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Sökning: L773:1476 5578 > (2020-2022)

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  • Watamura, N, et al. (författare)
  • Somatostatin-evoked Aβ catabolism in the brain: Mechanistic involvement of α-endosulfine-KATP channel pathway
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Molecular psychiatry. - : Springer Science and Business Media LLC. - 1476-5578 .- 1359-4184. ; 27:3, s. 1816-1828
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is characterized by the deposition of amyloid β peptide (Aβ) in the brain. The neuropeptide somatostatin (SST) regulates Aβ catabolism by enhancing neprilysin (NEP)-catalyzed proteolytic degradation. However, the mechanism by which SST regulates NEP activity remains unclear. Here, we identified α-endosulfine (ENSA), an endogenous ligand of the ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channel, as a negative regulator of NEP downstream of SST signaling. The expression of ENSA is significantly increased in AD mouse models and in patients with AD. In addition, NEP directly contributes to the degradation of ENSA, suggesting a substrate-dependent feedback loop regulating NEP activity. We also discovered the specific KATP channel subtype that modulates NEP activity, resulting in the Aβ levels altered in the brain. Pharmacological intervention targeting the particular KATP channel attenuated Aβ deposition, with impaired memory function rescued via the NEP activation in our AD mouse model. Our findings provide a mechanism explaining the molecular link between KATP channel and NEP activation, and give new insights into alternative strategies to prevent AD.
  • Wu, Hemmings, et al. (författare)
  • Deep brain stimulation for refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) : emerging or established therapy?
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Molecular Psychiatry. - : Springer Nature. - 1359-4184 .- 1476-5578. ; 26, s. 60-65
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A consensus has yet to emerge whether deep brain stimulation (DBS) for treatment-refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) can be considered an established therapy. In 2014, the World Society for Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery (WSSFN) published consensus guidelines stating that a therapy becomes established when "at least two blinded randomized controlled clinical trials from two different groups of researchers are published, both reporting an acceptable risk-benefit ratio, at least comparable with other existing therapies. The clinical trials should be on the same brain area for the same psychiatric indication." The authors have now compiled the available evidence to make a clear statement on whether DBS for OCD is established therapy. Two blinded randomized controlled trials have been published, one with level I evidence (Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) score improved 37% during stimulation on), the other with level II evidence (25% improvement). A clinical cohort study (N = 70) showed 40% Y-BOCS score improvement during DBS, and a prospective international multi-center study 42% improvement (N = 30). The WSSFN states that electrical stimulation for otherwise treatment refractory OCD using a multipolar electrode implanted in the ventral anterior capsule region (including bed nucleus of stria terminalis and nucleus accumbens) remains investigational. It represents an emerging, but not yet established therapy. A multidisciplinary team involving psychiatrists and neurosurgeons is a prerequisite for such therapy, and the future of surgical treatment of psychiatric patients remains in the realm of the psychiatrist.
  • Yoon, Sojung, et al. (författare)
  • Differential expression of MicroRNAs in Alzheimer’s disease : a systematic review and meta-analysis
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Molecular Psychiatry. - : Springer Nature. - 1359-4184 .- 1476-5578. ; 27, s. 2405-2413
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Alzheimer’s disease (AD) results in progressive cognitive decline owing to the accumulation of amyloid plaques and hyperphosphorylated tau. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have attracted attention as a putative diagnostic and therapeutic target for neurodegenerative diseases. However, existing meta-analyses on AD and its association with miRNAs have produced inconsistent results. The primary objective of this study is to evaluate the magnitude and consistency of differences in miRNA levels between AD patients, mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients and healthy controls (HC). Articles investigating miRNA levels in blood, brain tissue, or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of AD and MCI patients versus HC were systematically searched in PubMed/Medline from inception to February 16th, 2021. Fixed- and random-effects meta-analyses were complemented with the I2 statistic to measure the heterogeneity, assessment of publication bias, sensitivity subgroup analyses (AD severity, brain region, post-mortem versus ante-mortem specimen for CSF and type of analysis used to quantify miRNA) and functional enrichment pathway analysis. Of the 1512 miRNAs included in 61 articles, 425 meta-analyses were performed on 334 miRNAs. Fifty-six miRNAs were significantly upregulated (n = 40) or downregulated (n = 16) in AD versus HC and all five miRNAs were significantly upregulated in MCI versus HC. Functional enrichment analysis confirmed that pathways related to apoptosis, immune response and inflammation were statistically enriched with upregulated pathways in participants with AD relative to HC. This study confirms that miRNAs’ expression is altered in AD and MCI compared to HC. These findings open new diagnostic and therapeutic perspectives for this disorder.
  • Zetterberg, Henrik, 1973, et al. (författare)
  • Biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease-preparing for a new era of disease-modifying therapies.
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Molecular psychiatry. - : Springer Science and Business Media LLC. - 1476-5578 .- 1359-4184. ; 26:1, s. 296-308
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Clinical trial results presented in 2019 suggest that antibody-based removal of cerebral amyloid β (Aβ) plaques may possibly clear tau tangles and modestly slow cognitive decline in symptomatic Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although regulatory approval of this approach is still pending, preparing the healthcare system for the advent of disease-modifying therapies against AD is imperative. In particular, it will be necessary to identify the most suitable biomarkers to facilitate appropriate treatment of AD. Here, we give an update on recent developments in fluid and imaging biomarkers for AD-related pathologies and discuss potential approaches that could be adopted to screen for and clarify the underlying pathology in people seeking medical advice because of cognitive symptoms. We succinctly review recent data regarding biomarkers for Aβ and tau pathology, neurodegeneration, synaptic dysfunction, and inflammation, highlight the need for further research into common copathologies, and suggest how different biomarkers could be used (most likely in combination) to facilitate the development and clinical implementation of novel drug candidates against AD.
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