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  • Fernandez, C., et al. (författare)
  • Plasma Lipid Composition and Risk of Developing Cardiovascular Disease
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Plos One. - : Public Library of Science. - 1932-6203. ; 8:8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims: We tested whether characteristic changes of the plasma lipidome in individuals with comparable total lipids level associate with future cardiovascular disease (CVD) outcome and whether 23 validated gene variants associated with coronary artery disease (CAD) affect CVD associated lipid species. Methods and Results: Screening of the fasted plasma lipidome was performed by top-down shotgun analysis and lipidome compositions compared between incident CVD cases (n = 211) and controls (n = 216) from the prospective population-based MDC study using logistic regression adjusting for Framingham risk factors. Associations with incident CVD were seen for eight lipid species (0.21 <= q <= 0.23). Each standard deviation unit higher baseline levels of two lysophosphatidylcholine species (LPC), LPC16:0 and LPC20:4, was associated with a decreased risk for CVD (P=0.024-0.028). Sphingomyelin (SM) 38: 2 was associated with increased odds of CVD (P=0.057). Five triglyceride (TAG) species were associated with protection (P=0.031-0.049). LPC16:0 was negatively correlated with the carotid intima-media thickness (P=0.010) and with HbA1c (P=0.012) whereas SM38:2 was positively correlated with LDL-cholesterol (P=0.0*10(-6)) and the q-values were good (q <= 0.03). The risk allele of 8 CAD-associated gene variants showed significant association with the plasma level of several lipid species. However, the q-values were high for many of the associations (0.015 <= q <= 0.75). Risk allele carriers of 3 CAD-loci had reduced level of LPC16:0 and/or LPC 20:4 (P <= 0.056). Conclusion: Our study suggests that CVD development is preceded by reduced levels of LPC16: 0, LPC20: 4 and some specific TAG species and by increased levels of SM38:2. It also indicates that certain lipid species are intermediate phenotypes between genetic susceptibility and overt CVD. But it is a preliminary study that awaits replication in a larger population because statistical significance was lost for the associations between lipid species and future cardiovascular events when correcting for multiple testing.
  • Helgadottir, Anna, et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide analysis yields new loci associating with aortic valve stenosis
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 2041-1723. ; 9:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aortic valve stenosis (AS) is the most common valvular heart disease, and valve replacement is the only definitive treatment. Here we report a large genome-wide association (GWA) study of 2,457 Icelandic AS cases and 349,342 controls with a follow-up in up to 4,850 cases and 451,731 controls of European ancestry. We identify two new AS loci, on chromosome 1p21 near PALMD (rs7543130; odds ratio (OR) = 1.20, P = 1.2 × 10-22) and on chromosome 2q22 in TEX41 (rs1830321; OR = 1.15, P = 1.8 × 10-13). Rs7543130 also associates with bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) (OR = 1.28, P = 6.6 × 10-10) and aortic root diameter (P = 1.30 × 10-8), and rs1830321 associates with BAV (OR = 1.12, P = 5.3 × 10-3) and coronary artery disease (OR = 1.05, P = 9.3 × 10-5). The results implicate both cardiac developmental abnormalities and atherosclerosis-like processes in the pathogenesis of AS. We show that several pathways are shared by CAD and AS. Causal analysis suggests that the shared risk factors of Lp(a) and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol contribute substantially to the frequent co-occurence of these diseases.
  • Holmkvist, Johan, et al. (författare)
  • Common variants in HNF-1 alpha and risk of type 2 diabetes.
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Diabetologia. - : Springer. - 1432-0428. ; 49:12, s. 2882-2891
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Mutations in the hepatocyte nuclear factor 1-alpha gene (HNF-1 alpha, now known as the transcription factor 1 gene [TCF1]) cause the most common monogenic form of diabetes, MODY3, but it is not known if common variants in HNF-1a are associated with decreased transcriptional activity or phenotypes related to type 2 diabetes, or whether they predict future type 2 diabetes. We studied the effect of four common polymorphisms (rs1920792, I27L, A98V and S487N) in and upstream of the HNF-1 alpha gene on transcriptional activity in vitro, and their possible association with type 2 diabetes and insulin secretion in vivo. Certain combinations of the I27L and A98V polymorphisms in the HNF-1 alpha gene showed decreased transcriptional activity on the target promoters glucose transporter 2 (now known as solute carrier family 2 [facilitated glucose transporter], member 2) and albumin in both HeLa and INS-1 cells. In vivo, these polymorphisms were associated with a modest but significant impairment in insulin secretion in response to oral glucose. Insulin secretion deteriorated over time in individuals carrying the V allele of the A98V polymorphism (n=2,293; p=0.003). In a new case-control (=1,511 and n=2,225 respectively) data set, the I27L polymorphism was associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes, odds ratio (OR)=1.5 (p=0.002; multiple logistic regression), particularly in elderly (age > 60 years) and overweight (BMI > 25 kg/m(2)) patients (OR=2.3, p=0.002). This study provides in vitro and in vivo evidence that common variants in the MODY3 gene, HNF-1 alpha, influence transcriptional activity and insulin secretion in vivo. These variants are associated with a modestly increased risk of late-onset type 2 diabetes in subsets of elderly overweight individuals.
  • Holmkvist, Johan, et al. (författare)
  • Common variants in maturity-onset diabetes of the young genes and future risk of type 2 diabetes
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Diabetes. - : American Diabetes Association Inc.. - 1939-327X. ; 57:6, s. 1738-1744
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE-Mutations in the hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF)-1 alpha, HNF-4 alpha, glucokinase (GCK), and HNF-1 beta genes cause maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY), but it is not known whether common variants in these genes predict future type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS-We tested 14 previously associated polymorphisms in HNF-1 alpha, HNF-4 alpha, GCK, and HNF-1 beta for association with type 2 diabetes-related traits and future risk of type 2 diabetes in 2,293 individuals from the Botnia study (Finland) and in 15,538 individuals from the Malmo Preventive Project (Sweden) with a total follow-up >360,000 years. RESULTS-The polymorphism rs1169288 in HNF-1 alpha strongly predicted future type 2 diabetes (hazard ratio [HR] 1.2, P = 0.0002). Also, SNPs rs4810424 and rs3212198 in HNF-4a nominally predicted future type 2 diabetes (HR 1.3 [95% CI 1.0-1.6], P = 0.03; and 1.1 [1.0-1.2], P = 0.04). The rs2144908 polymorphism in HNF-4 alpha was associated with elevated rate of hepatic glucose production during a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp (P = 0.03) but not with deterioration of insulin secretion over time. The SNP rs1799884 in the GCK promoter was associated with elevated fasting plasma glucose (fPG) concentrations that remained unchanged during the follow-up period (P = 0.4; SE 0.004 [-0.003-0.007]) but did not predict future type 2 diabetes (HR 0.9 [0.8 -1.0], P = 0.1). Polymorphisms in HNF-1 beta (transcription factor 2 [TCF2]) did not significantly influence insulin or glucose values nor did they predict future type 2 diabetes. CONCLUSIONS-In conclusion, genetic variation in both HNF-1 alpha and HNF-4 alpha predict future type 2 diabetes, whereas variation in the GCK promoter results in a sustained but subtle elevation of fPG that is not sufficient to increase risk for future type 2 diabetes.
  • Kadi, M., et al. (författare)
  • Mixed micelles of fluorocarbon and hydrocarbon surfactants. A small angle neutron scattering study
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Langmuir. - 0743-7463 .- 1520-5827. ; 20:10, s. 3933-3939
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Mixtures of the partly fluorinated cationic surfactant HFDePC (N-(1, 1,2,2-tetrahydroperfluorodecanyl)pyridinium chloride and deuterated headgroup) with C(16)TAC, hexadecyl-trimethylammonium chloride, have been investigated using small angle neutron scattering with contrast matching. Earlier results from this system suggested that a demixing occurred, into two coexisting populations of micelles, hydrocarbon-rich and fluorocarbon-rich, respectively. The present results could be explained by one type of mixed micelles with an inhomogeneous distribution of fluorinated and hydrogenated surfactants within the micelles although a demixing cannot be definitely excluded.
  • Perry, John R. B., et al. (författare)
  • Stratifying Type 2 Diabetes Cases by BMI Identifies Genetic Risk Variants in LAMA1 and Enrichment for Risk Variants in Lean Compared to Obese Cases
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: PLoS Genetics. - : Public Library of Science. - 1553-7404. ; 8:5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Common diseases such as type 2 diabetes are phenotypically heterogeneous. Obesity is a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes, but patients vary appreciably in body mass index. We hypothesized that the genetic predisposition to the disease may be different in lean (BMI<25 Kg/m(2)) compared to obese cases (BMI >= 30 Kg/m(2)). We performed two case-control genome-wide studies using two accepted cut-offs for defining individuals as overweight or obese. We used 2,112 lean type 2 diabetes cases (BMI<25 kg/m(2)) or 4,123 obese cases (BMI >= 30 kg/m(2)), and 54,412 un-stratified controls. Replication was performed in 2,881 lean cases or 8,702 obese cases, and 18,957 un-stratified controls. To assess the effects of known signals, we tested the individual and combined effects of SNPs representing 36 type 2 diabetes loci. After combining data from discovery and replication datasets, we identified two signals not previously reported in Europeans. A variant (rs8090011) in the LAMA1 gene was associated with type 2 diabetes in lean cases (P = 8.4610 29, OR = 1.13 [95% CI 1.09-1.18]), and this association was stronger than that in obese cases (P = 0.04, OR = 1.03 [95% CI 1.00-1.06]). A variant in HMG20A-previously identified in South Asians but not Europeans-was associated with type 2 diabetes in obese cases (P = 1.3 x 10(-8), OR= 1.11 [95% CI 1.07-1.15]), although this association was not significantly stronger than that in lean cases (P = 0.02, OR = 1.09 [95% CI 1.02-1.17]). For 36 known type 2 diabetes loci, 29 had a larger odds ratio in the lean compared to obese (binomial P = 0.0002). In the lean analysis, we observed a weighted per-risk allele OR = 1.13 [95% CI 1.10-1.17], P = 3.2 x 10(-14). This was larger than the same model fitted in the obese analysis where the OR = 1.06 [95% CI 1.05-1.08], P = 2.2 x 10(-16). This study provides evidence that stratification of type 2 diabetes cases by BMI may help identify additional risk variants and that lean cases may have a stronger genetic predisposition to type 2 diabetes.
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