51. 
 Beltrán Jiménez, Jose, et al.
(författare)

Cosmology for quadratic gravity in generalized Weyl geometry
 2016

Ingår i: Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics.  : Institute of Physics Publishing (IOPP).  14757516 . 14757516. ; :4

Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
 A class of vectortensor theories arises naturally in the framework of quadratic gravity in spacetimes with linear vector distortion. Requiring the absence of ghosts for the vector field imposes an interesting condition on the allowed connections with vector distortion: the resulting oneparameter family of connections generalises the usual Weyl geometry with polar torsion. The cosmology of this class of theories is studied, focusing on isotropic solutions wherein the vector field is dominated by the temporal component. De Sitter attractors are found and inhomogeneous perturbations around such backgrounds are analysed. In particular, further constraints on the models are imposed by excluding pathologies in the scalar, vector and tensor fluctuations. Various exact background solutions are presented, describing a constant and an evolving dark energy, a bounce and a selftuning de Sitter phase. However, the latter two scenarios are not viable under a closer scrutiny.


52. 
 Beltran Jimenez, Jose, et al.
(författare)

Cosmology in f (Q) geometry
 2020

Ingår i: Physical Review D.  : American Physical Society (APS).  15507998 . 15502368. ; 101:10

Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
 The universal character of the gravitational interaction provided by the equivalence principle motivates a geometrical description of gravity. The standard formulation of general relativity a la Einstein attributes gravity to the spacetime curvature, to which we have grown accustomed. However, this perception has masked the fact that two alternative, though equivalent, formulations of general relativity in flat spacetimes exist, where gravity can be fully ascribed either to torsion or to nonmetricity. The latter allows a simpler geometrical formulation of general relativity that is oblivious to the affine spacetime structure. Generalizations along this line permit us to generate teleparallel and symmetric teleparallel theories of gravity with exceptional properties. In this work we explore modified gravity theories based on nonlinear extensions of the nonmetricity scalar. After presenting some general properties and briefly studying some interesting background cosmologies (including accelerating solutions with relevance for inflation and dark energy), we analyze the behavior of the cosmological perturbations. Tensor perturbations feature a rescaling of the corresponding Newton's constant, while vector perturbations do not contribute in the absence of vector sources. In the scalar sector we find two additional propagating modes, hinting that f(Q) theories introduce, at least, 2 additional degrees of freedom. These scalar modes disappear around maximally symmetric backgrounds because of the appearance of an accidental residual gauge symmetry corresponding to a restricted diffeomorphism. We finally discuss the potential strong coupling problems of these maximally symmetric backgrounds caused by the discontinuity in the number of propagating modes.


53. 
 Beltran Jimenez, Jose, et al.
(författare)

Teleparallel Palatini theories
 2018

Ingår i: Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics.  : Institute of Physics Publishing (IOPP).  14757516 . 14757516. ; :8

Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
 The Palatini formalism, which assumes the metric and the affine connection as independent variables, is developed for gravitational theories in flat geometries. We focus on two particularly interesting scenarios. First, we fix the connection to be metric compatible, as done in the usual teleparallel theories, but we follow a completely covariant approach by imposing the constraints with suitable Lagrange multipliers. For a general quadratic theory we show how torsion naturally propagates and we reproduce the Teleparallel Equivalent of General Relativity as a particular quadratic action that features an additional Lorentz symmetry. We then study the much less explored theories formulated in a geometry with neither curvature nor torsion, so that all the geometrical information is encoded in the nonmetricity. We discuss how this geometrical framework leads to a purely inertial connection that can thus be completely removed by a coordinate gauge choice, the coincident gauge. From the quadratic theory we recover a simpler formulation of General Relativity in the form of the Einstein action, which enjoys an enhanced symmetry that reduces to a second linearised diffeomorphism at linear order. More general theories in both geometries can be formulated consistently by taking into account the inertial connection and the associated additional degrees of freedom. As immediate applications, the new cosmological equations and their Newtonian limit are considered, where the role of the lapse in the consistency of the equations is clarified, and the Schwarzschild black hole entropy is computed by evaluating the corresponding Euclidean action. We discuss how the boundary terms in the usual formulation of General Relativity are related to different choices of coordinates in its coincident version and show that in isotropic coordinates the Euclidean action is finite without the need to introduce boundary or normalisation terms. Finally, we discuss the doublecopy structure of the gravity amplitudes and the bootstrapping of gravity within the framework of coincident General Relativity.


54. 
 Beltran Jimenez, Jose, et al.
(författare)

The canonical frame of purified gravity
 2019

Ingår i: International Journal of Modern Physics D.  : World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte Ltd.  02182718. ; 28:14

Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
 In the recently introduced gauge theory of translations, dubbed Coincident General Relativity (CGR), gravity is described with neither torsion nor curvature in the spacetime affine geometry. The action of the theory enjoys an enhanced symmetry and avoids the second derivatives that appear in the conventional EinsteinHilbert action. While it implies the equivalent classical dynamics, the improved action principle can make a difference in considerations of energetics, thermodynamics and quantum theory. This paper reports on possible progress in those three aspects of gravity theory. In the socalled purified gravity, (1) energymomentum is described locally by a conserved, symmetric tensor, (2) the Euclidean path integral is convergent without the addition of boundary or regulating terms and (3) it is possible to identify a canonical frame for quantization.


55. 
 Beltrán Jiménez, Jose, et al.
(författare)

The Geometrical Trinity of Gravity
 2019

Ingår i: Universe.  : MDPI.  22181997. ; 5:7

Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
 The geometrical nature of gravity emerges from the universality dictated by the equivalence principle. In the usual formulation of General Relativity, the geometrisation of the gravitational interaction is performed in terms of the spacetime curvature, which is now the standard interpretation of gravity. However, this is not the only possibility. In these notes, we discuss two alternative, though equivalent, formulations of General Relativity in flat spacetimes, in which gravity is fully ascribed either to torsion or to nonmetricity, thus putting forward the existence of three seemingly unrelated representations of the same underlying theory. Based on these three alternative formulations of General Relativity, we then discuss some extensions.


56. 
 Bolli, P., et al.
(författare)

An international survey of frontend receivers and observing performance of telescopes for radio astronomy
 2019

Ingår i: Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific.  00046280 . 15383873. ; 131:1002

Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
 © 2019. The Astronomical Society of the Pacific. This paper presents a survey of microwave frontend receivers installed at radio telescopes throughout the world. This unprecedented analysis was conducted as part of a review of frontend developments for Italian radio telescopes, initiated by the Italian National Institute for Astrophysics in 2016. Fifteen international radio telescopes have been selected to be representative of the instrumentation used for radio astronomical observations in the frequency domain from 300 MHz to 116 GHz. A comprehensive description of the existing receivers is presented and their characteristics are compared and discussed. The observing performances of the complete receiving chains are also presented. An overview of ongoing developments illustrates and anticipates future trends in frontend projects to meet the most ambitious scientific research goals.


57. 


58. 
 Fontani, F., et al.
(författare)

Magnetically regulated fragmentation of a massive, dense, and turbulent clump
 2016

Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics.  00046361 . 14320746. ; 593

Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
 © ESO, 2016. Massive stars, multiple stellar systems, and clusters are born of the gravitational collapse of massive, dense, gaseous clumps, and the way these systems form strongly depends on how the parent clump fragments into cores during collapse. Numerical simulations show that magnetic fields may be the key ingredient in regulating fragmentation. Here we present ALMA observations at ∼ 0.25′′ resolution of the thermal dust continuum emission at ∼ 278 GHz towards a turbulent, dense, and massive clump, IRAS 160615048c1, in a very early evolutionary stage. The ALMA image shows that the clump has fragmented into many cores along a filamentary structure. We find that the number, the total mass, and the spatial distribution of the fragments are consistent with fragmentation dominated by a strong magnetic field. Our observations support the theoretical prediction that the magnetic field plays a dominant role in the fragmentation process of massive turbulent clumps.


59. 
 GarciaSalcedo, Raúl, et al.
(författare)

Glucose derepression by yeast AMPactivated protein kinase SNF1 is controlled via at least two independent steps
 2014

Ingår i: Febs Journal.  1742464X . 14321033. ; 281:7, s. 19011917

Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
 The AMPactivated protein kinase, AMPK, controls energy homeostasis in eukaryotic cells but little is known about the mechanisms governing the dynamics of its activation/deactivation. The yeast AMPK, SNF1, is activated in response to glucose depletion and mediates glucose derepression by inactivating the transcriptional repressor Mig1. Here we show that overexpression of the Snf1activating kinase Sak1 results, in the presence of glucose, in constitutive Snf1 activation without alleviating glucose repression. Cooverexpression of the regulatory subunit Reg1 of the GlcReg1 phosphatase complex partly restores glucose regulation of Snf1. We generated a set of 24 kinetic mathematical models based on dynamic data of Snf1 pathway activation and deactivation. The models that reproduced our experimental observations best featured (a) glucose regulation of both Snf1 phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, (b) determination of the Mig1 phosphorylation status in the absence of glucose by Snf1 activity only and (c) a regulatory step directing active Snf1 to Mig1 under glucose limitation. Hence it appears that glucose derepression via Snf1Mig1 is regulated by glucose via at least two independent steps: the control of activation of the Snf1 kinase and directing active Snf1 to inactivating its target Mig1.


60. 

