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  • Cacciaglia, R, et al. (författare)
  • Age, sex and APOE-ε4 modify the balance between soluble and fibrillar β-amyloid in non-demented individuals: topographical patterns across two independent cohorts
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Molecular psychiatry. - : Springer Science and Business Media LLC. - 1476-5578 .- 1359-4184. ; 27:4, s. 2010-2018
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Amyloid (Aβ) pathology is the earliest detectable pathophysiological event along the Alzheimer’s continuum, which can be measured both in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and by Positron Emission Tomography (PET). Yet, these biomarkers identify two distinct Aβ pools, reflecting the clearance of soluble Aβ as opposed to the presence of Aβ fibrils in the brain. An open question is whether risk factors known to increase Alzheimer’s’ disease (AD) prevalence may promote an imbalance between soluble and deposited Aβ. Unveiling such interactions shall aid our understanding of the biological pathways underlying Aβ deposition and foster the design of effective prevention strategies. We assessed the impact of three major AD risk factors, such as age, APOE-ε4 and female sex, on the association between CSF and PET Aβ, in two independent samples of non-demented individuals (ALFA: n = 320, ADNI: n = 682). We tested our hypotheses both in candidate regions of interest and in the whole brain using voxel-wise non-parametric permutations. All of the assessed risk factors induced a higher Aβ deposition for any given level of CSF Aβ42/40, although in distinct cerebral topologies. While age and sex mapped onto neocortical areas, the effect of APOE-ε4 was prominent in the medial temporal lobe, which represents a target of early tau deposition. Further, we found that the effects of age and APOE-ε4 was stronger in women than in men. Our data indicate that specific AD risk factors affect the spatial patterns of cerebral Aβ aggregation, with APOE-ε4 possibly facilitating a co-localization between Aβ and tau along the disease continuum.
  • Chiotis, Konstantinos, et al. (författare)
  • [F-18]THK5317 imaging as a tool for predicting prospective cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Molecular Psychiatry. - : Springer Nature. - 1359-4184 .- 1476-5578. ; 26:10, s. 5875-5887
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Cross-sectional studies have indicated potential for positron emission tomography (PET) in imaging tau pathology in Alzheimer's disease (AD); however, its prognostic utility remains unproven. In a longitudinal, multi-modal, prognostic study of cognitive decline, 20 patients with a clinical biomarker-based diagnosis in the AD spectrum (mild cognitive impairment or dementia and a positive amyloid-beta PET scan) were recruited from the Cognitive Clinic at Karolinska University Hospital. The participants underwent baseline neuropsychological assessment, PET imaging with [F-18]THK5317, [C-11]PIB and [F-18]FDG, magnetic resonance imaging, and in a subgroup cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) sampling, with clinical follow-up after a median 48 months (interquartile range = 32:56). In total, 11 patients declined cognitively over time, while 9 remained cognitively stable. The accuracy of baseline [F-18]THK5317 binding in temporal areas was excellent at predicting future cognitive decline (area under the receiver operating curve 0.84-1.00) and the biomarker levels were strongly associated with the rate of cognitive decline (beta estimate -33.67 to -31.02,p < 0.05). The predictive accuracy of the other baseline biomarkers was poor (area under the receiver operating curve 0.58-0.77) and their levels were not associated with the rate of cognitive decline (beta estimate -4.64 to 15.78,p > 0.05). Baseline [F-18]THK5317 binding and CSF tau levels were more strongly associated with the MMSE score at follow-up than at baseline (p < 0.05). These findings support a temporal dissociation between tau deposition and cognitive impairment, and suggest that [F-18]THK5317 predicts future cognitive decline better than other biomarkers. The use of imaging markers for tau pathology could prove useful for clinical prognostic assessment and screening before inclusion in relevant clinical trials.
  • Clements, C. C., et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide association study of patients with a severe major depressive episode treated with electroconvulsive therapy
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Molecular Psychiatry. - : Springer Science and Business Media LLC. - 1359-4184 .- 1476-5578. ; 26:10
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Although large genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of major depressive disorder (MDD) have identified many significant loci, the SNP-based heritability remains notably low, which might be due to etiological heterogeneity in existing samples. Here, we test the utility of targeting the severe end of the MDD spectrum through genome-wide SNP genotyping of 2725 cases who received electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) for a major depressive episode (MDE) and 4035 controls. A subset of cases (n = 1796) met a narrow case definition (MDE occurring in the context of MDD). Standard GWAS quality control procedures and imputation were conducted. SNP heritability and genetic correlations with other traits were estimated using linkage disequilibrium score regression. Results were compared with MDD cases of mild-moderate severity receiving internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy (iCBT) and summary results from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC). The SNP-based heritability was estimated at 29-34% (SE: 6%) for the narrow case definition, considerably higher than the 6.5-8.0% estimate in the most recent PGC MDD study. Our severe MDE cases had smaller genetic correlations with neurodevelopmental disorders and neuroticism than PGC MDD cases but higher genetic risk scores for bipolar disorder than iCBT MDD cases. One genome-wide significant locus was identified (rs114583506, P = 5e-8) in an intron of HLA-B in the major histocompatibility locus on chr6. These results indicate that individuals receiving ECT for an MDE have higher burden of common variant risk loci than individuals with mild-moderate MDD. Furthermore, severe MDE shows stronger relations with other severe adult-onset psychiatric disorders but weaker relations with personality and stress-related traits than mild-moderate MDD. These findings suggest a different genetic architecture at the severest end of the spectrum, and support further study of the severest MDD cases as an extreme phenotype approach to understand the etiology of MDD.
  • Córdova-Palomera, Aldo, et al. (författare)
  • Genetic control of variability in subcortical and intracranial volumes
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Molecular Psychiatry. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1359-4184 .- 1476-5578. ; 26:8, s. 3876-3883
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Sensitivity to external demands is essential for adaptation to dynamic environments, but comes at the cost of increased risk of adverse outcomes when facing poor environmental conditions. Here, we apply a novel methodology to perform genome-wide association analysis of mean and variance in ten key brain features (accumbens, amygdala, caudate, hippocampus, pallidum, putamen, thalamus, intracranial volume, cortical surface area, and cortical thickness), integrating genetic and neuroanatomical data from a large lifespan sample (n = 25,575 individuals; 8-89 years, mean age 51.9 years). We identify genetic loci associated with phenotypic variability in thalamus volume and cortical thickness. The variance-controlling loci involved genes with a documented role in brain and mental health and were not associated with the mean anatomical volumes. This proof-of-principle of the hypothesis of a genetic regulation of brain volume variability contributes to establishing the genetic basis of phenotypic variance (i.e., heritability), allows identifying different degrees of brain robustness across individuals, and opens new research avenues in the search for mechanisms controlling brain and mental health.
  • de las Fuentes, Lisa, et al. (författare)
  • Gene-educational attainment interactions in a multi-ancestry genome-wide meta-analysis identify novel blood pressure loci
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Molecular Psychiatry. - : Springer Nature. - 1359-4184 .- 1476-5578. ; 26:6, s. 2111-2125
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Educational attainment is widely used as a surrogate for socioeconomic status (SES). Low SES is a risk factor for hypertension and high blood pressure (BP). To identify novel BP loci, we performed multi-ancestry meta-analyses accounting for gene-educational attainment interactions using two variables, “Some College” (yes/no) and “Graduated College” (yes/no). Interactions were evaluated using both a 1 degree of freedom (DF) interaction term and a 2DF joint test of genetic and interaction effects. Analyses were performed for systolic BP, diastolic BP, mean arterial pressure, and pulse pressure. We pursued genome-wide interrogation in Stage 1 studies (N = 117 438) and follow-up on promising variants in Stage 2 studies (N = 293 787) in five ancestry groups. Through combined meta-analyses of Stages 1 and 2, we identified 84 known and 18 novel BP loci at genome-wide significance level (P < 5 × 10-8). Two novel loci were identified based on the 1DF test of interaction with educational attainment, while the remaining 16 loci were identified through the 2DF joint test of genetic and interaction effects. Ten novel loci were identified in individuals of African ancestry. Several novel loci show strong biological plausibility since they involve physiologic systems implicated in BP regulation. They include genes involved in the central nervous system-adrenal signaling axis (ZDHHC17, CADPS, PIK3C2G), vascular structure and function (GNB3, CDON), and renal function (HAS2 and HAS2-AS1, SLIT3). Collectively, these findings suggest a role of educational attainment or SES in further dissection of the genetic architecture of BP.
  • Dean, Kelsey R., et al. (författare)
  • Multi-omic biomarker identification and validation for diagnosing warzone-related post-traumatic stress disorder
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Molecular Psychiatry. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1359-4184 .- 1476-5578. ; 25:12, s. 3337-3349
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) impacts many veterans and active duty soldiers, but diagnosis can be problematic due to biases in self-disclosure of symptoms, stigma within military populations, and limitations identifying those at risk. Prior studies suggest that PTSD may be a systemic illness, affecting not just the brain, but the entire body. Therefore, disease signals likely span multiple biological domains, including genes, proteins, cells, tissues, and organism-level physiological changes. Identification of these signals could aid in diagnostics, treatment decision-making, and risk evaluation. In the search for PTSD diagnostic biomarkers, we ascertained over one million molecular, cellular, physiological, and clinical features from three cohorts of male veterans. In a discovery cohort of 83 warzone-related PTSD cases and 82 warzone-exposed controls, we identified a set of 343 candidate biomarkers. These candidate biomarkers were selected from an integrated approach using (1) data-driven methods, including Support Vector Machine with Recursive Feature Elimination and other standard or published methodologies, and (2) hypothesis-driven approaches, using previous genetic studies for polygenic risk, or other PTSD-related literature. After reassessment of ~30% of these participants, we refined this set of markers from 343 to 28, based on their performance and ability to track changes in phenotype over time. The final diagnostic panel of 28 features was validated in an independent cohort (26 cases, 26 controls) with good performance (AUC = 0.80, 81% accuracy, 85% sensitivity, and 77% specificity). The identification and validation of this diverse diagnostic panel represents a powerful and novel approach to improve accuracy and reduce bias in diagnosing combat-related PTSD.
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