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Sökning: WFRF:(Beltran S)

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  • Prusakov, Pavel, et al. (författare)
  • A global point prevalence survey of antimicrobial use in neonatal intensive care units : The no-more-antibiotics and resistance (NO-MAS-R) study
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: EClinicalMedicine. - : Elsevier BV. - 2589-5370. ; 32
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Global assessment of antimicrobial agents prescribed to infants in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) may inform antimicrobial stewardship efforts.Methods: We conducted a one-day global point prevalence study of all antimicrobials provided to NICU infants. Demographic, clinical, and microbiologic data were obtained including NICU level, census, birth weight, gestational/chronologic age, diagnoses, antimicrobial therapy (reason for use; length of therapy), antimicrobial stewardship program (ASP), and 30-day in-hospital mortality.Findings: On July 1, 2019, 26% of infants (580/2,265; range, 0-100%; median gestational age, 33 weeks; median birth weight, 1800 g) in 84 NICUs (51, high-income; 33, low-to-middle income) from 29 countries (14, high-income; 15, low-to-middle income) in five continents received >= 1 antimicrobial agent (92%, antibacterial; 19%, antifungal; 4%, antiviral). The most common reasons for antibiotic therapy were "rule-out" sepsis (32%) and "culture-negative" sepsis (16%) with ampicillin (40%), gentamicin (35%), amikacin (19%), vancomycin (15%), and meropenem (9%) used most frequently. For definitive treatment of presumed/confirmed infection, vancomycin (26%), amikacin (20%), and meropenem (16%) were the most prescribed agents. Length of therapy for culture-positive and "culture-negative" infections was 12 days (median; IQR, 8-14) and 7 days (median; IQR, 5-10), respectively. Mortality was 6% (42%, infection-related). An NICU ASP was associated with lower rate of antibiotic utilization (p = 0.02).Interpretation: Global NICU antibiotic use was frequent and prolonged regardless of culture results. NICU-specific ASPs were associated with lower antibiotic utilization rates, suggesting the need for their implementation worldwide.
  • Yagoubov, P., et al. (författare)
  • Wideband 67-116 GHz receiver development for ALMA Band 2
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 634
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context. The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) has been in operation since 2011, but it has not yet been populated with the full suite of its planned frequency bands. In particular, ALMA Band 2 (67-90 GHz) is the final band in the original ALMA band definition to be approved for production. Aims. We aim to produce a wideband, tuneable, sideband-separating receiver with 28 GHz of instantaneous bandwidth per polarisation operating in the sky frequency range of 67-116 GHz. Our design anticipates new ALMA requirements following the recommendations of the 2030 ALMA Development Roadmap. Methods. The cryogenic cartridge is designed to be compatible with the ALMA Band 2 cartridge slot, where the coldest components - the feedhorns, orthomode transducers, and cryogenic low noise amplifiers - operate at a temperature of 15 K. We use multiple simulation methods and tools to optimise our designs for both the passive optics and the active components. The cryogenic cartridge is interfaced with a room-temperature (warm) cartridge hosting the local oscillator and the downconverter module. This warm cartridge is largely based on GaAs semiconductor technology and is optimised to match the cryogenic receiver bandwidth with the required instantaneous local oscillator frequency tuning range. Results. Our collaboration has resulted in the design, fabrication, and testing of multiple technical solutions for each of the receiver components, producing a state-of-the-art receiver covering the full ALMA Band 2 and 3 atmospheric window. The receiver is suitable for deployment on ALMA in the coming years and it is capable of dual-polarisation, sideband-separating observations in intermediate frequency bands spanning 4-18 GHz for a total of 28 GHz on-sky bandwidth per polarisation channel. Conclusions. We conclude that the 67-116 GHz wideband implementation for ALMA Band 2 is now feasible and that this receiver provides a compelling instrumental upgrade for ALMA that will enhance observational capabilities and scientific reach.
  • Barnes, Ashley T., et al. (författare)
  • Young massive star cluster formation in the Galactic Centre is driven by global gravitational collapse of high-mass molecular clouds
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. - 0035-8711 .- 1365-2966. ; 486:1, s. 283-303
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Young massive clusters (YMCs) are the most compact, high-mass stellar systems still forming at the present day. The precursor clouds to such systems are, however, rare due to their large initial gas mass reservoirs and rapid dispersal time-scales due to stellar feedback. None the less, unlike their high-z counterparts, these precursors are resolvable down to the sites of individually forming stars, and hence represent the ideal environments in which to test the current theories of star and cluster formation. Using high angular resolution (1 arcsec / 0.05 pc) and sensitivity ALMA observations of two YMC progenitor clouds in the Galactic Centre, we have identified a suite of molecular line transitions - e.g. c-C3H2 (7 - 6) - that are believed to be optically thin, and reliably trace the gas structure in the highest density gas on star-forming core scales. We conduct a virial analysis of the identified core and proto-cluster regions, and show that half of the cores (5/10) and both proto-clusters are unstable to gravitational collapse. This is the first kinematic evidence of global gravitational collapse in YMC precursor clouds at such an early evolutionary stage. The implications are that if these clouds are to form YMCs, then they likely do so via the 'conveyor-belt' mode, whereby stars continually form within dispersed dense gas cores as the cloud undergoes global gravitational collapse. The concurrent contraction of both the cluster-scale gas and embedded (proto-)stars ultimately leads to the high (proto-)stellar density in YMCs.
  • Beltran, Catherine, et al. (författare)
  • Paleoenvironmental conditions for the development of calcareous nannofossil acme during the late Miocene in the eastern equatorial Pacific
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Paleoceanography. - 0883-8305 .- 1944-9186. ; 29:3, s. 210-222
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Repeated monospecific coccolithophore dominance intervals (acmes) of specimens belonging to the Noelaerhabdaceae familyincluding the genus Reticulofenestra and modern descendants Emiliania and Gephyrocapsaoccurred during the Neogene. Such acme was recognized during the late Miocene (similar to 8.6Ma), at a time of a major reorganization of nannofossil assemblages resulting in a worldwide temporary disappearance of larger forms of the genus Reticulofenestra (R. pseudoumbilicus) and the gradual recovery and dominance of its smaller forms (< 5 mu m). In this study we present a multiproxy investigation of late Miocene sediments from the east equatorial Pacific Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Site U1338 where small reticulofenestrid-type placoliths with a closed central areaknown as small Dictyococcites spp. (< 3 mu m)formed an acme. We report on oxygen and carbon stable isotope records of multispecies planktic calcite and alkenone-derived sea surface temperature. Our data indicate that, during this 100 kyr long acme, the east equatorial Pacific thermocline remained deep and stable. Local surface stratification state fails to explain this acme and thus contradicts the model-based hypothesis of a Southern Ocean high-latitude nutrient control of the surface waters in the east equatorial Pacific. Instead, our findings suggest that external forcing such as an extended period of low eccentricity may have created favorable conditions for the small Dictyococcites spp. growth. Key Points < list list-type=bulleted id=palo20081-list-0001> < list-item id=palo20081-li-0001> EEP thermocline deep during the late Miocene small Dictyococcites acme Low eccentricity favorable for the small Dictyococcites spp. growth
  • Beltran Jimenez, Jose, et al. (författare)
  • Coincident general relativity
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Physical Review D. - : American Physical Society. - 2470-0010 .- 2470-0029. ; 98:4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The metric-affine variational principle is applied to generate teleparallel and symmetric teleparallel theories of gravity. From the latter we discover an exceptional class which is consistent with a vanishing affine connection. Based on this remarkable property, this work proposes a simpler geometrical formulation of general relativity that is oblivious to the affine spacetime structure, thus fundamentally depriving gravity of any inertial character. The resulting theory is described by the Hilbert action purged from the boundary term and is more robustly underpinned by the spin-2 field theory, where an extra symmetry is now manifest, possibly related to the double-copy structure of the gravity amplitudes. This construction also provides a novel starting point for modified gravity theories, and the paper presents new and simple generalizations where analytical self-accelerating cosmological solutions arise naturally in the early-and late-time Universe.
  • Beltrán Jiménez, Jose, et al. (författare)
  • Cosmology for quadratic gravity in generalized Weyl geometry
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics. - : Institute of Physics Publishing (IOPP). - 1475-7516 .- 1475-7516. ; :4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A class of vector-tensor theories arises naturally in the framework of quadratic gravity in spacetimes with linear vector distortion. Requiring the absence of ghosts for the vector field imposes an interesting condition on the allowed connections with vector distortion: the resulting one-parameter family of connections generalises the usual Weyl geometry with polar torsion. The cosmology of this class of theories is studied, focusing on isotropic solutions wherein the vector field is dominated by the temporal component. De Sitter attractors are found and inhomogeneous perturbations around such backgrounds are analysed. In particular, further constraints on the models are imposed by excluding pathologies in the scalar, vector and tensor fluctuations. Various exact background solutions are presented, describing a constant and an evolving dark energy, a bounce and a self-tuning de Sitter phase. However, the latter two scenarios are not viable under a closer scrutiny.
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  • Resultat 41-50 av 71
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