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  • Rukh, G, et al. (författare)
  • Inverse relationship between a genetic risk score of 31 BMI loci and weight change before and after reaching middle age
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Obesity. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 0307-0565 .- 1476-5497. ; 40:2, s. 252-259
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Genome-wide-association studies have identified numerous body mass index (BMI)-associated variants, but it is unclear how these relate to weight gain in adults at different ages.METHODS: We examined the association of a genetic risk score (GRS), consisting of 31 BMI-associated variants, with an annual weight change (AWC) and a substantial weight gain (SWG) of 10% by comparing self-reported weight at 20 years (y) with baseline weight (mean: 58 y; s.d.: 8 y) in 21407 participants from the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study (MDCS), and comparing baseline weight to weight at follow-up (mean: 73 y; s.d.: 6 y) among 2673 participants. Association between GRS and AWG and SWG was replicated in 4327 GLACIER (Gene x Lifestyle interactions And Complex traits Involved in Elevated disease Risk) participants (mean: 45 y; s.d.: 7 y) with 10 y follow-up. Cohort-specific results were pooled by fixed-effect meta-analyses.RESULTS: In MDCS, the GRS was associated with increased AWC (β: 0.003; s.e: 0.01; P: 7 × 10(-8)) and increased odds for SWG (odds ratio (OR) 1.01 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.00, 1.02); P: 0.013) per risk-allele from age 20y, but unexpectedly with decreased AWC (β: -0.006; s.e: 0.002; P: 0.009) and decreased odds for SWG OR 0.96 (95% CI: 0.93, 0.98); P: 0.001) between baseline and follow-up. Effect estimates from age 20 y to baseline differed significantly from those from baseline to follow-up (P: 0.0002 for AWC and P: 0.0001 for SWG). Similar to MDCS, the GRS was associated with decreased odds for SWG OR 0.98 (95% CI: 0.96, 1.00); P: 0.029) from baseline to follow-up in GLACIER. In meta-analyses (n=7000), the GRS was associated with decreased AWC (β: -0.005; s.e.m. 0.002; P: 0.002) and decreased odds for SWG OR 0.97 (95% CI: 0.96, 0.99); P: 0.001) per risk-allele.CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide convincing evidence for a paradoxical inversed relationship between a high number of BMI-associated risk-alleles and less weight gain during and after middle-age, in contrast to the expected increased weight gain seen in younger age.
  • Sabater-Lleal, Maria, et al. (författare)
  • Common genetic determinants of lung function, subclinical atherosclerosis and risk of coronary artery disease.
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - : Public Library of Science. - 1932-6203. ; 9:8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) independently associates with an increased risk of coronary artery disease (CAD), but it has not been fully investigated whether this co-morbidity involves shared pathophysiological mechanisms. To identify potential common pathways across the two diseases, we tested all recently published single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with human lung function (spirometry) for association with carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) in 3,378 subjects with multiple CAD risk factors, and for association with CAD in a case-control study of 5,775 CAD cases and 7,265 controls. SNPs rs2865531, located in the CFDP1 gene, and rs9978142, located in the KCNE2 gene, were significantly associated with CAD. In addition, SNP rs9978142 and SNP rs3995090 located in the HTR4 gene, were associated with average and maximal cIMT measures. Genetic risk scores combining the most robustly spirometry-associated SNPs from the literature were modestly associated with CAD, (odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval (CI95) = 1.06 (1.03, 1.09); P-value = 1.5×10-4, per allele). In conclusion, our study suggests that some genetic loci implicated in determining human lung function also influence cIMT and susceptibility to CAD. The present results should help elucidate the molecular underpinnings of the co-morbidity observed across COPD and CAD.
  • SCAMICOS, Trial Group, et al. (författare)
  • PTFE bypass to below-knee arteries: distal vein collar or not? A prospective randomised multicentre study.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: European journal of vascular and endovascular surgery : the official journal of the European Society for Vascular Surgery. - : Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. - 1532-2165 .- 1078-5884. ; 39:6, s. 747-54
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Patency and limb salvage after synthetic bypass to the arteries below-knee are inferior to that which can be achieved with autologous vein. Use of a vein collar at the distal anastomosis has been suggested to improve patency and limb salvage, a problem that is analysed in this randomised clinical study.
  • Almgren, Karin, et al. (författare)
  • Role of fibre-fibre and fibre-matrix adhesion in stress transfer in composites made from resin-impregnated paper sheets.
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Adhesion and Adhesives. - : Elsevier. - 0143-7496 .- 1879-0127. ; 29:5, s. 551-557
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Paper-reinforced plastics are gaining increased interest as packaging materials, where mechanical properties are of great importance. Strength and stress transfer in paper sheets are controlled by fibre-fibre bonds. In paper-reinforced plastics, where the sheet is impregnated with a polymer resin, other stress-transfer mechanisms may be more important. The influence of fibre-fibre bonds on the strength of paper-reinforced plastics was therefore investigated. Paper sheets with different degrees of fibre-fibre bonding were manufactured and used as reinforcement in a polymeric matrix. Image analysis tools were used to verify that the difference in the degree of fibre-fibre bonding had been preserved in the composite materials. Strength and stiffness of the composites were experimentally determined and showed no correlation to the degree of fibre-fibre bonding, in contrast to the behaviour of unimpregnated paper sheets. The degree of fibre-fibre bonding is therefore believed to have little importance in this type of material, where stress is mainly transferred through the fibre-matrix interface.
  • Almgren, M., et al. (författare)
  • Fatigue after heart transplantation - a possible barrier to self-efficacy
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 0283-9318.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Rationale Recovery after heart transplantation is challenging and many heart recipients struggle with various transplant-related symptoms, side-effects of immunosuppressive medications and mental challenges. Fatigue has been reported to be one of the most common and distressing symptoms after heart transplantation and might therefore constitute a barrier to self-efficacy, which acts as a moderator of self-management. Aim To explore the prevalence of fatigue and its relationship to self-efficacy among heart recipients 1-5 years after transplantation. Research method An explorative cross-sectional design, including 79 heart recipients due for follow-up 1-5 years after transplantation. Three different self-assessment instruments were employed; The Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory-19, Self-efficacy for managing chronic disease 6-Item Scale and The Postoperative Recovery Profile. Ethical approval The study was approved by the Regional Ethics Board of Lund (Dnr. 2014/670-14/10) with supplementary approval from the Swedish Ethical Review Authority (Dnr. 2019-02769). Results The reported levels of fatigue for the whole group were moderate in all dimensions of the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory-19, with highest ratings in the General Fatigue sub-scale. Those most fatigued were the groups younger than 50 years; pretransplant treatment with Mechanical Circulatory Support; not recovered or had not returned to work. Self-efficacy was associated with the sub-dimensions Mental Fatigue (rho = -0 center dot.649) and Reduced Motivation (rho = -0 center dot 617), which explained 40 center dot 1% of the variance when controlled for age and gender. Study limitations The small sample size constitutes a limitation. Conclusions The moderate levels of fatigue reported indicate that it is not a widespread problem. However, for those suffering from severe fatigue it is a troublesome symptom that affects the recovery process and their ability to return to work. Efforts should be made to identify those troubled by fatigue to enable sufficient self-management support.
  • Almgren, M., et al. (författare)
  • RICS-el : Building a national testbed for research and training on SCADA security (short paper)
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Lect. Notes Comput. Sci.. - : Springer Verlag. - 9783030058487 - 9783030058494 ; 11260 LNCS, s. 219-225
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Trends show that cyber attacks targeting critical infrastructures are increasing, but security research for protecting such systems are challenging. There is a gap between the somewhat simplified models researchers at universities can sustain contra the complex systems at infrastructure owners that seldom can be used for direct research. There is also a lack of common datasets for research benchmarking. This paper presents a national experimental testbed for security research within supervisory control and data acquisition systems (SCADA), accessible for both research training and experiments. The virtualized testbed has been designed and implemented with both vendor experts and security researchers to balance the goals of realism with specific research needs. It includes a real SCADA product for energy management, a number of network zones, substation nodes, and a simulated power system. This environment enables creation of scenarios similar to real world utility scenarios, attack generation, development of defence mechanisms, and perhaps just as important: generating open datasets for comparative research evaluation.
  • Almgren, M., et al. (författare)
  • Self-efficacy, recovery and psychological wellbeing one to five years after heart transplantation: a Swedish cross-sectional study
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing. - : Oxford University Press. - 1474-5151. ; 20:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Self-efficacy refers to a person ' s confidence in carrying out treatment-related activities and constitutes the foundation of self-management as well as long-term follow-up after heart transplantation. Exploring the heart recipients ' experiences by means of self-report instruments provides healthcare professionals with valuable information on how to supply self-management support after heart transplantation. Aims The aim was to explore self-efficacy in relation to the self-reported level of recovery and psychological wellbeing, among adult heart recipients, one to 5 years after transplantation. Methods This cross-sectional study includes 79 heart recipients, due for follow-up one to 5 years after transplantation. Three different self-assessment instruments were employed: the self-efficacy for managing chronic disease 6-item scale; the postoperative recovery profile; and the psychological general wellbeing instrument. Results The reported level of self-efficacy was high (median 8.3, maximum score 10). Significantly higher self-efficacy was seen among those who had returned to work (P = 0.003) and those without pre-transplant mechanical circulatory support (P = 0.033). In total, 65.5% (n = 52) reported being reasonably recovered, while 18.8% (n = 12) were not recovered. The median total psychological general wellbeing score was 108 (P-25 = 24,P-75 = 117), suggesting overall good psychological wellbeing in the whole group of heart recipients. Conclusion The heart transplant recipients in our study had an overall high level of self-efficacy. Low self-efficacy was found among those with a low self-reported level of recovery, pre-transplant treatment with mechanical circulatory support or who had not returned to work. This is important information for transplant professionals when helping heart recipients to balance their expectations about recovery.
  • Arora, G. P., et al. (författare)
  • Insulin secretion and action in North Indian women during pregnancy
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Diabetic medicine : a journal of the British Diabetic Association. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 1464-5491. ; 34:10, s. 1477-1482
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • AIM: The relative roles(s) of impaired insulin secretion vs. insulin resistance in the development of gestational diabetes mellitus depend upon multiple risk factors and diagnostic criteria. Here, we explored their relative contribution to gestational diabetes as defined by the WHO 1999 (GDM1999) and adapted WHO 2013 (GDM2013) criteria, excluding the 1-h glucose value, in a high-risk Indian population from Punjab.METHODS: Insulin secretion (HOMA2-B) and insulin action (HOMA2-IR) were assessed in 4665 Indian women with or without gestational diabetes defined by the GDM1999 or adapted GDM2013 criteria.RESULTS: Gestational diabetes defined using both criteria was associated with decreased insulin secretion compared with pregnant women with normal glucose tolerance. Women with gestational diabetes defined by the adapted GDM2013, but not GDM1999 criteria, were more insulin resistant than pregnant women with normal glucose tolerance, and furthermore displayed lower insulin secretion than GDM1999 women. Urban habitat, illiteracy, high age and low BMI were independently associated with reduced insulin secretion, whereas Sikh religion, increasing age and BMI, as well as a family history of diabetes were independently associated with increased insulin resistance.CONCLUSIONS: Gestational diabetes risk factors influence insulin secretion and action in North Indian women in a differential manner. Gestational diabetes classified using the adapted GDM2013 compared with GDM1999 criteria is associated with more severe impairments of insulin secretion and action.
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