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  • Darenberg, J, et al. (författare)
  • Intravenous immunoglobulin G therapy in streptococcal toxic shock syndrome: A European randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: Clinical Infectious Diseases. - : Oxford University Press. - 1537-6591 .- 1058-4838. ; 37, s. 333-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The efficacy and safety of high-dose intravenous polyspecific immunoglobulin G (IVIG) as adjunctive therapy in streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS) were evaluated in a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. The trial was prematurely terminated because of slow patient recruitment, and results were obtained from 21 enrolled patients (10 IVIG recipients and 11 placebo recipients). The primary end point was mortality at 28 days, and a 3.6-fold higher mortality rate was found in the placebo group. A significant decrease in the sepsis-related organ failure assessment score at days 2 (P = .02) and 3 (P = .04) was noted in the IVIG group. Furthermore, a significant increase in plasma neutralizing activity against superantigens expressed by autologous isolates was noted in the IVIG group after treatment (P = .03). Although statistical significance was not reached in the primary end point, the trial provides further support for IVIG as an efficacious adjunctive therapy in STSS.
  • Darenberg, Jessica, et al. (författare)
  • Molecular and clinical characteristics of invasive group A streptococcal infection in Sweden
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Clinical Infectious Diseases. - : Oxford University Press. - 1537-6591. ; 45:4, s. 8-450
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background. The incidence and severity of invasive group A streptococcal infection demonstrate great variability over time, which at least, in part, seems to be related to group A streptococcal type distribution among the human population. Methods. An enhanced surveillance study of invasive group A streptococcal infection (746 isolates) was performed in Sweden from April 2002 through December 2004. Noninvasive isolates from either the throat or skin (773 isolates) were collected in parallel for comparison. Clinical and epidemiological data were obtained from 88% of patients with invasive disease and were related to isolate characteristics, including T type, emm sequence type, and the presence of 9 superantigen genes, as well as pulsed-field gel electrophoresis pattern comparisons of selected isolates. Results. The annual incidence was 3.0 cases per 100,000 population. Among the patients with invasive disease, 11% developed streptococcal toxic shock syndrome, and 9.5% developed necrotizing fasciitis. The overall case-fatality rate was 14.5%, and 39% of the patients with streptococcal toxic shock syndrome died (P < .001). The T3/13/B3264 cluster accounted for 33% of invasive and 25% of noninvasive isolates. Among this most prevalent type cluster, emm types 89 and 81 dominated. Combined results from pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, emm typing, and superantigen gene profiling identified subgroups within specific emm types that are significantly more prone to cause invasive disease than were other isolates of the same type. Conclusions. This study revealed a changing epidemiology of invasive group A streptococcal infection in Sweden, with emergence of new emm types that were previously not described. The results also suggest that some clones may be particularly prone to cause invasive disease.
  • Davies Forsman, Lina, et al. (författare)
  • Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations of Fluoroquinolones and Pyrazinamide Susceptibility Correlate to Clinical Improvement in Multidrug-resistant Tuberculosis Patients: A Nationwide Swedish Cohort Study Over 2 Decades
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Clinical Infectious Diseases. - : OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC. - 1058-4838 .- 1537-6591. ; 69:8, s. 1394-1402
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) testing, unlike routine drug susceptibility testing (DST) at a single critical concentration, quantifies drug resistance. The association of MICs and treatment outcome in multidrug-resistant (MDR)-tuberculosis patients is unclear. Therefore, we correlated MICs of first- and second-line tuberculosis drugs with time to sputum culture conversion (tSCC) and treatment outcome in MDR-tuberculosis patients. Methods. Clinical and demographic data of MDR-tuberculosis patients in Sweden, including DST results, were retrieved from medical records from 1992 to 2014. MIC determinations were performed retrospectively for the stored individual Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) isolates using broth microdilution in Middlebrook 7H9. We fitted Cox proportional hazard models correlating MICs, DST results, and clinical variables to tSCC and treatment outcome. Results. Successful treatment outcome was observed in 83.5% (132/158) of MDR-tuberculosis patients. Increasing MICs of fluoroquinolones, diabetes, and age amp;gt;40 years were significantly associated with unsuccessful treatment outcome. Patients treated with pyrazinamide (PZA) had a significantly shorter tSCC compared to patients who were not (median difference, 27 days). Conclusions. Increasing MICs of fluoroquinolones were correlated with unsuccessful treatment outcome in MDR-tuberculosis patients. Further studies, including MIC testing and clinical outcome data to define clinical Mtb breakpoints, are warranted. PZA treatment was associated with shorter tSCC, highlighting the importance of PZA DST.
  • Deshpande, Devyani, et al. (författare)
  • D-Cycloserine Pharmacokinetics/Pharmacodynamics, Susceptibility, and Dosing Implications in Multidrug-resistant Tuberculosis: A Faustian Deal
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Clinical Infectious Diseases. - : OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC. - 1058-4838 .- 1537-6591. ; 67, s. S308-S316
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background. D-cycloserine is used to treat multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. Its efficacy, contribution in combination therapy, and best clinical dose are unclear, also data on the D-cycloserine minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) distributions is scant. Methods. We performed a systematic search to identify pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies performed with D-cycloserine. We then performed a combined exposure-effect and dose fractionation study of D-cycloserine in the hollow fiber system model of tuberculosis (HFS-TB). In parallel, we identified D-cycloserine MICs in 415 clinical Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) isolates from patients. We utilized these results, including intracavitary concentrations, to identify the clinical dose that would be able to achieve or exceed target exposures in 10 000 patients using Monte Carlo experiments (MCEs). Results. There were no published D-cycloserine pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics studies identified. Therefore, we performed new HFS-TB experiments. Cyloserine killed 6.3 log(10) colony-forming units (CFU)/mL extracellular bacilli over 28 days. Efficacy was driven by the percentage of time concentration persisted above MIC (% T-MIC), with 1.0 log(10) CFU/mL kill achieved by % T-MIC = 30% (target exposure). The tentative epidemiological cutoff value with the Sensititre MYCOTB assay was 64 mg/L. In MCEs, 750 mg twice daily achieved target exposure in lung cavities of 92% of patients whereas 500 mg twice daily achieved target exposure in 85% of patients with meningitis. The proposed MCE-derived clinical susceptibility breakpoint at the proposed doses was 64 mg/L. Conclusions. Cycloserine is cidal against Mtb. The susceptibility breakpoint is 64 mg/L. However, the doses likely to achieve the cidality in patients are high, and could be neurotoxic.
  • Dickstein, Yaakov, et al. (författare)
  • Acinetobacter Infections : Reply to Wilson et al
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Clinical Infectious Diseases. - : Oxford University Press (OUP). - 1058-4838 .- 1537-6591. ; 71:5, s. 1358-1359
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • Dickstein, Yaakov, et al. (författare)
  • Colistin Resistance Development Following Colistin-Meropenem Combination Therapy Versus Colistin Monotherapy in Patients With Infections Caused by Carbapenem-Resistant Organisms
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Clinical Infectious Diseases. - 1058-4838 .- 1537-6591. ; 71:10, s. 2599-2607
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: We evaluated whether carbapenem-colistin combination therapy given to patients with infections due to carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative organisms reduces the emergence of colistin resistance compared to colistin monotherapy.METHODS: This is a pre-planned analysis of a secondary outcome from a randomized controlled trial comparing colistin monotherapy with colistin-meropenem combination for the treatment of severe infections caused by carbapenem-resistant, colistin-susceptible Gram-negative bacteria. We evaluated rectal swabs taken on day 7 from enrollment or later for the presence of new colistin-resistant (ColR) isolates. We evaluated the emergence of any ColR isolate and the emergence of ColR Enterobacteriaceae (ColR-E).RESULTS: Data were available for 214 patients for the primary analysis; emergent ColR organisms were detected in 22 (10.3%). No difference was observed between patients randomized to treatment with colistin monotherapy (10/106, 9.4%) vs. patients randomized to colistin-meropenem combination therapy (12/108, 11.1%), p=0.669. ColR-E organisms were detected in 18/249 (7.2%) patients available for analysis. No difference was observed between the two treatment arms (colistin monotherapy 6/128 [4.7%] vs. combination therapy 12/121 [9.9%], p=0.111). Enterobacteriaceae as the index isolate was found to be associated with development of ColR-E (HR 3.875 95% CI 1.475-10.184, p=0.006).CONCLUSIONS: Carbapenem-colistin combination therapy did not reduce the incidence of colistin resistance emergence in patients with infections due to carbapenem-resistant organisms. Further studies are necessary to elucidate the development of colistin resistance and methods for its prevention.
  • Dickstein, Yaakov, et al. (författare)
  • Treatment Outcomes of Colistin- and Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii Infections : An Exploratory Subgroup Analysis of a Randomized Clinical Trial
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Clinical Infectious Diseases. - : OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC. - 1058-4838 .- 1537-6591. ; 69:5, s. 769-776
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background We evaluated the association between mortality and colistin resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii infections and the interaction with antibiotic therapy. Methods This is a secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial of patients with carbapenem-resistant gram-negative bacterial infections treated with colistin or colistin-meropenem combination. We evaluated patients with infection caused by carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii (CRAB) identified as colistin susceptible (CoS) at the time of treatment and compared patients in which the isolate was confirmed as CoS with those whose isolates were retrospectively identified as colistin resistant (CoR) when tested by broth microdilution (BMD). The primary outcome was 28-day mortality. Results Data were available for 266 patients (214 CoS and 52 CoR isolates). Patients with CoR isolates had higher baseline functional capacity and lower rates of mechanical ventilation than patients with CoS isolates. All-cause 28-day mortality was 42.3% (22/52) among patients with CoR strains and 52.8% (113/214) among patients with CoS isolates (P = .174). After adjusting for variables associated with mortality, the mortality rate was lower among patients with CoR isolates (odds ratio [OR], 0.285 [95% confidence interval {CI}, .118-.686]). This difference was associated with treatment arm: Mortality rates among patients with CoR isolates were higher in those randomized to colistin-meropenem combination therapy compared to colistin monotherapy (OR, 3.065 [95% CI, 1.021-9.202]). Conclusions Colistin resistance determined by BMD was associated with lower mortality among patients with severe CRAB infections. Among patients with CoR isolates, colistin monotherapy was associated with a better outcome compared to colistin-meropenem combination therapy.
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