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  • Kumar, Amit, et al. (författare)
  • Astroglial tracer BU99008 detects multiple binding sites in Alzheimer’s disease brain
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Molecular Psychiatry. - : Springer Nature. - 1359-4184 .- 1476-5578. ; 26:10, s. 5833-5847
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • With reactive astrogliosis being established as one of the hallmarks of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), there is high interest in developing novel positron emission tomography (PET) tracers to detect early astrocyte reactivity. BU99008, a novel astrocytic PET ligand targeting imidazoline-2 binding sites (I2BS) on astrocytes, might be a suitable candidate. Here we demonstrate for the first time that BU99008 could visualise reactive astrogliosis in postmortem AD brains and propose a multiple binding site [Super-high-affinity (SH), High-affinity (HA) and Low-affinity (LA)] model for BU99008, I2BS specific ligands (2-BFI and BU224) and deprenyl in AD and control (CN) brains. The proportion (%) and affinities of these sites varied significantly between the BU99008, 2-BFI, BU224 and deprenyl in AD and CN brains. Regional binding studies demonstrated significantly higher 3H-BU99008 binding in AD brain regions compared to CN. Comparative autoradiography studies reinforced these findings, showing higher specific binding for 3H-BU99008 than 3H-Deprenyl in sporadic AD brain compared to CN, implying that they might have different targets. The data clearly shows that BU99008 could detect I2BS expressing reactive astrocytes with good selectivity and specificity and hence be a potential attractive clinical astrocytic PET tracer for gaining further insight into the role of reactive astrogliosis in AD.
  • Lalouni, Maria, et al. (författare)
  • Augmented pain inhibition and higher integration of pain modulatory brain networks in women with self-injury behavior
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Molecular Psychiatry. - : Springer Nature. - 1359-4184 .- 1476-5578. ; 27:8, s. 3452-3459
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Individuals who engage in nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) have demonstrated insensitivity to pain compared with individuals without NSSI. Yet, the neural mechanisms behind this difference are unknown. The objective of the present study was to determine which aspects of the pain regulatory system that account for this decreased sensitivity to pain. In a case-control design, 81 women, aged 18-35 (mean [SD] age, 23.4 [3.9]), were included (41 with NSSI and 40 healthy controls). A quantitative sensory testing protocol, including heat pain thresholds, heat pain tolerance, pressure pain thresholds, conditioned pain modulation (assessing central down-regulation of pain), and temporal summation (assessing facilitation of pain signals) was used. Pain-evoked brain responses were assessed by means of fMRI scanning during thermal pain. NSSI participants showed a more effective central down-regulation of pain, compared to controls, assessed with conditioned pain modulation. The neural responses to painful stimulation revealed a stronger relation between nociceptive and pain modulatory brain regions in NSSI compared to controls. In line with previous studies, pressure and heat pain thresholds were higher in participants with NSSI, however, there were no correlations between pain outcomes and NSSI clinical characteristics. The augmented pain inhibition and higher involvement of pain modulatory brain networks in NSSI may represent a pain insensitive endophenotype associated with a greater risk for developing self-injurious behavior.
  • Lasselin, Julie, et al. (författare)
  • Sick for science : experimental endotoxemia as a translational tool to develop and test new therapies for inflammation-associated depression
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Molecular Psychiatry. - : Springer Science and Business Media LLC. - 1359-4184 .- 1476-5578. ; 26, s. 3672-3683
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Depression is one of the global leading causes of disability, but treatments remain limited and classical antidepressants were found to be ineffective in a substantial proportion of patients. Thus, novel effective therapies for the treatment of depression are urgently needed. Given the emerging role of inflammation in the etiology and pathophysiology of affective disorders, we herein illustrate how experimental endotoxemia, a translational model of systemic inflammation, could be used as a tool to develop and test new therapeutic options against depression. Our concept is based on the striking overlap of inflammatory, neural, and affective characteristics in patients with inflammation-associated depression and in endotoxin-challenged healthy subjects. Experimental administration of endotoxin in healthy volunteers is safe, well-tolerated, and without known long-term health risks. It offers a highly standardized translational approach to characterize potential targets of therapies against inflammation-associated depression, as well as to identify characteristics of patients that would benefit from these interventions, and, therefore, could contribute to improve personalization of treatment and to increase the overall rate of responders.
  • Lazarevic, V, et al. (författare)
  • Ketamine decreases neuronally released glutamate via retrograde stimulation of presynaptic adenosine A1 receptors
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Molecular psychiatry. - : Springer Science and Business Media LLC. - 1476-5578 .- 1359-4184. ; 26:12, s. 7425-7435
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Ketamine produces a rapid antidepressant response in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD), but the underlying mechanisms appear multifaceted. One hypothesis, proposes that by antagonizing NMDA receptors on GABAergic interneurons, ketamine disinhibits afferens to glutamatergic principal neurons and increases extracellular glutamate levels. However, ketamine seems also to reduce rapid glutamate release at some synapses. Therefore, clinical studies in MDD patients have stressed the need to identify mechanisms whereby ketamine decreases presynaptic activity and glutamate release. In the present study, the effect of ketamine and its antidepressant metabolite, (2R,6R)-HNK, on neuronally derived glutamate release was examined in rodents. We used FAST methodology to measure depolarization-evoked extracellular glutamate levels in vivo in freely moving or anesthetized animals, synaptosomes to detect synaptic recycling ex vivo and primary cortical neurons to perform functional imaging and to examine intracellular signaling in vitro. In all these versatile approaches, ketamine and (2R,6R)-HNK reduced glutamate release in a manner which could be blocked by AMPA receptor antagonism. Antagonism of adenosine A1 receptors, which are almost exclusively expressed at nerve terminals, also counteracted ketamine’s effect on glutamate release and presynaptic activity. Signal transduction studies in primary neuronal cultures demonstrated that ketamine reduced P-T286-CamKII and P-S9-Synapsin, which correlated with decreased synaptic vesicle recycling. Moreover, systemic administration of A1R antagonist counteracted the antidepressant-like actions of ketamine and (2R,6R)-HNK in the forced swim test. To conclude, by studying neuronally released glutamate, we identified a novel retrograde adenosinergic feedback mechanism that mediate inhibitory actions of ketamine on glutamate release that may contribute to its rapid antidepressant action.
  • Lee, BK, et al. (författare)
  • Developmental vitamin D and autism spectrum disorders: findings from the Stockholm Youth Cohort
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Molecular psychiatry. - : Springer Science and Business Media LLC. - 1476-5578 .- 1359-4184. ; 26:5, s. 1578-1588
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Animal studies indicate that early life vitamin D is crucial for proper neurodevelopment. Few studies have examined whether maternal and neonatal vitamin D concentrations influence risk of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Participants were sampled from the Stockholm Youth Cohort, a register-based cohort in Sweden. Concentrations of total 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) were assessed from maternal and neonatal biosamples using a highly sensitive liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method. The maternal sample consisted of 449 ASD cases and 574 controls, the neonatal sample: 1399 ASD cases and 1607 controls; and the paired maternal-neonatal sample: 340 ASD cases and 426 controls. Maternal 25OHD was not associated with child ASD in the overall sample. However, in Nordic-born mothers, maternal 25OHD insufficiency (25 − <50 nmol/L) at ~11 weeks gestation was associated with 1.58 times higher odds of ASD (95% CI: 1.00, 2.49) as compared with 25OHD sufficiency (≥50 nmol/L). Neonatal 25OHD < 25 nmol/L was associated with 1.33 times higher odds of ASD (95% CI: 1.02, 1.75) as compared with 25OHD ≥ 50 nmol/L. Sibling-matched control analyses indicated these associations were not likely due to familial confounding. Children with both maternal 25OHD and neonatal 25OHD below the median had 1.75 (95% CI: 1.08, 2.86) times the odds of ASD compared with children with maternal and neonatal 25OHD both below the median. Our results are consistent with an increasing body of evidence suggesting that vitamin D concentrations in early life may be associated with increased risk of neurodevelopmental disorders including ASD.
  • Lee, Mary R., et al. (författare)
  • The novel ghrelin receptor inverse agonist PF-5190457 administered with alcohol: preclinical safety experiments and a phase 1b human laboratory study
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Molecular Psychiatry. - : NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP. - 1359-4184 .- 1476-5578. ; 25:2, s. 461-475
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Rodent studies indicate that ghrelin receptor blockade reduces alcohol consumption. However, no ghrelin receptor blockers have been administered to heavy alcohol drinking individuals. Therefore, we evaluated the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetic (PK), pharmacodynamic (PD) and behavioral effects of a novel ghrelin receptor inverse agonist, PF-5190457, when co-administered with alcohol. We tested the effects of PF-5190457 combined with alcohol on locomotor activity, loss-of-righting reflex (a measure of alcohol sedative actions), and on blood PF-5190457 concentrations in rats. Then, we performed a single-blind, placebo-controlled, within-subject human study with PF-5190457 (placebo/0 mg b.i.d., 50 mg b.i.d., 100 mg b.i.d.). Twelve heavy drinkers during three identical visits completed an alcohol administration session, subjective assessments, and an alcohol cue-reactivity procedure, and gave blood samples for PK/PD testing. In rats, PF-5190457 did not interact with the effects of alcohol on locomotor activity or loss-of-righting reflex. Alcohol did not affect blood PF-5190457 concentrations. In humans, all adverse events were mild or moderate and did not require discontinuation or dose reductions. Drug dose did not alter alcohol concentration or elimination, alcohol-induced stimulation or sedation, or mood during alcohol administration. Potential PD markers of PF-5190457 were acyl-to-total ghrelin ratio and insulin-like growth factor-1. PF-5190457 (100 mg b.i.d.) reduced alcohol craving during the cue-reactivity procedure. This study provides the first translational evidence of safety and tolerability of the ghrelin receptor inverse agonist PF-5190457 when co-administered with alcohol. PK/PD/behavioral findings support continued research of PF-5190457 as a potential pharmacological agent to treat alcohol use disorder.
  • Leffa, D. T., et al. (författare)
  • Genetic risk for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder predicts cognitive decline and development of Alzheimer's disease pathophysiology in cognitively unimpaired older adults
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Molecular Psychiatry. - : Springer Science and Business Media LLC. - 1359-4184 .- 1476-5578.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) persists in older age and is postulated as a risk factor for cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's Disease (AD). However, these findings rely primarily on electronic health records and can present biased estimates of disease prevalence. An obstacle to investigating age-related cognitive decline in ADHD is the absence of large-scale studies following patients with ADHD into older age. Alternatively, this study aimed to determine whether genetic liability for ADHD, as measured by a well-validated ADHD polygenic risk score (ADHD-PRS), is associated with cognitive decline and the development of AD pathophysiology in cognitively unimpaired (CU) older adults. We calculated a weighted ADHD-PRS in 212 CU individuals without a clinical diagnosis of ADHD (55-90 years). These individuals had baseline amyloid-beta (A beta) positron emission tomography, longitudinal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) phosphorylated tau at threonine 181 (p-tau(181)), magnetic resonance imaging, and cognitive assessments for up to 6 years. Linear mixed-effects models were used to test the association of ADHD-PRS with cognition and AD biomarkers. Higher ADHD-PRS was associated with greater cognitive decline over 6 years. The combined effect between high ADHD-PRS and brain A beta deposition on cognitive deterioration was more significant than each individually. Additionally, higher ADHD-PRS was associated with increased CSF p-tau(181) levels and frontoparietal atrophy in CU A beta-positive individuals. Our results suggest that genetic liability for ADHD is associated with cognitive deterioration and the development of AD pathophysiology. Findings were mostly observed in A beta-positive individuals, suggesting that the genetic liability for ADHD increases susceptibility to the harmful effects of A beta pathology.
  • Lemoine, Laetitia, et al. (författare)
  • Amyloid, tau, and astrocyte pathology in autosomal-dominant Alzheimer's disease variants : A beta PParc and PSEN1DE9
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Molecular Psychiatry. - : SPRINGERNATURE. - 1359-4184 .- 1476-5578. ; 26:10, s. 5609-5619
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Autosomal-dominant Alzheimer's disease (ADAD) may be associated with atypical amyloid beta deposits in the brain. In vivo amyloid imaging using(11)C-Pittsburgh compound B (PiB) tracer has shown differences in binding between brains from ADAD and sporadic Alzheimer's disease (sAD) patients. To gain further insight into the various pathological characteristics of these genetic variants, we performed large frozen hemisphere autoradiography and brain homogenate binding assays with(3)H-PiB,H-3-MK6240-H-3-THK5117, and(3)H-deprenyl for detection of amyloid fibrils, tau depositions, and activated astrocytes, respectively, in twoA beta PParcmutation carriers, onePSEN1 Delta E9mutation carrier, and three sAD cases. The results were compared with Abeta 40, Abeta 42, AT8, and GFAP immunostaining, respectively, as well as with Congo red and Bielschowsky. PiB showed a very low binding inA beta PParc. A high binding was observed inPSEN1 Delta E9and in sAD tissues but with different binding patterns. Comparable(3)H-THK5117 and(3)H-deprenyl brain homogenate binding was observed forA beta PParc,PSEN1 Delta E9, and sAD, respectively. Some differences were observed between(3)H-MK6240 and(3)H-THK5117 in ADAD. A positive correlation between(3)H-deprenyl and(3)H-THK5117 binding was observed inA beta PParc, while no such correlation was found inPSEN1 Delta E9and sAD. Our study demonstrates differences in the properties of the amyloid plaques between two genetic variants of AD and sAD. Despite the lack of measurable amyloid fibrils by PiB in theA beta PParccases, high regional tau and astrocyte binding was observed. The lack of correlation between(3)H-deprenyl and(3)H-THK5117 binding inPSEN1 Delta E9and sAD in contrast of the positive correlation observed in theA beta PParccases suggest differences in the pathological cascade between variants of AD that warrant further exploration in vivo.
  • Leung, Edison, et al. (författare)
  • Alterations in brain synaptic proteins and mRNAs in mood disorders : a systematic review and meta-analysis of postmortem brain studies
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Molecular Psychiatry. - : Springer Nature. - 1359-4184 .- 1476-5578. ; 27:3, s. 1362-1372
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying bipolar (BD) and major depressive disorders (MDD) are multifactorial but likely involve synaptic dysfunction and dysregulation. There are multiple synaptic proteins but three synaptic proteins, namely SNAP-25, PSD-95, and synaptophysin, have been widely studied for their role in synaptic function in human brain postmortem studies in BD and MDD. These studies have yielded contradictory results, possibly due to the small sample size and sourcing material from different cortical regions of the brain. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to understand the role of these three synaptic proteins and other synaptic proteins, messenger RNA (mRNA) and their regional localizations in BD and MDD. A systematic literature search was conducted and the review is reported in accordance with the MOOSE Guidelines. Meta-analysis was performed to compare synaptic marker levels between BD/MDD groups and controls separately. 1811 papers were identified in the literature search and screened against the preset inclusion and exclusion criteria. A total of 72 studies were screened in the full text, of which 47 were identified as eligible to be included in the systematic review. 24 of these 47 papers were included in the meta-analysis. The meta-analysis indicated that SNAP-25 protein levels were significantly lower in BD. On average, PSD-95 mRNA levels were lower in BD, and protein levels of SNAP-25, PSD-95, and syntaxin were lower in MDD. Localization analysis showed decreased levels of PSD-95 protein in the frontal cortex. We found specific alterations in synaptic proteins and RNAs in both BD and MDD. The review was prospectively registered online in PROSPERO international prospective register of systematic reviews, registration no. CRD42020196932.
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