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Sökning: L773:1537 6591 > (2020-2022) > (2021)

  • Resultat 21-29 av 29
  • Föregående 12[3]
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21.
  • Snygg-Martin, Ulrika, 1965, et al. (författare)
  • Cumulative Incidence of Infective Endocarditis in Patients with Congenital Heart Disease: A Nationwide, Case-Control Study Over Nine Decades
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. - : Oxford University Press (OUP). - 1537-6591. ; 73:8, s. 1469-1475
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Congenital heart disease (CHD) is a lifelong predisposing condition for infective endocarditis (IE). As a consequence of advances in pediatric care, the number of adults with CHD is now exceeding the number of children. The goal of the present study was to determine the cumulative incidence of IE in patients with CHD and detect temporal changes compared with controls. METHODS: Nationwide registry-based case-control study of patients with CHD born 1930-2017 matched with 10 random controls. Infective endocarditis episodes were linked using the Swedish 10-digit personal identification number. RESULTS: In total, 89 541 patients with CHD and 890 470 matched controls were included. In patients with CHD, 1477 IE episodes were registered and 447 episodes in controls. Patients with CHD had 8.5% cumulative incidence of IE at age 87 years, compared with 0.7% in matched controls. Incidence rate of IE per 100 000 person-years was 65.5 (95% confidence interval [CI] 62.2-68.9) and 1.8 (95% CI: 1.7-2.0) in CHD patients and controls, respectively. By age 18 years, patients with CHD had an IE incidence similar to that of 81-year-old controls. Incidence of IE differed by age but not by birth year. Bacterial etiology was registered from 1997 in half of the IE episodes; among CHD IE cases, 43.3% were caused by streptococci and 29.8% by Staphylococcus aureus. CONCLUSIONS: Infective endocarditis remains an important complication in patients with CHD. Incidence correlate with age and the number of IE episodes are expected to increase as the CHD population grow older.
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22.
  • Stoner, Marie C.D., et al. (författare)
  • Modeling Combination Interventions to Prevent Human Immunodeficiency Virus in Adolescent Girls and Young Women in South Africa (HIV Prevention Trials Network 068)
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Clinical Infectious Diseases. - : Oxford University Press. - 1058-4838 .- 1537-6591. ; 73:7, s. e1911-e1918
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Combination interventions may be an effective way to prevent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in adolescent girls and young women. However, current studies are not designed to understand which specific interventions and combinations will be most effective. We estimate the possible impacts of interventions on a combination of factors associated with HIV.METHODS: We used the g-formula to model interventions on combinations of HIV risk factors to identify those that would prevent the most incident HIV infections, including low school attendance, intimate partner violence, depression, transactional sex, and age-disparate partnerships. We used data from the HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN) 068 study in rural South Africa from 2011 to 2017. We estimated HIV incidence under a potential intervention that reduced each risk factor and compared this to HIV incidence under the current distribution of these risk factors.RESULTS: Although many factors had strong associations with HIV, potential intervention estimates did not always suggest large reductions in HIV incidence because the prevalence of risk factors was low. When modeling combination effects, an intervention to increase schooling, decrease depression, and decease transactional sex showed the largest reduction in incident infection (risk difference, -1.4%; 95% confidence interval [CI], -2.7% to -.2%), but an intervention on only transactional sex and depression still reduced HIV incidence by -1.3% (95% CI, -2.6% to -.2%).CONCLUSIONS: To achieve the largest reductions in HIV, both prevalence of the risk factor and strength of association with HIV must be considered. Additionally, intervening on more risk factors may not necessarily result in larger reductions in HIV incidence.
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23.
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24.
  • Verrest, Luka, et al. (författare)
  • Blood Parasite Load as an Early Marker to Predict Treatment Response in Visceral Leishmaniasis in Eastern Africa.
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Clinical Infectious Diseases. - : Oxford University Press (OUP). - 1058-4838 .- 1537-6591. ; 73:5, s. 775-782
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: To expedite the development of new oral treatment regimens for visceral leishmaniasis (VL), there is a need for early markers to evaluate treatment response and predict long-term outcomes.METHODS: Data from 3 clinical trials were combined in this study, in which Eastern African VL patients received various antileishmanial therapies. Leishmania kinetoplast DNA was quantified in whole blood with real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) before, during, and up to 6 months after treatment. The predictive performance of pharmacodynamic parameters for clinical relapse was evaluated using receiver-operating characteristic curves. Clinical trial simulations were performed to determine the power associated with the use of blood parasite load as a surrogate endpoint to predict clinical outcome at 6 months.RESULTS: The absolute parasite density on day 56 after start of treatment was found to be a highly sensitive predictor of relapse within 6 months of follow-up at a cutoff of 20 parasites/mL (area under the curve 0.92, specificity 0.91, sensitivity 0.89). Blood parasite loads correlated well with tissue parasite loads (ρ = 0.80) and with microscopy gradings of bone marrow and spleen aspirate smears. Clinical trial simulations indicated a > 80% power to detect a difference in cure rate between treatment regimens if this difference was high (> 50%) and when minimally 30 patients were included per regimen.CONCLUSIONS: Blood Leishmania parasite load determined by qPCR is a promising early biomarker to predict relapse in VL patients. Once optimized, it might be useful in dose finding studies of new chemical entities.
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25.
  • Villamor, E, et al. (författare)
  • Maternal Obesity and Risk of Early-onset Neonatal Bacterial Sepsis: Nationwide Cohort and Sibling-controlled Studies
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. - : Oxford University Press (OUP). - 1537-6591. ; 73:9, s. E2656-E2664
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BackgroundMaternal overweight and obesity are related to risks of pregnancy and delivery complications that, in turn, are associated with newborn infections. We examined the associations between early pregnancy body mass index (BMI; kg/m2) and risk of early-onset neonatal bacterial sepsis (EOS).MethodsWe conducted a nationwide population-based retrospective cohort study of 1 971 346 live singleton infants born in Sweden between 1997 and 2016. Outcome was a culture-confirmed EOS diagnosis. We estimated hazard ratios (HR) of EOS according to BMI using proportional hazard models, and identified potential mediators. Among term infants, we conducted sibling-controlled analyses.ResultsEOS risk per 1000 live births was 1.48; 0.76 in term and 15.52 in preterm infants. Compared with infants of normal-weight mothers (BMI, 18.5–24.9), the adjusted HR (95% confidence interval [CI]) of EOS for BMI categories <18.5, 25.0–29.9, 30.0–34.9, 35.0–39.9, and ≥40.0 were, respectively, 1.07 (.83–1.40), 1.19 (1.08–1.32), 1.70 (1.49–1.94), 2.11 (1.73–2.58), and 2.50 (1.86–3.38). Maternal overweight and obesity increased the risk of EOS by group B Streptococcus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli. Half of the association was mediated through preeclampsia, cesarean section delivery, and preterm delivery. A dose-response association was consistently apparent in term infants only. In sibling-controlled analyses, every kilogram per meter squared interpregnancy BMI change was associated with a mean 8.3% increase in EOS risk (95% CI, 1.7%–15.3%; P = .01).ConclusionsRisk of EOS increases with maternal overweight and obesity severity, particularly in term infants.
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26.
  • Walles, John, et al. (författare)
  • Tuberculosis Infection in Women of Reproductive Age : A Cross-sectional Study at Antenatal Care Clinics in an Ethiopian City
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Clinical Infectious Diseases. - : Oxford University Press (OUP). - 1058-4838 .- 1537-6591. ; 73:2, s. 203-210
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Knowledge on tuberculosis (TB) infection epidemiology in women of reproductive age living in TB-endemic areas is limited. We used a composite definition of TB infection in a cohort of pregnant women recruited in an Ethiopian city as a model for TB exposure patterns, and to identify factors associated with TB infection. Methods: Women seeking antenatal care at public health facilities underwent structured interviews, physical examination, and QuantiFERON-TB Gold-Plus (QFT) testing. Women with symptoms compatible with TB disease, and all human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive women, were investigated for active TB by sputum bacteriological testing. TB infection (TB+) was defined as either positive QFT (≥ 0.35 IU/mL), self-reported previous active TB, or current active TB. Associations between TB infection and clinical, demographic, and socioeconomic characteristics were tested in multiple logistic regression analysis. Results: Among 1834 participants, 679 (37.0%) met criteria for TB+ (80 [4.4%] previous active TB, 5 [0.3%] current active TB, and 594 [32.4%] QFT-positive without previous or current active TB). Age (annual adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.069 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.045-1.093]) and HIV infection (AOR, 1.43 [95% CI, 1.033-1.988]) were independently associated with TB+. The relationship with increasing age was only observed in HIV-negative women, and translated to an estimated annual risk of TB infection of 2.1% in HIV-negative women. Conclusions: TB infection in women of reproductive age in Ethiopia was independently associated with HIV infection and increasing age, suggesting exposure to contagious TB and continuous acquisition of TB infection in this population.
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27.
  • Westling, K (författare)
  • Deer Hunters: Beware of Toxoplasmosis
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: CLINICAL INFECTIOUS DISEASES. - 1058-4838. ; 72:9, s. 1566-1567
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt/konstnärligt)
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28.
  • Westling, K (författare)
  • Deer Hunters: Beware of Toxoplasmosis!
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. - : Oxford University Press (OUP). - 1537-6591. ; 72:9, s. 1566-1567
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt/konstnärligt)
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29.
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  • Resultat 21-29 av 29
  • Föregående 12[3]

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