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71.
  • Hjorth, Martin, et al. (författare)
  • Thalidomide and dexamethasone vs. bortezomib and dexamethasone for melphalan refractory myeloma: a randomized study.
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: European journal of haematology. - : John Wiley & Sons. - 0902-4441 .- 1600-0609. ; 88:6, s. 485-496
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Objectives:  Thalidomide and bortezomib have been frequently used for second-line therapy in patients with myeloma relapsing after or refractory to initial melphalan-based treatment, but no randomized trials have been published comparing these two treatment alternatives. Methods:  Thalidomide- and bortezomib-naïve patients with melphalan refractory myeloma were randomly assigned to low-dose thalidomide + dexamethasone (Thal-Dex) or bortezomib + dexamethasone (Bort-Dex). At progression on either therapy, the patients were offered crossover to the alternative drug combination. An estimated 300 patients would be needed for the trial to detect a 50% difference in median PFS between the treatment arms. Results:  After inclusion of 131 patients, the trial was prematurely closed because of low accrual. Sixty-seven patients were randomized to Thal-Dex and 64 to Bort-Dex. Progression-free survival was similar (median, 9.0 months for Thal-Dex and 7.2 for Bort-Dex). Response rate was similar (55% for Thal-Dex and 63% for Bort-Dex), but time to response was shorter (P < 0.05) and the VGPR rate higher (P < 0.01) for Bort-Dex. Time-to-other treatment after crossover was similar (median, 13.2 months for Thal-Dex and 11.2 months for Bort-Dex), as was overall survival (22.8 months for Thal-Dex and 19.0 for Bort-Dex). Venous thromboembolism was seen in seven patients and cerebrovascular events in four patients in the Thal-Dex group. Severe neuropathy, reactivation of herpes virus infections, and mental depression were more frequently observed in the Bort-Dex group. In the quality-of-life analysis, no difference was noted for physical function, pain, and global quality of life. Fatigue and sleep disturbances were significantly more prevalent in the Bort-Dex group. Conclusions:  Thalidomide (50–100 mg daily) in combination with dexamethasone seems to have an efficacy comparable with that of bortezomib and dexamethasone in melphalan refractory myeloma. However, the statistical strength of the results in this study is limited by the low number of included patients.
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72.
  • Kolstad, Arne, et al. (författare)
  • Molecular Monitoring after Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation and Preemptive Rituximab Treatment of Molecular Relapse; Results from the Nordic Mantle Cell Lymphoma Studies (MCL2 and MCL3) with Median Follow-Up of 8.5 Years
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Biology of blood and marrow transplantation. - : ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. - 1083-8791 .- 1523-6536. ; 23:3, s. 428-435
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The main objectives of the present study were to monitor minimal residual disease (MRD) in the bone marrow of patients with mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) to predict clinical relapse and guide preemptive treatment with rituximab. Among the patients enrolled in 2 prospective trials by the Nordic Lymphoma Group, 183 who had completed autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) and in whom an MRD marker had been obtained were included in our analysis. Fresh samples of bone marrow were analyzed for MRD by a combined standard nested and quantitative real-time PCR assay for Bcl-1/immunoglobulin heavy chain gene (IgH) and clonal IgH rear-rangements. Significantly shorter progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) was demonstrated for patients who were MRD positive pre-ASCT (54 patients) or in the first analysis post-ASCT (23 patients). The median PFS was only 20 months in those who were MRD-positive in the first sample post-ASCT, compared with 142 months in the MRD-negative group (P <.0001). OS was 75% at 10 years and median not reached in the MRD-negative group, compared with only 35 months in the MRD-positive group (P <.0001). Of the 86 patients (47%) who remained in continuous molecular remission, 73% were still in clinical remission after 10 years. For all patients, the median time from ASCT to first molecular relapse was 55 months, with a continuous occurrence of late molecular relapses. Fifty-eight patients who experienced MRD relapse received rituximab as preemptive treatment on 1 or more occasions, and in this group, the median time from first molecular relapse to clinical relapse was 55 months. In most cases, rituximab converted patients to MRD negativity (87%), but many patients became MRD-positive again later during follow-up (69%). By multivariate analysis, high-risk Mantle Cell Lymphoma International Prognostic Index score and positive MRD status pre-ASCT predicted early molecular relapse. In conclusion, preemptive rituximab treatment converts patients to MRD negativity and likely postpones clinical relapse. Molecular monitoring offers an opportunity to select some patients for therapeutic intervention and to avoid unnecessary treatment in others. MRD-positive patients in the first analysis post-ASCT have a dismal prognosis and thus are in need of novel strategies.
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73.
  • Pröbstel, Anne-Katrin, et al. (författare)
  • Gut microbiota-specific IgA+ B cells traffic to the CNS in active multiple sclerosis
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Science immunology. - : American Association for the Advancement of Science. - 2470-9468. ; 5:53
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Changes in gut microbiota composition and a diverse role of B cells have recently been implicated in multiple sclerosis (MS), a central nervous system (CNS) autoimmune disease. Immunoglobulin A (IgA) is a key regulator at the mucosal interface. However, whether gut microbiota shape IgA responses and what role IgA+ cells have in neuroinflammation are unknown. Here, we identify IgA-bound taxa in MS and show that IgA-producing cells specific for MS-associated taxa traffic to the inflamed CNS, resulting in a strong, compartmentalized IgA enrichment in active MS and other neuroinflammatory diseases. Unlike previously characterized polyreactive anti-commensal IgA responses, CNS IgA cross-reacts with surface structures on specific bacterial strains but not with brain tissue. These findings establish gut microbiota-specific IgA+ cells as a systemic mediator in MS and suggest a critical role of mucosal B cells during active neuroinflammation with broad implications for IgA as an informative biomarker and IgA-producing cells as an immune subset to harness for therapeutic interventions.
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74.
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75.
  • Synofzik, M., et al. (författare)
  • Mutant superoxide dismutase-1 indistinguishable from wild-type causes ALS
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Human Molecular Genetics. - : Oxford University Press (OUP): Policy B - Oxford Open Option B. - 0964-6906 .- 1460-2083. ; 21:16, s. 3568-3574
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A reason for screening amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients for mutations in the superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1) gene is the opportunity to find novel mutations with properties that can give information on pathogenesis. A novel c.352Cgreater thanG (L117V) SOD1 mutation was found in two Syrian ALS families living in Europe. The disease showed unusually low penetrance and slow progression. In erythrocytes, the total SOD1 activity, as well as specific activity of the mutant protein, was equal in carriers of the mutation and family controls lacking SOD1 mutations. The structural stabilities of the L117V mutant and wild-type SOD1 under denaturing conditions were likewise equal, but considerably lower than that of murine SOD1. As analyzed with an ELISA specific for misfolded SOD1 species, no differences were found in the content of misfolded SOD1 protein between extracts of fibroblasts from wild-type controls and from an L117V patient. In contrast, elevated levels of misfolded SOD1 protein were found in fibroblasts from ALS patients carrying seven other mutations in the SOD1 gene. We conclude that mutations in SOD1 that result in a fully stable protein are associated with low disease penetrance for ALS and may be found in cases of apparently sporadic ALS. Wild-type human SOD1 is moderately stable, and was found here to be within the stability range of ALS-causing SOD1 variants, lending support to the hypothesis that wild-type SOD1 could be more generally involved in ALS pathogenesis.
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76.
  • Andersen, Mette, et al. (författare)
  • Type 2 diabetes susceptibility gene variants predispose to adult-onset autoimmune diabetes
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Diabetologia. - : Springer. - 1432-0428 .- 0012-186X. ; 57:9, s. 1859-1868
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims/hypothesis Latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA) is phenotypically a hybrid of type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Genetically LADA is poorly characterised but does share genetic predisposition with type 1 diabetes. We aimed to improve the genetic characterisation of LADA and hypothesised that type 2 diabetes-associated gene variants also predispose to LADA, and that the associations would be strongest in LADA patients with low levels of GAD autoantibodies (GADA). Methods We assessed 41 type 2 diabetes-associated gene variants in Finnish (phase I) and Swedish (phase II) patients with LADA (n=911) or type 1 diabetes (n=406), all diagnosed after the age of 35 years, as well as in non-diabetic control individuals 40 years or older (n=4,002). Results Variants in the ZMIZ1 (rs12571751, p=4.1 x 10(-5)) and TCF7L2 (rs7903146, p=5.8 x 10(-4)) loci were strongly associated with LADA. Variants in the KCNQ1 (rs2237895, p=0.0012), HHEX (rs1111875, p=0.0024 in Finns) and MTNR1B (rs10830963, p=0.0039) loci showed the strongest association in patients with low GADA, supporting the hypothesis that the disease in these patients is more like type 2 diabetes. In contrast, variants in the KLHDC5 (rs10842994, p=9.5 x 10(-4) in Finns), TP53INP1 (rs896854, p=0.005), CDKAL1 (rs7756992, p=7.0 x 10(-4); rs7754840, p=8.8 x 10(-4)) and PROX1 (rs340874, p=0.003) loci showed the strongest association in patients with high GADA. For type 1 diabetes, a strong association was seen for MTNR1B (rs10830963, p=3.2 x 10(-6)) and HNF1A (rs2650000, p=0.0012). Conclusions/interpretation LADA and adult-onset type 1 diabetes share genetic risk variants with type 2 diabetes, supporting the idea of a hybrid form of diabetes and distinguishing them from patients with classical young-onset type 1 diabetes.
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77.
  • Auer-Grumbach, Michaela, et al. (författare)
  • Rare Variants in MME, Encoding Metalloprotease Neprilysin, Are Linked to Late-Onset Autosomal-Dominant Axonal Polyneuropathies
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Human Genetics. - 0002-9297 .- 1537-6605. ; 99:3, s. 607-623
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Axonal polyneuropathies are a frequent cause of progressive disability in the elderly. Common etiologies comprise diabetes mellitus, paraproteinaemia, and inflammatory disorders, but often the underlying causes remain elusive. Late-onset axonal Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy (CMT2) is an autosomal-dominantly inherited condition that manifests in the second half of life and is genetically largely unexplained. We assumed age-dependent penetrance of mutations in a so far unknown gene causing late-onset CMT2. We screened 51 index case subjects with late-onset CMT2 for mutations by whole-exome (WES) and Sanger sequencing and subsequently queried WES repositories for further case subjects carrying mutations in the identified candidate gene. We studied nerve pathology and tissue levels and function of the abnormal protein in order to explore consequences of the mutations. Altogether, we observed heterozygous rare loss-of-function and missense mutations in MME encoding the metalloprotease neprilysin in 19 index case subjects diagnosed with axonal polyneuropathies or neurodegenerative conditions involving the peripheral nervous system. MME mutations segregated in an autosomal-dominant fashion with age-related incomplete penetrance and some affected individuals were isolated case subjects. We also found that MME mutations resulted in strongly decreased tissue availability of neprilysin and impaired enzymatic activity. Although neprilysin is known to degrade beta-amyloid, we observed no increased amyloid deposition or increased incidence of dementia in individuals with MME mutations. Detection of MME mutations is expected to increase the diagnostic yield in late-onset polyneuropathies, and it will be tempting to explore whether substances that can elevate neprilysin activity could be a rational option for treatment.
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78.
  • Benzinou, Michael, et al. (författare)
  • Common nonsynonymous variants in PCSK1 confer risk of obesity.
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Nature genetics. - 1546-1718. ; 40:8, s. 943-5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Mutations in PCSK1 cause monogenic obesity. To assess the contribution of PCSK1 to polygenic obesity risk, we genotyped tag SNPs in a total of 13,659 individuals of European ancestry from eight independent case-control or family-based cohorts. The nonsynonymous variants rs6232, encoding N221D, and rs6234-rs6235, encoding the Q665E-S690T pair, were consistently associated with obesity in adults and children (P = 7.27 x 10(-8) and P = 2.31 x 10(-12), respectively). Functional analysis showed a significant impairment of the N221D-mutant PC1/3 protein catalytic activity.
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79.
  • Bergström, Petra, et al. (författare)
  • Association of NFE2L2 and KEAP1 haplotypes with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis & frontotemporal degeneration. - : Informa Healthcare. - 2167-9223 .- 2167-8421. ; 15:1-2, s. 130-137
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a degenerative motor neuron syndrome influenced by oxidative stress. The transcription factor Nrf2 and its repressor Keap1 constitute an important defence system in cellular protection against oxidative stress. Here we hypothesize that common genetic variations in the genes NFE2L2 and KEAP1, encoding Nrf2 and Keap1, may influence the risk and phenotype of ALS. Five hundred and twenty-two Swedish patients with sporadic ALS (SALS) and 564 Swedish control subjects were studied. Eight tag SNPs in NFE2L2 and three tag SNPs in KEAP1 were genotyped by allelic discrimination and three functional NFE2L2 promoter SNPs were genotyped by sequencing. One NFE2L2 haplotype (GGGAC) was associated with decreased risk of SALS (OR = 0.62 per allele, p = 0.003) and one haplotype in KEAP1 (CGG) was associated with later SALS onset (+3.4 years per allele, p = 0.015). When stratified by subgroup, one haplotype in NFE2L2, GAGCAGA including three functional promoter SNPs associated with high Nrf2 protein expression, was associated with 4.0 years later disease onset per allele in subgroup ALS (p = 0.008). In conclusion, these results suggest that variations in NFE2L2 and KEAP1, encoding two central proteins in cellular oxidative stress defence, may influence SALS pathogenesis.
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80.
  • Brenner, David, et al. (författare)
  • Hot-spot KIF5A mutations cause familial ALS
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Brain. - : Oxford University Press. - 0006-8950 .- 1460-2156. ; 141, s. 688-697
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Heterozygous missense mutations in the N-terminal motor or coiled-coil domains of the kinesin family member 5A (KIF5A) gene cause monogenic spastic paraplegia (HSP10) and Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2 (CMT2). Moreover, heterozygous de novo frame-shift mutations in the C-terminal domain of KIF5A are associated with neonatal intractable myoclonus, a neurodevelopmental syndrome. These findings, together with the observation that many of the disease genes associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis disrupt cytoskeletal function and intracellular transport, led us to hypothesize that mutations in KIF5A are also a cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Using whole exome sequencing followed by rare variant analysis of 426 patients with familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and 6137 control subjects, we detected an enrichment of KIF5A splice-site mutations in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (2/426 compared to 0/6137 in controls; P = 4.2 x 10-3), both located in a hot-spot in the C-terminus of the protein and predicted to affect splicing exon 27. We additionally show co-segregation with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis of two canonical splice-site mutations in two families. Investigation of lymphoblast cell lines from patients with KIF5A splice-site mutations revealed the loss of mutant RNA expression and suggested haploinsufficiency as the most probable underlying molecular mechanism. Furthermore, mRNA sequencing of a rare non-synonymous missense mutation (predicting p. Arg1007Gly) located in the C-terminus of the protein shortly upstream of the splice donor of exon 27 revealed defective KIF5A pre-mRNA splicing in respective patient-derived cell lines owing to abrogation of the donor site. Finally, the non-synonymous single nucleotide variant rs113247976 (minor allele frequency = 1.00% in controls, n = 6137), also located in the C-terminal region [p.(Pro986Leu) in exon 26], was significantly enriched in familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients (minor allele frequency = 3.40%; P = 1.28 x 10-7). Our study demonstrates that mutations located specifically in a C-terminal hotspot of KIF5A can cause a classical amyotrophic lateral sclerosis phenotype, and underline the involvement of intracellular transport processes in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis pathogenesis.
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