springer Science and Business Media LLC. - 1359-4184 .- 1476-5578. ; 26, s. 5967-5976
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Blood biomarkers have great potential to advance clinical care and accelerate trials in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Plasma phospho-tau181 (p-tau181) is a promising blood biomarker however, it is unknown if levels increase in presymptomatic AD. Therefore, we investigated the timing of p-tau181 changes using 153 blood samples from 70 individuals in a longitudinal study of familial AD (FAD). Plasma p-tau181 was measured, using an in-house single molecule array assay. We compared p-tau181 between symptomatic carriers, presymptomatic carriers, and non-carriers, adjusting for age and sex. We examined the relationship between p-tau181 and neurofilament light and estimated years to/from symptom onset (EYO), as well as years to/from actual onset in a symptomatic subgroup. In addition, we studied associations between p-tau181 and clinical severity, as well testing for differences between genetic subgroups. Twenty-four were presymptomatic carriers (mean baseline EYO -9.6 years) while 27 were non-carriers. Compared with non-carriers, plasma p-tau181 concentration was higher in both symptomatic (p < 0.001) and presymptomatic mutation carriers (p < 0.001). Plasma p-tau181 showed considerable intra-individual variability but individual values discriminated symptomatic (AUC 0.93 [95% CI 0.85-0.98]) and presymptomatic (EYO >= -7 years) (AUC 0.86 [95% CI 0.72-0.94]) carriers from non-carriers of the same age and sex. From a fitted model there was evidence (p = 0.050) that p-tau181 concentrations were higher in mutation carriers than non-carriers from 16 years prior to estimated symptom onset. Our finding that plasma p-tau181 concentration is increased in symptomatic and presymptomatic FAD suggests potential utility as an easily accessible biomarker of AD pathology.
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