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Sökning: L773:1537 6591 > (2020-2022)

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  • Föregående 1[2]34567...8Nästa
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11.
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  • Cresswell, Fiona, V, et al. (författare)
  • High-Dose Oral and Intravenous Rifampicin for the Treatment of Tuberculous Meningitis in Predominantly Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-Positive Ugandan Adults : A Phase II Open-Label Randomized Controlled Trial
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Clinical Infectious Diseases. - : Oxford University Press (OUP). - 1058-4838 .- 1537-6591. ; 73:5, s. 876-884
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: High-dose rifampicin may improve outcomes of tuberculous meningitis (TBM). Little safety or pharmacokinetic (PK) data exist on high-dose rifampicin in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfection, and no cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) PK data exist from Africa. We hypothesized that high-dose rifampicin would increase serum and CSF concentrations without excess toxicity. Methods: In this phase II open-label trial, Ugandan adults with suspected TBM were randomized to standard-of-care control (PO-10, rifampicin 10 mg/kg/day), intravenous rifampicin (IV-20, 20 mg/kg/day), or high-dose oral rifampicin (PO-35, 35 mg/kg/day). We performed PK sampling on days 2 and 14. The primary outcomes were total exposure (AUC(0-24)), maximum concentration (C-max), CSF concentration, and grade 3-5 adverse events. Results: We enrolled 61 adults, 92% were living with HIV, median CD4 count was 50 cells/mu L (interquartile range [IQR] 46-56). On day 2, geometric mean plasma AUC(0-24hr) was 42.9.h mg/L with standard-of-care 10 mg/kg dosing, 249.h mg/L for IV-20 and 327.h mg/L for PO-35 (P<.001). In CSF, standard of care achieved undetectable rifampicin concentration in 56% of participants and geometric mean AUC(0-24hr) 0.27 mg/L, compared with 1.74 mg/L (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2-2.5) for IV-20 and 2.17 mg/L (1.6-2.9) for PO-35 regimens (P<.001). Achieving CSF concentrations above rifampicin minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) occurred in 11% (2/18) of standard-of-care, 93% (14/15) of IV-20, and 95% (18/19) of PO-35 participants. Higher serum and CSF levels were sustained at day 14. Adverse events did not differ by dose (P=.34). Conclusions: Current international guidelines result in sub-therapeutic CSF rifampicin concentration for 89% of Ugandan TBM patients. High-dose intravenous and oral rifampicin were safe and respectively resulted in exposures similar to 6- and similar to 8-fold higher than standard of care, and CSF levels above the MIC.
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  • Denti, Paolo, et al. (författare)
  • Optimizing Dosing and Fixed-Dose Combinations of Rifampicin, Isoniazid, and Pyrazinamide in Pediatric Patients With Tuberculosis : A Prospective Population Pharmacokinetic Study
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Clinical Infectious Diseases. - : OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC. - 1058-4838 .- 1537-6591. ; 75:1, s. 141-151
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background In 2010, the World Health Organization (WHO) revised dosing guidelines for treatment of childhood tuberculosis. Our aim was to investigate first-line antituberculosis drug exposures under these guidelines, explore dose optimization using the current dispersible fixed-dose combination (FDC) tablet of rifampicin/isoniazid/pyrazinamide; 75/50/150 mg, and suggest a new FDC with revised weight bands. Methods Children with drug-susceptible tuberculosis in Malawi and South Africa underwent pharmacokinetic sampling while receiving first-line tuberculosis drugs as single formulations according the 2010 WHO recommended doses. Nonlinear mixed-effects modeling and simulation was used to design the optimal FDC and weight-band dosing strategy for achieving the pharmacokinetic targets based on literature-derived adult AUC(0-24h) for rifampicin (38.7-72.9), isoniazid (11.6-26.3), and pyrazinamide (233-429 mg center dot h/L). Results In total, 180 children (42% female; 13.9% living with human immunodeficiency virus [HIV]; median [range] age 1.9 [0.22-12] years; weight 10.7 [3.20-28.8] kg) were administered 1, 2, 3, or 4 FDC tablets (rifampicin/isoniazid/pyrazinamide 75/50/150 mg) daily for 4-8, 8-12, 12-16, and 16-25 kg weight bands, respectively. Rifampicin exposure (for weight and age) was up to 50% lower than in adults. Increasing the tablet number resulted in adequate rifampicin but relatively high isoniazid and pyrazinamide exposures. Administering 1, 2, 3, or 4 optimized FDC tablets (rifampicin/isoniazid/pyrazinamide 120/35/130 mg) to children < 6, 6-13, 13-20. and 20-25 kg, and 0.5 tablet in < 3-month-olds with immature metabolism, improved exposures to all 3 drugs. Conclusions Current pediatric FDC doses resulted in low rifampicin exposures. Optimal dosing of all drugs cannot be achieved with the current FDCs. We propose a new FDC formulation and revised weight bands. Current pediatric dosing guidelines lead to infant rifampicin exposures much lower than in adults, whereas isoniazid and pyrazinamide exposures are similar. A new fixed-dose combination (FDC) with rifampicin/isoniazid/pyrazinamide 120/35/130 mg and weight bands of < 6, 6-13, 13-20, and 20-25 kg could improve treatment.
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17.
  • Dickstein, Yaakov, et al. (författare)
  • Acinetobacter Infections : Reply to Wilson et al
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Clinical Infectious Diseases. - : Oxford University Press (OUP). - 1058-4838 .- 1537-6591. ; 71:5, s. 1358-1359
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)
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18.
  • Dickstein, Yaakov, et al. (författare)
  • Colistin Resistance Development Following Colistin-Meropenem Combination Therapy Versus Colistin Monotherapy in Patients With Infections Caused by Carbapenem-Resistant Organisms
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Clinical Infectious Diseases. - 1058-4838 .- 1537-6591. ; 71:10, s. 2599-2607
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: We evaluated whether carbapenem-colistin combination therapy given to patients with infections due to carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative organisms reduces the emergence of colistin resistance compared to colistin monotherapy.METHODS: This is a pre-planned analysis of a secondary outcome from a randomized controlled trial comparing colistin monotherapy with colistin-meropenem combination for the treatment of severe infections caused by carbapenem-resistant, colistin-susceptible Gram-negative bacteria. We evaluated rectal swabs taken on day 7 from enrollment or later for the presence of new colistin-resistant (ColR) isolates. We evaluated the emergence of any ColR isolate and the emergence of ColR Enterobacteriaceae (ColR-E).RESULTS: Data were available for 214 patients for the primary analysis; emergent ColR organisms were detected in 22 (10.3%). No difference was observed between patients randomized to treatment with colistin monotherapy (10/106, 9.4%) vs. patients randomized to colistin-meropenem combination therapy (12/108, 11.1%), p=0.669. ColR-E organisms were detected in 18/249 (7.2%) patients available for analysis. No difference was observed between the two treatment arms (colistin monotherapy 6/128 [4.7%] vs. combination therapy 12/121 [9.9%], p=0.111). Enterobacteriaceae as the index isolate was found to be associated with development of ColR-E (HR 3.875 95% CI 1.475-10.184, p=0.006).CONCLUSIONS: Carbapenem-colistin combination therapy did not reduce the incidence of colistin resistance emergence in patients with infections due to carbapenem-resistant organisms. Further studies are necessary to elucidate the development of colistin resistance and methods for its prevention.
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  • Dong, Yi-Min, et al. (författare)
  • Development and Validation of a Nomogram for Assessing Survival in Patients With COVID-19 Pneumonia
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Clinical Infectious Diseases. - : OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC. - 1058-4838 .- 1537-6591. ; 72:4, s. 652-660
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background. The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread worldwide and continues to threaten peoples' health as well as put pressure on the accessibility of medical systems. Early prediction of survival of hospitalized patients will help in the clinical management of COVID-19, but a prediction model that is reliable and valid is still lacking. Methods. We retrospectively enrolled 628 confirmed cases of COVID-19 using positive RT-PCR tests for SARS-CoV-2 in Tongji Hospital, Wuhan, China. These patients were randomly grouped into a training (60%) and a validation (40%) cohort. In the training cohort, LASSO regression analysis and multivariate Cox regression analysis were utilized to identify prognostic factors for in-hospital survival of patients with COVID-19. A nomogram based on the 3 variables was built for clinical use. AUCs, concordance indexes (C-index), and calibration curves were used to evaluate the efficiency of the nomogram in both training and validation cohorts. Results. Hypertension, higher neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, and increased NT-proBNP values were found to be significantly associated with poorer prognosis in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. The 3 predictors were further used to build a prediction nomogram. The C-indexes of the nomogram in the training and validation cohorts were 0.901 and 0.892, respectively. The AUC in the training cohort was 0.922 for 14-day and 0.919 for 21-day probability of in-hospital survival, while in the validation cohort this was 0.922 and 0.881, respectively. Moreover, the calibration curve for 14- and 21-day survival also showed high coherence between the predicted and actual probability of survival. Conclusions. We built a predictive model and constructed a nomogram for predicting in-hospital survival of patients with COVID-19. This model has good performance and might be utilized clinically in management of COVID-19.
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  • Dong, Yi-Min, et al. (författare)
  • Reply to Collins et al
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Clinical Infectious Diseases. - 1058-4838 .- 1537-6591. ; 73:3, s. 558-559
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)
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  • Resultat 11-20 av 80
  • Föregående 1[2]34567...8Nästa

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