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Sökning: L773:1537 6591 > (2020-2022)

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61.
  • Stoner, Marie C.D., et al. (författare)
  • Modeling Combination Interventions to Prevent Human Immunodeficiency Virus in Adolescent Girls and Young Women in South Africa (HIV Prevention Trials Network 068)
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Clinical Infectious Diseases. - : Oxford University Press. - 1058-4838 .- 1537-6591. ; 73:7, s. e1911-e1918
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Combination interventions may be an effective way to prevent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in adolescent girls and young women. However, current studies are not designed to understand which specific interventions and combinations will be most effective. We estimate the possible impacts of interventions on a combination of factors associated with HIV.METHODS: We used the g-formula to model interventions on combinations of HIV risk factors to identify those that would prevent the most incident HIV infections, including low school attendance, intimate partner violence, depression, transactional sex, and age-disparate partnerships. We used data from the HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN) 068 study in rural South Africa from 2011 to 2017. We estimated HIV incidence under a potential intervention that reduced each risk factor and compared this to HIV incidence under the current distribution of these risk factors.RESULTS: Although many factors had strong associations with HIV, potential intervention estimates did not always suggest large reductions in HIV incidence because the prevalence of risk factors was low. When modeling combination effects, an intervention to increase schooling, decrease depression, and decease transactional sex showed the largest reduction in incident infection (risk difference, -1.4%; 95% confidence interval [CI], -2.7% to -.2%), but an intervention on only transactional sex and depression still reduced HIV incidence by -1.3% (95% CI, -2.6% to -.2%).CONCLUSIONS: To achieve the largest reductions in HIV, both prevalence of the risk factor and strength of association with HIV must be considered. Additionally, intervening on more risk factors may not necessarily result in larger reductions in HIV incidence.
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62.
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63.
  • Susanto, Budi Octasari, et al. (författare)
  • Rifampicin can be given as flat-dosing instead of weight-band dosing
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Clinical Infectious Diseases. - 1058-4838 .- 1537-6591. ; 71:12, s. 3055-3060
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: The weight-band dosing in tuberculosis treatment regimen has been implemented in clinical practice for decades. Patients will receive different number of fixed dose combination (FDC) tablets according to their weight-band. However, some analysis have shown that weight was not the best covariate to explain variability of rifampicin exposure. Furthermore, the rationale for using weight-band dosing instead of flat-dosing becomes questionable. Therefore, this study aimed to compare the average and the variability of rifampicin exposure after weight-band dosing and flat-dosing.METHODS: Rifampicin exposure were simulated using previously published population pharmacokinetics model at dose 10-40 mg/kg for weight-band dosing and dose 600-2400 mg for flat-dosing. The median AUC0-24h after day 7 and 14 were compared as well as the variability of each dose group between weight-band and flat-dosing.RESULTS: The difference of median AUC0-24h of all dose groups between flat-dosing and weight-band dosing were considered low (< 20%) except for the lowest dose. At the dose of 10 mg/kg (600 mg for flat-dosing), flat-dosing resulted in higher median AUC0-24h compared to the weight-band dosing. A marginal decrease in between-patient variability was predicted for weight-band dosing compared to flat-dosing.CONCLUSIONS: Weight-band dosing yields a small and non-clinically relevant decrease in variability of AUC0-24h.
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64.
  • Svensson, Elin M., 1985-, et al. (författare)
  • Model-based meta-analysis of rifampicin exposure and mortality in Indonesian tuberculous meningitis trials
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Clinical Infectious Diseases. - 1058-4838 .- 1537-6591. ; 71:8, s. 1817-1823
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BackgroundIntensified antimicrobial treatment with higher rifampicin doses may improve outcome of tuberculous meningitis, but the desirable exposure and necessary dose are unknown. Our objective was to characterize the relationship between rifampicin exposures and mortality in order to identify optimal dosing for tuberculous meningitis.MethodsAn individual patient meta-analysis was performed on data from 3 Indonesian randomized controlled phase 2 trials comparing oral rifampicin 450 mg (~10 mg/kg) to intensified regimens including 750–1350 mg orally, or a 600-mg intravenous infusion. Pharmacokinetic data from plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were analyzed with nonlinear mixed-effects modeling. Six-month survival was described with parametric time-to-event models.ResultsPharmacokinetic analyses included 133 individuals (1150 concentration measurements, 170 from CSF). The final model featured 2 disposition compartments, saturable clearance, and autoinduction. Rifampicin CSF concentrations were described by a partition coefficient (5.5%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 4.5%–6.4%) and half-life for distribution plasma to CSF (2.1 hours; 95% CI, 1.3–2.9 hours). Higher CSF protein concentration increased the partition coefficient. Survival of 148 individuals (58 died, 15 dropouts) was well described by an exponentially declining hazard, with lower age, higher baseline Glasgow Coma Scale score, and higher individual rifampicin plasma exposure reducing the hazard. Simulations predicted an increase in 6-month survival from approximately 50% to approximately 70% upon increasing the oral rifampicin dose from 10 to 30 mg/kg, and predicted that even higher doses would further improve survival.ConclusionsHigher rifampicin exposure substantially decreased the risk of death, and the maximal effect was not reached within the studied range. We suggest a rifampicin dose of at least 30 mg/kg to be investigated in phase 3 clinical trials.
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65.
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66.
  • Thuresson, Sara, et al. (författare)
  • Airborne Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in Hospitals : Effects of Aerosol-Generating Procedures, HEPA-Filtration Units, Patient Viral Load, and Physical Distance
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. - : Oxford University Press. - 1537-6591. ; 75:1, s. 89-96
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Transmission of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can occur through inhalation of fine droplets or aerosols containing infectious virus. The objective of this study was to identify situations, patient characteristics, environmental parameters, and aerosol-generating procedures (AGPs) associated with airborne severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus.METHODS: Air samples were collected near hospitalized COVID-19 patients and analyzed by RT-qPCR. Results were related to distance to the patient, most recent patient diagnostic PCR cycle threshold (Ct) value, room ventilation, and ongoing potential AGPs.RESULTS: In total, 310 air samples were collected; of these, 26 (8%) were positive for SARS-CoV-2. Of the 231 samples from patient rooms, 22 (10%) were positive for SARS-CoV-2. Positive air samples were associated with a low patient Ct value (OR, 5.0 for Ct <25 vs >25; P = .01; 95% CI: 1.18-29.5) and a shorter physical distance to the patient (OR, 2.0 for every meter closer to the patient; P = .05; 95% CI: 1.0-3.8). A mobile HEPA-filtration unit in the room decreased the proportion of positive samples (OR, .3; P = .02; 95% CI: .12-.98). No association was observed between SARS-CoV-2-positive air samples and mechanical ventilation, high-flow nasal cannula, nebulizer treatment, or noninvasive ventilation. An association was found with positive expiratory pressure training (P < .01) and a trend towards an association for airway manipulation, including bronchoscopies and in- and extubations.CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that major risk factors for airborne SARS-CoV-2 include short physical distance, high patient viral load, and poor room ventilation. AGPs, as traditionally defined, seem to be of secondary importance.
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67.
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68.
  • Ulfhammer, Gustaf, et al. (författare)
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid viral load across the spectrum of untreated HIV-1 infection: a cross-sectional multi-center study.
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. - 1537-6591. ; 75:3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aim of this large multicenter study was to determine variations in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) HIV-RNA in different phases of untreated HIV-1 infection and its associations with plasma HIV-RNA and other biomarkers.Treatment naïve adults with available CSF HIV-RNA quantification were included and divided into groups representing significant disease phases. Plasma HIV-RNA, CSF white blood cell count (CSF WBC), neopterin, and albumin ratio were included when available.1.018 patients were included. CSF HIV-RNA was in median (IQR) 1.03 log10 (0.37-1.86) copies/mL lower than in plasma, and correlated with plasma HIV-RNA (r=0.44, p< 0.01), neopterin concentration in CSF (r=0.49, p< 0.01) and in serum (r=0.29, p< 0.01), CSF WBC (r=0.34, p< 0.01) and albumin ratio (r=0.25, p< 0.01). CSF HIV-RNA paralleled plasma HIV-RNA in all groups except neuroasymptomatic patients with advanced immunodeficiency (CD4 < 200) and patients with HIV-associated dementia (HAD) or opportunistic CNS infections.Patients with HAD had the highest CSF HIV-RNA (in median [IQR] 4.73 (3.84-5.35) log10 copies/mL). CSF > plasma discordance was found in 126 of 972 individuals (13%) and varied between groups, from 1% in primary HIV, 11% in neuroasymptomatic groups, up to 30% of patients with HAD.Our study confirms previous smaller observations of variations in CSF HIV-RNA in different stages of HIV disease. Overall, CSF HIV-RNA was approximately 1 log10 copies/mL lower in CSF than in plasma, but CSF discordance was found in a substantial minority of subjects, most commonly in patients with HAD, indicating increasing CNS compartmentalization paralleling disease progression.
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69.
  • Ulfhammer, Gustaf, et al. (författare)
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid Viral Load Across the Spectrum of Untreated Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1) Infection: A Cross-Sectional Multicenter Study
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Clinical Infectious Diseases. - 1058-4838 .- 1537-6591. ; 75:3, s. 493-502
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background The aim of this large multicenter study was to determine variations in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) HIV-RNA in different phases of untreated human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection and its associations with plasma HIV-RNA and other biomarkers. Methods Treatment naive adults with available CSF HIV-RNA quantification were included and divided into groups representing significant disease phases. Plasma HIV-RNA, CSF white blood cell count (WBC), neopterin, and albumin ratio were included when available. Results In total, 1018 patients were included. CSF HIV-RNA was in median (interquartile range [IQR]) 1.03 log(10) (0.37-1.86) copies/mL lower than in plasma, and correlated with plasma HIV-RNA (r = 0.44, P < .01), neopterin concentration in CSF (r = 0.49, P < .01) and in serum (r = 0.29, P < .01), CSF WBC (r = 0.34, P < .01) and albumin ratio (r = 0.25, P < .01). CSF HIV-RNA paralleled plasma HIV-RNA in all groups except neuroasymptomatic patients with advanced immunodeficiency (CD4 < 200) and patients with HIV-associated dementia (HAD) or opportunistic central nervous system (CNS) infections. Patients with HAD had the highest CSF HIV-RNA (in median [IQR] 4.73 (3.84-5.35) log(10) copies/mL). CSF > plasma discordance was found in 126 of 972 individuals (13%) and varied between groups, from 1% in primary HIV, 11% in neuroasymptomatic groups, up to 30% of patients with HAD. Conclusions Our study confirms previous smaller observations of variations in CSF HIV-RNA in different stages of HIV disease. Overall, CSF HIV-RNA was approximately 1 log(10) copies/mL lower in CSF than in plasma, but CSF discordance was found in a substantial minority of subjects, most commonly in patients with HAD, indicating increasing CNS compartmentalization paralleling disease progression. HIV-RNA is detectable in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) across all stages of untreated HIV and usually parallel plasma HIV-RNA at a lower level. A substantial proportion (13%) of patients have CSF>plasma HIV-RNA, most commonly in patients with HIV-associated dementia.
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70.
  • Vahasarja, N., et al. (författare)
  • Infective Endocarditis Among High-risk Individuals Before and After the Cessation of Antibiotic Prophylaxis in Dentistry: A National Cohort Study
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Clinical Infectious Diseases. - : Oxford University Press. - 1058-4838 .- 1537-6591. ; 75:7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The findings of this cohort study suggest no increased incidence of oral streptococcal infective endocarditis among high-risk individuals in Sweden since the recommended cessation of antibiotic prophylaxis in dentistry for the prevention of endocarditis in October 2012. Background A few years after the publication of the British guidelines, national recommendations were published by the Swedish Medical Products Agency in October 2012, promoting the cessation of antibiotic prophylaxis in dentistry for the prevention of infective endocarditis (IE). The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the incidence of oral streptococcal IE increased among high-risk individuals after October 2012. Methods This nationwide cohort study included all adult individuals (>17 years) living in Sweden from January 2008 to January 2018, with a diagnose code or surgical procedure code indicating high risk of IE. Cox proportional hazard models were performed to calculate adjusted ratios of oral streptococcal IE before and after October 2012 between high-risk individuals and references. Results This study found no increased incidence of oral streptococcal IE among high-risk individuals during the 5 years after the cessation, compared with before. Hazard rate ratios were 15.4 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 8.3-28.5) before and 20.7 (95% CI: 10.0-42.7) after October 2012 for prevalent high-risk individuals. Corresponding ratios for incident high-risk individuals were 66.8 (95% CI: 28.7-155.6) and 44.6 (95% CI: 22.9-86.9). Point estimates for interaction with time period were 1.4 (95% CI: .6-3.5) and 0.8 (95% CI: .5-1.3) for prevalent and incident high-risk individuals, respectively. Conclusion The results suggest that the current Swedish recommendation not to administer antibiotic prophylaxis for the prevention of IE in dentistry has not led to an increased incidence of oral streptococcal IE among high-risk individuals.
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