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Sökning: L773:1537 6591 > (2020-2022)

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  • Hammarström, Helena, et al. (författare)
  • Reply to the Author.
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. - 1537-6591.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)
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25.
  • Hammarström, Helena, et al. (författare)
  • Treatment with reduced dose trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole is effective in mild to moderate Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia in patients with hematologic malignancies
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Clinical Infectious Diseases. - : University of Chicago Press. - 1058-4838 .- 1537-6591.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Recent studies have reported that reduced dose trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) may be effective in the treatment of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PJP) but data is lacking for patients with hematologic malignancies.METHODS: This retrospective study included all adult hematologic patients with PJP between 2013 and 2017 at six Swedish University Hospitals. Treatment with 7.5-15 mg TMP/kg/day (reduced dose) was compared with >15-20 mg TMP/kg/day (standard dose), after correction for renal function. The primary outcome was the change in respiratory function (ΔPaO2/FiO2) between baseline and day 8. Secondary outcomes were clinical failure and/or death at day 8 and death at day 30.RESULTS: Out of a total of 113 included patients, 80 patients received reduced dose, and 33 patients received standard dose. The overall 30-day mortality in the whole cohort was 14%. There were no clinically relevant differences in ΔPaO2/FiO2 at day 8 between the treatment groups, neither before nor after controlling for potential confounders in an adjusted regression model (-13,6 mmHg [95% CI -56,7-29,5] and -9,4 mmHg, [95% CI -50.5-31.7], respectively). Clinical failure and/or death at day 8 and 30-day mortality did not differ significantly between the groups, 18% vs. 21% and 14% vs. 15%, respectively. Among patients with mild to moderate pneumonia, defined as PaO2/FiO2>200 mmHg, all 44 patients receiving reduced dose were alive at day 30.CONCLUSION: In this cohort of 113 patients with hematologic malignancies, reduced dose TMP-SMX was effective and safe for treating mild to moderate PJP.
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  • Hansson, Karin, et al. (författare)
  • Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) vaccine failures : A ten-year retrospective study supporting the rationale for adding an extra priming dose in individuals from the age of 50 years
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Clinical Infectious Diseases. - : Oxford University Press. - 1058-4838 .- 1537-6591. ; 70:2, s. 245-251
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Southern Sweden is endemic for tick borne encephalitis (TBE), with Stockholm County as one of the high-risk areas. The aim of this study was to describe cases of vaccine failures, and to optimize future vaccination recommendations.METHODS: Patients with TBE were identified in the notification database at the Department of Communicable Disease Control and Prevention in the county of Stockholm during 2006-2015. Vaccine failure was defined as TBE despite adherence to the recommended vaccination schedule with at least two doses. Clinical data were extracted from medical records.RESULTS: A total of 1004 TBE cases were identified, 53 (5%) were defined as vaccine failures. In this latter group the median age was 62 years (6-83). Forty-three (81%) patients were over 50 years of age and two were children. Approximately half of the patients had comorbidities with diseases affecting the immune system accounting for 26% of all cases.Vaccine failures following the third or fourth vaccine dose accounted for 36 (68%) of the patients. Severe and moderate TBE disease affected 81% of the cases.CONCLUSION: To our knowledge, this is the largest documented cohort of TBE-vaccine failures. Vaccine failure after five TBE-vaccine doses is rare. Our data provides rationale for adding an extra priming dose to the age group 50 years and older.
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  • Hassan, Amin S, et al. (författare)
  • A Stronger Innate Immune Response During Hyperacute HIV-1 Infection is associated with ACUTE retroviral syndrome
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Clinical Infectious Diseases. - : Oxford University Press. - 1537-6591. ; 73:5, s. 832-841
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Acute retroviral syndrome (ARS) is associated with HIV-1 subtype and disease progression, but the underlying immunopathological pathways are poorly understood. We aimed to elucidate associations between innate immune responses during hyperacute HIV-1 infection (hAHI) and ARS.METHODS: Plasma samples obtained from volunteers (≥18.0 years) before and during hAHI, defined as HIV-1 antibody negative and RNA or p24 antigen positive from Kenya, Rwanda, Uganda, Zambia and Sweden were analysed. Forty soluble innate immune markers were measured using multiplexed assays. Immune responses were differentiated into volunteers with stronger and comparatively weaker responses using principal component analysis. Presence or absence of ARS was defined based on eleven symptoms using latent class analysis. Logistic regression was used to determine associations between immune responses and ARS.RESULTS: Of 55 volunteers, 31 (56%) had ARS. Volunteers with stronger immune responses (n=36 [65%]) had increased odds of ARS which was independent of HIV-1 subtype, age, and risk group (adjusted odds ratio, 7.1 [95% CI: 1.7-28.8], p=0.003). IP-10 was fourteen-fold higher during hAHI, elevated in seven of the eleven symptoms, and independently associated with ARS. IP-10 threshold >466.0 pg/mL differentiated stronger immune responses with a sensitivity of 84.2% (95% CI: 60.4-96.6) and specificity of 100.0% (95% CI: 90.3-100.0).CONCLUSIONS: A stronger innate immune response during hAHI was associated with ARS. Plasma IP-10 may be a candidate biomarker of stronger innate immunity. Our findings provide further insights on innate immune responses in regulating ARS and may inform the design of vaccine candidates harnessing innate immunity.
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  • Höper, Linnea, et al. (författare)
  • Vasculitis due to Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis : a cohort study of 40 Swedish patients
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Clinical Infectious Diseases. - 1058-4838 .- 1537-6591. ; 73:7, s. e2372-e2378
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Candidatus (Ca.) Neoehrlichia (N.) mikurensis is an emerging tick-borne pathogen of humans that is closely related to Ehrlichia and Anaplasma species. This strict intracellular bacterium escapes detection by routine microbiologic diagnostic methods such as blood culture leading to considerable under-diagnosis of the infectious disease it causes, neoehrlichiosis.METHODS: Here, we describe the vascular and thromboembolic events afflicting a series of 40 patients diagnosed with neoehrlichiosis in Sweden during a 10-year period (2009-2019).RESULTS: The majority of the patients (60%) developed vascular events ranging from repeated thrombophlebitis, deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, transitory ischemic attacks to arteritis. Younger age was a risk factor for vascular complications. In contrast, there was no difference in the incidence of vascular events between immunosuppressed and immunocompetent patients. However, there were qualitative differences such that deep vein thrombosis exclusively afflicted the immunosuppressed patients whereas arteritis was restricted to the immunocompetent ones. We also present the case histories of two patients who developed vasculitis mimicking polyarteritis nodosa and giant cell arteritis. Both were cured by doxycycline treatment.CONCLUSIONS: Ca. N. mikurensis infection should be considered in patients living in tick-endemic areas of Europe and northern Asia who present with atypical vascular and/or thromboembolic events. Early diagnosis and antibiotics targeting this emerging infectious agent can eradicate the infection and prevent the development of new vascular events.
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