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Sökning: WFRF:(Abramson Michael J.)

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11.
  • Timm, Signe, et al. (författare)
  • Asthma and selective migration from farming environments in a three-generation cohort study
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Epidemiology. - : Springer. - 0393-2990 .- 1573-7284. ; 34:6, s. 601-609
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Individuals raised on a farm appear to have less asthma than individual raised elsewhere. However, selective migration might contribute to this as may also the suggested protection from farm environment. This study investigated if parents with asthma are less likely to raise their children on a farm. This study involved three generations: 6045 participants in ECRHS/RHINE cohorts (born 1945-1973, denoted G1), their 10,121 parents (denoted G0) and their 8260 offspring participating in RHINESSA (born 1963-1998, denoted G2). G2-offspring provided information on parents not participating in ECRHS/RHINE. Asthma status and place of upbringing for all three generations were reported in questionnaires by G1 in 2010-2012 and by G2 in 2013-2016. Binary regressions with farm upbringing as outcome were performed to explore associations between parental asthma and offspring farm upbringing in G0-G1 and G1-G2. Having at least one parent with asthma was not associated with offspring farm upbringing, either in G1-G2 (RR 1.11, 95% CI 0.81-1.52) or in G0-G1 (RR 0.99, 0.85-1.15). G1 parents with asthma born in a city tended to move and raise their G2 offspring on a farm (RR 2.00, 1.12-3.55), while G1 parents with asthma born on a farm were less likely to raise their G2 offspring on a farm (RR 0.34, 0.11-1.06). This pattern was not observed in analyses of G0-G1. This study suggests that the protective effect from farm upbringing on subsequent asthma development could not be explained by selective migration. Intriguingly, asthmatic parents appeared to change environment when having children.
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12.
  • Wahlgren, Weixiao Yuan, 1970, et al. (författare)
  • Substrate-bound outward-open structure of a Na+-coupled sialic acid symporter reveals a new Na+ site.
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 2041-1723. ; 9:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Many pathogenic bacteria utilise sialic acids as an energy source or use them as an external coating to evade immune detection. As such, bacteria that colonise sialylated environments deploy specific transporters to mediate import of scavenged sialic acids. Here, we report a substrate-bound 1.95 Å resolution structure and subsequent characterisation of SiaT, a sialic acid transporter from Proteus mirabilis. SiaT is a secondary active transporter of the sodium solute symporter (SSS) family, which use Na+ gradients to drive the uptake of extracellular substrates. SiaT adopts the LeuT-fold and is in an outward-open conformation in complex with the sialic acid N-acetylneuraminic acid and two Na+ ions. One Na+ binds to the conserved Na2 site, while the second Na+ binds to a new position, termed Na3, which is conserved in many SSS family members. Functional and molecular dynamics studies validate the substrate-binding site and demonstrate that both Na+ sites regulate N-acetylneuraminic acid transport.
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13.
  • Boudier, Anne, et al. (författare)
  • Long-term air pollution exposure, greenspace and health-related quality of life in the ECRHS study
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Science of the Total Environment. - : Elsevier. - 0048-9697 .- 1879-1026. ; 849
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Associations of long-term exposure to air pollution and greenspace with health-related quality of life (HRQOL) are poorly studied and few studies have accounted for asthma-rhinitis status.OBJECTIVE: To assess the associations of air pollution and greenspace with HRQOL and whether asthma and/or rhinitis modify these associations.METHODS: The study was based on the participants in the second (2000-2002, n = 6542) and third (2011-2013, n = 3686) waves of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS) including 19 centres. The mean follow-up time was 11.3 years. HRQOL was assessed by the SF-36 Physical and Mental Component Summary scores (PCS and MCS). NO2, PM2.5 and PM10 annual concentrations were estimated at the residential address from existing land-use regression models. Greenspace around the residential address was estimated by the (i) mean of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and by the (ii) presence of green spaces within a 300 m buffer. Associations of each exposure variable with PCS and MCS were assessed by mixed linear regression models, accounting for the multicentre design and repeated data, and adjusting for potential confounders. Analyses were stratified by asthma-rhinitis status.RESULTS: The mean (SD) age of the ECRHS-II and III participants was 43 (7.1) and 54 (7.2) years, respectively, and 48 % were men. Higher NO2, PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations were associated with lower MCS (regression coefficients [95%CI] for one unit increase in the inter-quartile range of exposures were -0.69 [-1.23; -0.15], -1.79 [-2.88; -0.70], -1.80 [-2.98; -0.62] respectively). Higher NDVI and presence of forests were associated with higher MCS. No consistent associations were observed for PCS. Similar association patterns were observed regardless of asthma-rhinitis status.CONCLUSION: European adults who resided at places with higher air pollution and lower greenspace were more likely to have lower mental component of HRQOL. Asthma or rhinitis status did not modify these associations.
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14.
  • Flexeder, Claudia, et al. (författare)
  • Second-hand smoke exposure in adulthood and lower respiratory health during 20 year follow up in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Respiratory Research. - : BioMed Central. - 1465-9921 .- 1465-993X. ; 20
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Early life exposure to tobacco smoke has been extensively studied but the role of second-hand smoke (SHS) for new-onset respiratory symptoms and lung function decline in adulthood has not been widely investigated in longitudinal studies. Our aim is to investigate the associations of exposure to SHS in adults with respiratory symptoms, respiratory conditions and lung function over 20 years. We used information from 3011 adults from 26 centres in 12 countries who participated in the European Community Respiratory Health Surveys I-III and were never or former smokers at all three surveys. Associations of SHS exposure with respiratory health (asthma symptom score, asthma, chronic bronchitis, COPD) were analysed using generalised linear mixed-effects models adjusted for confounding factors (including sex, age, smoking status, socioeconomic status and allergic sensitisation). Linear mixed-effects models with additional adjustment for height were used to assess the relationships between SHS exposure and lung function levels and decline. Reported exposure to SHS decreased in all 26 study centres over time. The prevalence of SHS exposure was 38.7% at baseline (1990-1994) and 7.1% after the 20-year follow-up (2008-2011). On average 2.4% of the study participants were not exposed at the first, but were exposed at the third examination. An increase in SHS exposure over time was associated with doctor-diagnosed asthma (odds ratio (OR): 2.7; 95% confidence interval (95%-CI): 1.2-5.9), chronic bronchitis (OR: 4.8; 95%-CI: 1.6-15.0), asthma symptom score (count ratio (CR): 1.9; 95%-CI: 1.2-2.9) and dyspnoea (OR: 2.7; 95%-CI: 1.1-6.7) compared to never exposed to SHS. Associations between increase in SHS exposure and incidence of COPD (OR: 2.0; 95%-CI: 0.6-6.0) or lung function (beta: - 49 ml; 95%-CI: -132, 35 for FEV1 and beta: - 62 ml; 95%-CI: -165, 40 for FVC) were not apparent. Exposure to second-hand smoke may lead to respiratory symptoms, but this is not accompanied by lung function changes.
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15.
  • Jarvis, Debbie, et al. (författare)
  • Prevalence of asthma-like symptoms with ageing
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Thorax. - : BMJ Publishing Group Ltd. - 0040-6376 .- 1468-3296. ; 73:1, s. 37-48
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Change in the prevalence of asthma-like symptoms in populations of ageing adults is likely to be influenced by smoking, asthma treatment and atopy.METHODS: The European Community Respiratory Health Survey collected information on prevalent asthma-like symptoms from representative samples of adults aged 20-44 years (29 centres in 13 European countries and Australia) at baseline and 10 and 20 years later (n=7844). Net changes in symptom prevalence were determined using generalised estimating equations (accounting for non-response through inverse probability weighting), followed by meta-analysis of centre level estimates.FINDINGS: Over 20 years the prevalence of 'wheeze' and 'wheeze in the absence of a cold' decreased (-2.4%, 95% CI -3.5 to -1.3%; -1.5%, 95% CI -2.4 to -0.6%, respectively) but the prevalence of asthma attacks, use of asthma medication and hay fever/nasal allergies increased (0.6%, 95% CI 0.1 to 1.11; 3.6%, 95% CI 3.0 to 4.2; 2.7%, 95% CI 1.7 to 3.7). Changes were similar in the first 10 years compared with the second 10 years, except for hay fever/nasal allergies (increase seen in the first 10 years only). Decreases in these wheeze-related symptoms were largely seen in the group who gave up smoking, and were seen in those who reported hay fever/nasal allergies at baseline.INTERPRETATION: European adults born between 1946 and 1970 have, over the last 20 years, experienced less wheeze, although they were more likely to report asthma attacks, use of asthma medication and hay fever. Decrease in wheeze is largely attributable to smoking cessation, rather than improved treatment of asthma. It may also be influenced by reductions in atopy with ageing.
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16.
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17.
  • Peralta, Gabriela P., et al. (författare)
  • Body mass index and weight change are associated with adult lung function trajectories : the prospective ECRHS study
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Thorax. - : BMJ Publishing Group Ltd. - 0040-6376 .- 1468-3296. ; 75:4, s. 313-320
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Previous studies have reported an association between weight increase and excess lung function decline in young adults followed for short periods. We aimed to estimate lung function trajectories during adulthood from 20-year weight change profiles using data from the population-based European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS).METHODS: We included 3673 participants recruited at age 20-44 years with repeated measurements of weight and lung function (forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1)) in three study waves (1991-93, 1999-2003, 2010-14) until they were 39-67 years of age. We classified subjects into weight change profiles according to baseline body mass index (BMI) categories and weight change over 20 years. We estimated trajectories of lung function over time as a function of weight change profiles using population-averaged generalised estimating equations.RESULTS: In individuals with normal BMI, overweight and obesity at baseline, moderate (0.25-1 kg/year) and high weight gain (>1 kg/year) during follow-up were associated with accelerated FVC and FEV1 declines. Compared with participants with baseline normal BMI and stable weight (±0.25 kg/year), obese individuals with high weight gain during follow-up had -1011 mL (95% CI -1.259 to -763) lower estimated FVC at 65 years despite similar estimated FVC levels at 25 years. Obese individuals at baseline who lost weight (<-0.25 kg/year) exhibited an attenuation of FVC and FEV1 declines. We found no association between weight change profiles and FEV1/FVC decline.CONCLUSION: Moderate and high weight gain over 20 years was associated with accelerated lung function decline, while weight loss was related to its attenuation. Control of weight gain is important for maintaining good lung function in adult life.
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18.
  • Peralta, Gabriela P., et al. (författare)
  • Body mass index trajectories during adult life and lung function decline
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: European Respiratory Journal. - : European Respiratory Society. - 0903-1936 .- 1399-3003. ; 52
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Body mass index (BMI) has been associated with lung function. Whether distinct BMI trajectories during adult life affect lung function differently is unknown. We assessed associations of BMI trajectories from 34 to 54 years with lung function decline over the same period of time in the ECRHS cohort.BMI trajectories were developed using Group-Based Trajectory Modeling on data collected at least twice between ECRHS I and ECRHS III (n=9327). Associations of these trajectories with lung function decline were assessed using mixed linear regression models (adjusted for sex, age, age2, height, smoking status and baseline lung function) in a subgroup (n=3534) with lung function data at ECRHS I and III. As sex-specific analyses showed similar findings, males and females were combined.Four parallel trajectories were identified: ‘normal’, ‘overweight’, ‘obese’ and ‘morbidly obese’ (Fig. 1). Those with higher BMI trajectories had greater decline of FEV1 and FVC than those with ‘normal BMI’ trajectory (Fig. 2).Overweight and obese trajectories of BMI during adult life were associated with greater lung function decline in the ECRHS cohort.
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19.
  • Pesce, Giancarlo, et al. (författare)
  • Time and age trends in smoking cessation in Europe
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: PLOS ONE. - : PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE. - 1932-6203. ; 14:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Smoking is the main risk factor for most of the leading causes of death. Cessation is the single most important step that smokers can take to improve their health. With the aim of informing policy makers about decisions on future tobacco control strategies, we estimated time and age trends in smoking cessation in Europe between 1980 and 2010. Methods Data on the smoking history of 50,228 lifetime smokers from 17 European countries were obtained from six large population-based studies included in the Ageing Lungs in European Cohorts (ALEC) consortium. Smoking cessation rates were assessed retrospectively, and age trends were estimated for three decades (1980-1989, 1990-1999, 2000-2010). The analyses were stratified by sex and region (North, East, South, West Europe). Results Overall, 21,735 subjects (43.3%) quit smoking over a total time-at-risk of 803,031 years. Cessation rates increased between 1980 and 2010 in young adults (16-40 years), especially females, from all the regions, and in older adults (41-60 years) from North Europe, while they were stable in older adults from East, South and West Europe. In the 2000s, the cessation rates for men and women combined were highest in North Europe (49.9 per 1,000/ year) compared to the other regions (range: 26.5-32.7 per 1,000/ year). A sharp peak in rates was observed for women around the age of 30, possibly as a consequence of pregnancy-related smoking cessation. In most regions, subjects who started smoking before the age of 16 were less likely to quit than those who started later. Conclusions Our findings suggest an increasing awareness on the detrimental effects of smoking across Europe. However, East, South and West European countries are lagging behind North Europe, suggesting the need to intensify tobacco control strategies in these regions. Additional efforts should be made to keep young adolescents away from taking up smoking, as early initiation could make quitting more challenging during later life.
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20.
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