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Sökning: WFRF:(Andersen Mikkel R.)

  • Resultat 11-17 av 17
  • Föregående 1[2]
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11.
  • Bentham, James, et al. (författare)
  • A century of trends in adult human height
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: eLIFE. - 2050-084X. ; 5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Being taller is associated with enhanced longevity, and higher education and earnings. We reanalysed 1472 population-based studies, with measurement of height on more than 18.6 million participants to estimate mean height for people born between 1896 and 1996 in 200 countries. The largest gain in adult height over the past century has occurred in South Korean women and Iranian men, who became 20.2 cm (95% credible interval 17.522.7) and 16.5 cm (13.319.7) taller, respectively. In contrast, there was little change in adult height in some sub-Saharan African countries and in South Asia over the century of analysis. The tallest people over these 100 years are men born in the Netherlands in the last quarter of 20th century, whose average heights surpassed 182.5 cm, and the shortest were women born in Guatemala in 1896 (140.3 cm; 135.8144.8). The height differential between the tallest and shortest populations was 19-20 cm a century ago, and has remained the same for women and increased for men a century later despite substantial changes in the ranking of countries.
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12.
  • Di Cesare, Mariachiara, et al. (författare)
  • Trends in adult body-mass index in 200 countries from 1975 to 2014 : a pooled analysis of 1698 population-based measurement studies with 19.2 million participants
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: The Lancet. - : Elsevier. - 0140-6736 .- 1474-547X. ; 387:10026, s. 1377-1396
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Underweight and severe and morbid obesity are associated with highly elevated risks of adverse health outcomes. We estimated trends in mean body-mass index (BMI), which characterises its population distribution, and in the prevalences of a complete set of BMI categories for adults in all countries.Methods We analysed, with use of a consistent protocol, population-based studies that had measured height and weight in adults aged 18 years and older. We applied a Bayesian hierarchical model to these data to estimate trends from 1975 to 2014 in mean BMI and in the prevalences of BMI categories (<18.5 kg/m(2) [underweight], 18.5 kg/m(2) to <20 kg/m(2), 20 kg/m(2) to <25 kg/m(2), 25 kg/m(2) to <30 kg/m(2), 30 kg/m(2) to <35 kg/m(2), 35 kg/m(2) to <40 kg/m(2), = 40 kg/m(2) [morbid obesity]), by sex in 200 countries and territories, organised in 21 regions. We calculated the posterior probability of meeting the target of halting by 2025 the rise in obesity at its 2010 levels, if post-2000 trends continue.Findings We used 1698 population-based data sources, with more than 19.2 million adult participants (9.9 million men and 9.3 million women) in 186 of 200 countries for which estimates were made. Global age-standardised mean BMI increased from 21.7 kg/m(2) (95% credible interval 21.3-22.1) in 1975 to 24.2 kg/m(2) (24.0-24.4) in 2014 in men, and from 22.1 kg/m(2) (21.7-22.5) in 1975 to 24.4 kg/m(2) (24.2-24.6) in 2014 in women. Regional mean BMIs in 2014 for men ranged from 21.4 kg/m(2) in central Africa and south Asia to 29.2 kg/m(2) (28.6-29.8) in Polynesia and Micronesia; for women the range was from 21.8 kg/m(2) (21.4-22.3) in south Asia to 32.2 kg/m(2) (31.5-32.8) in Polynesia and Micronesia. Over these four decades, age-standardised global prevalence of underweight decreased from 13.8% (10.5-17.4) to 8.8% (7.4-10.3) in men and from 14.6% (11.6-17.9) to 9.7% (8.3-11.1) in women. South Asia had the highest prevalence of underweight in 2014, 23.4% (17.8-29.2) in men and 24.0% (18.9-29.3) in women. Age-standardised prevalence of obesity increased from 3.2% (2.4-4.1) in 1975 to 10.8% (9.7-12.0) in 2014 in men, and from 6.4% (5.1-7.8) to 14.9% (13.6-16.1) in women. 2.3% (2.0-2.7) of the world's men and 5.0% (4.4-5.6) of women were severely obese (ie, have BMI = 35 kg/m(2)). Globally, prevalence of morbid obesity was 0.64% (0.46-0.86) in men and 1.6% (1.3-1.9) in women.Interpretation If post-2000 trends continue, the probability of meeting the global obesity target is virtually zero. Rather, if these trends continue, by 2025, global obesity prevalence will reach 18% in men and surpass 21% in women; severe obesity will surpass 6% in men and 9% in women. Nonetheless, underweight remains prevalent in the world's poorest regions, especially in south Asia.
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13.
  • Woolway, R. Iestyn, et al. (författare)
  • Diel Surface Temperature Range Scales with Lake Size
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: PLOS ONE. - 1932-6203. ; 11:3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Ecological and biogeochemical processes in lakes are strongly dependent upon water temperature. Long-term surface warming of many lakes is unequivocal, but little is known about the comparative magnitude of temperature variation at diel timescales, due to a lack of appropriately resolved data. Here we quantify the pattern and magnitude of diel temperature variability of surface waters using high-frequency data from 100 lakes. We show that the near-surface diel temperature range can be substantial in summer relative to long-term change and, for lakes smaller than 3 km(2), increases sharply and predictably with decreasing lake area. Most small lakes included in this study experience average summer diel ranges in their near-surface temperatures of between 4 and 7 degrees C. Large diel temperature fluctuations in the majority of lakes undoubtedly influence their structure, function and role in biogeochemical cycles, but the full implications remain largely unexplored.
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14.
  • Stockwell, Jason D., et al. (författare)
  • Storm impacts on phytoplankton community dynamics in lakes
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Global Change Biology. - : WILEY. - 1354-1013 .- 1365-2486. ; 26:5, s. 2756-2784
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In many regions across the globe, extreme weather events such as storms have increased in frequency, intensity, and duration due to climate change. Ecological theory predicts that such extreme events should have large impacts on ecosystem structure and function. High winds and precipitation associated with storms can affect lakes via short-term runoff events from watersheds and physical mixing of the water column. In addition, lakes connected to rivers and streams will also experience flushing due to high flow rates. Although we have a well-developed understanding of how wind and precipitation events can alter lake physical processes and some aspects of biogeochemical cycling, our mechanistic understanding of the emergent responses of phytoplankton communities is poor. Here we provide a comprehensive synthesis that identifies how storms interact with lake and watershed attributes and their antecedent conditions to generate changes in lake physical and chemical environments. Such changes can restructure phytoplankton communities and their dynamics, as well as result in altered ecological function (e.g., carbon, nutrient and energy cycling) in the short- and long-term. We summarize the current understanding of storm-induced phytoplankton dynamics, identify knowledge gaps with a systematic review of the literature, and suggest future research directions across a gradient of lake types and environmental conditions.
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15.
  • Dyreborg, Karen, et al. (författare)
  • Migration of the uncemented Echo Bi-Metric and Bi-Metric THA stems : a randomized controlled RSA study involving 62 patients with 24-month follow-up
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Acta Orthopaedica. - : Taylor & Francis. - 1745-3674. ; 91:6, s. 693-698
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background and purpose — Despite the good results after total hip arthroplasty (THA), new implants are continuously being developed to improve durability. The Echo Bi-Metric (EBM) THA stem is the successor to the Bi-Metric (BM) THA stem. The EBM stem includes many of the features of the BM stem, but minor changes in the design might improve the clinical performance. We compared the migration behavior with radiostereometric analysis (RSA) of the EBM stem and the BM stem at 24 months and evaluated the clinical outcome. Patients and methods — We randomized 62 patients with osteoarthritis (mean age 64 years, female/male 28/34) scheduled for an uncemented THA to receive either an EBM or a BM THA stem. We performed RSA within 1 week after surgery and at 3, 6, 12, and 24 months. The clinical outcome was evaluated using Harris Hip Score (HHS) and Oxford Hip Score (OHS). Results — At 24 months, we found no statistically significant differences in migration between the two implants. During the first 3 months both the EBM and the BM stems showed visible subsidence (2.5 mm and 2.2 mm respectively), and retroversion (2.5° and 2.2° respectively), but after 3 months this stabilized. The expected increase in HHS and OHS was similar between the groups. Interpretation — The EBM stem showed a migration at 24 months not different from the BM stem, and both stems display satisfying clinical results.
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16.
  • Pingel, Jessica, et al. (författare)
  • Injection of high dose botulinum-toxin A leads to impaired skeletal muscle function and damage of the fibrilar and non-fibrilar structures
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Scientific Reports. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 2045-2322. ; 7:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Botulinum-toxin A (BoNT/A) is used for a wide range of conditions. Intramuscular administration of BoNT/A inhibits the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction from presynaptic motor neurons causing muscle-paralysis. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of high dose intramuscular BoNT/A injections (6 UI = 60 pg) on muscle tissue. The gait pattern of the rats was significantly affected 3 weeks after BoNT/A injection. The ankle joint rotated externally, the rats became flat footed, and the stride length decreased after BoNT/A injection. Additionally, there was clear evidence of microstructural changes on the tissue level by as evidenced by 3D imaging of the muscles by Synchrotron Radiation X-ray Tomographic Microscopy (SRXTM). Both the fibrillar and the non-fibrillar tissues were affected. The volume fraction of fibrillary tissue was reduced significantly and the non-fibrillar tissue increased. This was accompanied by a loss of the linear structure of the muscle tissue. Furthermore, gene expression analysis showed a significant upregulation of COL1A1, MMP-2, TGF-b1, IL-6, MHCIIA and MHCIIx in the BoNT/A injected leg, while MHVIIB was significantly downregulated. In conclusion: The present study reveals that high dose intramuscular BoNT/A injections cause microstructural damage of the muscle tissue, which contributes to impaired gait.
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17.
  • Sinding, Mikkel-Holger S., et al. (författare)
  • Arctic-adapted dogs emerged at the Pleistocene-Holocene transition
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Science. - 0036-8075 .- 1095-9203. ; 368:6498
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Although sled dogs are one of the most specialized groups of dogs, their origin and evolution has received much less attention than many other dog groups. We applied a genomic approach to investigate their spatiotemporal emergence by sequencing the genomes of 10 modern Greenland sled dogs, an similar to 9500-year-old Siberian dog associated with archaeological evidence for sled technology, and an similar to 33,000-year-old Siberian wolf. We found noteworthy genetic similarity between the ancient dog and modern sled dogs. We detected gene flow from Pleistocene Siberian wolves, but not modern American wolves, to present-day sled dogs. The results indicate that the major ancestry of modern sled dogs traces back to Siberia, where sled dog-specific haplotypes of genes that potentially relate to Arctic adaptation were established by 9500 years ago.
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  • Resultat 11-17 av 17
  • Föregående 1[2]

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