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  • Lyssenko, V., et al. (författare)
  • Genetic prediction of future type 2 diabetes
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: PLoS Medicine. - : Public Library of Science. - 1549-1277 .- 1549-1676. ; 2:12, s. 1299-1308
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a multifactorial disease in which environmental triggers interact with genetic variants in the predisposition to the disease. A number of common variants have been associated with T2D but our knowledge of their ability to predict T2D prospectively is limited. Methods and Findings: By using a Cox proportional hazard model, common variants in the PPARG (P12A), CAPN10 (SNP43 and 44), KCNJ11 (E23K), UCP2 (-866G>A), and IRS1 (G972R) genes were studied for their ability to predict T2D in 2,293 individuals participating in the Botnia study in Finland. After a median follow-up of 6 y, 132 (6%) persons developed T2D. The hazard ratio for risk of developing T2D was 1.7 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1-2.7) for the PPARG PP genotype, 1.5 (95% CI 1.0-2.2) for the CAPN10 SNP44 TT genotype, and 2.6 (95% CI 1.5-4.5) for the combination of PPARG and CAPN10 risk genotypes. In individuals with fasting plasma glucose ≥ 5.6 mmol/l and body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m2, the hazard ratio increased to 21.2 (95% CI 8.7-51.4) for the combination of the PPARG PP and CAPN10 SNP43/44 GG/TT genotypes as compared to those with the low-risk genotypes with normal fasting plasma glucose and body mass index < 30 kg/m2. Conclusion: We demonstrate in a large prospective study that variants in the PPARG and CAPN10 genes predict future T2D. Genetic testing might become a future approach to identify individuals at risk of developing T2D.
  • McLeod, Olga, et al. (författare)
  • Genetic loci on chromosome 5 are associated with circulating levels of interleukin-5 and eosinophil count in a European population with high risk for cardiovascular disease
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Cytokine. - : Academic Press. - 1043-4666 .- 1096-0023. ; 81, s. 1-9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • IL-5 is a Th2 cytokine which activates eosinophils and is suggested to have an atheroprotective role. Genetic variants in the IL5 locus have been associated with increased risk of CAD and ischemic stroke. In this study we aimed to identify genetic variants associated with IL-5 concentrations and apply a Mendelian randomisation approach to assess IL-5 levels for causal effect on intima-media thickness in a European population at high risk of coronary artery disease. We analysed SNPs within robustly associated candidate loci for immune, inflammatory, metabolic and cardiovascular traits. We identified 2 genetic loci for IL-5 levels (chromosome 5, rs56183820, BETA = 0.11, P = 6.73E(-5) and chromosome 14, rs4902762, BETA = 0.12, P= 5.76E(-6)) and one for eosinophil count (rs72797327, BETA = -0.10, P = 1.41E(-6)). Both chromosome 5 loci were in the vicinity of the IL5 gene, however the association with IL-5 levels failed to replicate in a meta-analysis of 2 independent cohorts (rs56183820, BETA = 0.04, P= 0.2763, I-2 = 24, I-2 - P = 0.2516). No significant associations were observed between SNPs associated with IL-5 levels or eosinophil count and IMT measures. Expression quantitative trait analyses indicate effects of the IL-5 and eosinophil-associated SNPs on RAD50 mRNA expression levels (rs12652920 (r2 = 0.93 with rs56183820) BETA = -0.10, P = 8.64E(-6) and rs11739623 (r2 = 0.96 with rs72797327) BETA = -0.23, P = 1.74E(-29), respectively). Our data do not support a role for IL-5 levels and eosinophil count in intima-media thickness, however SNP5 associated with IL-5 and eosinophils might influence stability of the atherosclerotic plaque via modulation of RAD50 levels.
  • Rappolt, M., et al. (författare)
  • Non-equilibrium formation of the cubic Pn3m phase in a monoolein/water system
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Europhysics letters. - 0295-5075 .- 1286-4854. ; 75:2, s. 267-273
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Time-resolved small-angle X-ray diffraction experiments have been carried out to investigate the transformation from the cubic gyroid Ia3d to the cubic diamond Pn3m phase. The transition was induced by rapid addition of water to a monoolein/water system changing the initial water concentration of 26% w/w to excess of water conditions. The transformation proceeds in two steps: at the beginning, the two cubic mesophases have a strongly differing lipid/water composition and are accompanied by an intermediate phase. This phase vanishes as the ratio of cell parameters exceeds 1.50. Thereafter, the transition continues by a direct nearly isoareal transformation of the cubic minimal surfaces. Lateral area per lipid molecule, molecular shape and principle curvatures are about the same in this regime.
  • Rönn, Tina, et al. (författare)
  • Age influences DNA methylation and gene expression of COX7A1 in human skeletal muscle.
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Diabetologia. - : Springer. - 1432-0428. ; 51:7, s. 1159-1168
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Reduced oxidative capacity of the mitochondria in skeletal muscle has been suggested to contribute to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Moreover, a set of genes influencing oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) is downregulated in diabetic muscle. Here we studied whether genetic, epigenetic and non-genetic factors influence a component of the respiratory chain, COX7A1, previously shown to be downregulated in skeletal muscle from patients with type 2 diabetes. The specific aims were to: (1) evaluate the impact of genetic (single nucleotide polymorphisms [SNPs]), epigenetic (DNA methylation) and non-genetic (age) factors on the expression of COX7A1 in human skeletal muscle; and (2) investigate whether common variants in the COX7A1 gene are associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes. METHODS: COX7A1 mRNA expression was analysed in muscle biopsies from young (n = 110) and elderly (n = 86) non-diabetic twins and related to measures of in vivo metabolism. Genetic variants (three SNPs) from the COX7A1 locus were genotyped in the twins and in two independent type 2 diabetes case-control cohorts (n = 1466 and 6380, respectively). DNA methylation of the COX7A1 promoter was analysed in a subset of twins (ten young, ten elderly) using bisulphite sequencing. RESULTS: While DNA methylation of the COX7A1 promoter was increased in muscle from elderly compared with young twins (19.9 +/- 8.3% vs 1.8 +/- 2.7%; p = 0.035), the opposite was found for COX7A1 mRNA expression (elderly 1.00 +/- 0.05 vs young 1.68 +/- 0.06; p = 0.0005). The heritability of COX7A1 expression was estimated to be 50% in young and 72% in elderly twins. One of the polymorphisms investigated, rs753420, influenced basal COX7A1 expression in muscle of young (p = 0.0001) but not of elderly twins. The transcript level of COX7A1 was associated with increased in vivo glucose uptake and [Formula: see text] (p = 0.009 and p = 0.001, respectively). We did not observe any genetic association between COX7A1 polymorphisms and type 2 diabetes after correcting for multiple testing. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Our results provide further evidence for age as a factor influencing DNA methylation and expression of OXPHOS genes, and thereby in vivo metabolism.
  • Tagetti, A., et al. (författare)
  • A genetic risk score for hypertension is associated with risk of thoracic aortic aneurysm
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Journal of Human Hypertension. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 0950-9240. ; 33:9, s. 658-663
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A genetic risk score (GRS) based on 29 single nucleotide polymorpysms (SNPs) associated with high blood pressure (BP) was prospectively associated with development of hypertension, stroke and cardiovascular events. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of this GRS on the incidence of aortic disease, including aortic dissection (AD), rupture or surgery of a thoracic (TAA) or abdominal (AAA) aortic aneurysm. More than 25,000 people from the Swedish Malmo Diet and Cancer Study had information on at least 24 SNPs and were followed up for a median ≥ 18 years. The number of BP elevating alleles of each SNPs, weighted by their effect size in the discovery studies, was summed into a BP-GRS. In Cox regression models, adjusted for traditional cardiovascular risk factors including hypertension, we found significant associations of the BP-GRS, prospectively, with incident TAA (hazard ratio (HR) 1.64 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.081–2.475 comparing the third vs. the first tertile; p = 0.020) but not with either AAA or aortic dissection. Calibration, discrimination and reclassification analyses show modest improvement in prediction using the BP-GRS in addition to the model which used only traditional risk factors. A GRS for hypertension associates with TAA suggesting a link between genetic determinants of BP and aortic disease. The effect size is small but the addition of more SNPs to the GRS might improve its discriminatory capability.
  • Velasquez, Ilais Moreno, et al. (författare)
  • Duffy antigen receptor genetic variant and the association with Interleukin 8 levels
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Cytokine. - : Academic Press. - 1043-4666 .- 1096-0023. ; 72:2, s. 178-184
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aim of this study is to identify loci associated with circulating levels of Interleukin 8 (IL8). We investigated the associations of 121,445 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from the Illumina 200K CardioMetabochip with IL8 levels in 1077 controls from the Stockholm Heart Epidemiology Program (SHEEP) study, using linear regression under an additive model of inheritance. Five SNPs (rs12075A/G, rs13179413C/T, rs6907989T/A, rs9352745A/C, rs1779553T/C) reached the predefined threshold of genome-wide significance (p < 1.0 x 10(-5)) and were tested for in silico replication in three independent populations, derived from the PIVUS, MDC-CC and SCARF studies. IL8 was measured in serum (SHEEP, PIVUS) and plasma (MDC-CC, SCARF). The strongest association was found with the SNP rs12075 A/G, Asp42Gly (p = 1.6 x 10(-6)), mapping to the Duffy antigen receptor for chemokines (DARC) gene on chromosome 1. The minor allele G was associated with 15.6% and 10.4% reduction in serum IL8 per copy of the allele in SHEEP and PIVUS studies respectively. No association was observed between rs12075 and plasma IL8. Conclusion: rs12075 was associated with serum levels but not with plasma levels of IL8. It is likely that serum IL8 represents the combination of levels of circulating plasma IL8 and additional chemokine liberated from the erythrocyte DARC reservoir due to clotting. These findings highlight the importance of understanding ILS as a biomarker in cardiometabolic diseases. 
  • Vincent, A., et al. (författare)
  • Herring and chicken/pork meals lead to differences in plasma levels of TCA intermediates and arginine metabolites in overweight and obese men and women
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research. - 1613-4125 .- 1613-4133. ; 61:3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Scope: What effect does replacing chicken or pork with herring as the main dietary source of protein have on the human plasma metabolome? Method and results: A randomised crossover trial with 15 healthy obese men and women (age 24-70 years). Subjects were randomly assigned to four weeks of herring diet or a reference diet of chicken and lean pork, five meals per week, followed by a washout and the other intervention arm. Fasting blood serum metabolites were analysed at 0, 2 and 4 weeks for eleven subjects with available samples, using GC-MS based metabolomics. The herring diet decreased plasma citrate, fumarate, isocitrate, glycolate, oxalate, agmatine and methyhistidine and increased asparagine, ornithine, glutamine and the hexosamine glucosamine. Modelling found that the tricarboxylic acid cycle, glyoxylate, and arginine metabolism were affected by the intervention. The effect on arginine metabolism was supported by an increase in blood nitric oxide in males on the herring diet. Conclusion: The results suggest that eating herring instead of chicken and lean pork leads to important metabolic effects, particularly on energy and amino acid metabolism. Our findings support the hypothesis that there are metabolic effects of herring intake unrelated to the long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid content.
  • Willer, Cristen J., et al. (författare)
  • Six new loci associated with body mass index highlight a neuronal influence on body weight regulation
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1546-1718. ; 41:1, s. 25-34
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Common variants at only two loci, FTO and MC4R, have been reproducibly associated with body mass index (BMI) in humans. To identify additional loci, we conducted meta-analysis of 15 genome-wide association studies for BMI (n > 32,000) and followed up top signals in 14 additional cohorts (n > 59,000). We strongly confirm FTO and MC4R and identify six additional loci (P < 5 x 10(-8)): TMEM18, KCTD15, GNPDA2, SH2B1, MTCH2 and NEGR1 (where a 45-kb deletion polymorphism is a candidate causal variant). Several of the likely causal genes are highly expressed or known to act in the central nervous system (CNS), emphasizing, as in rare monogenic forms of obesity, the role of the CNS in predisposition to obesity.
  • Winckler, W, et al. (författare)
  • Association of common variation in the HNF1 alpha gene region with risk of type 2 diabetes
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Diabetes. - : American Diabetes Association Inc.. - 1939-327X. ; 54:8, s. 2336-2342
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • It is currently unclear how often genes that are mutated to cause rare, early-onset monogenic forms of disease also harbor common variants that contribute to the more typical polygenic form of each disease. The gene for MODY3 diabetes, HNF1 alpha, lies in a region that has shown linkage to late-onset type 2 diabetes (12q24, NIDDM2), and previous association studies have suggested a weak trend toward association for common missense variants in HNF1a with glucose-related traits. Based on genotyping of 79 common SNPs in the 118 kb spanning HNF1 alpha, we selected 21 haplotype tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and genotyped them in > 4,000 diabetic patients and control subjects from Sweden, Finland, and Canada. Several SNPs from the coding region and 5' of the gene demonstrated nominal association with type 2 diabetes, with the most significant marker (rs1920792) having an odds ratio of 1.17 and a P value of 0.002. We then genotyped three SNPs with the strongest evidence for association to type 2 diabetes (rs1920792, I27L, and A98V) in an additional 4,400 type 2 diabetic and control subjects from North America and Poland and compared our results with those of the original sample and of Weedon et al. None of the results were consistently observed across all samples, with the possible exception of a modest association of the rare (3-5%) A98V variant. These results indicate that common variants in HNF1 alpha either play no role in type 2 diabetes, a very small role, or a role that cannot be consistently observed without consideration of as yet unmeasured genetic or environmental modifiers.
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