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  • McCambridge, Jim, et al. (författare)
  • Alcohol assessment and feedback by e-mail for university student hazardous and harmful drinkers: study protocol for the AMADEUS-2 randomised controlled trial
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: BMC Public Health. - : BioMed Central. - 1471-2458 .- 1471-2458. ; 13:949
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Alcohol is responsible for a large and growing proportion of the global burden of disease, as well as being the cause of social problems. Brief interventions are one component of comprehensive policy measures necessary to reduce these harms. Brief interventions increasingly take advantage of the Internet to reach large numbers of high risk groups such as students. The research literature on the efficacy and effectiveness of online interventions is developing rapidly. Although many studies show benefits in the form of reduced consumption, other intervention studies show no effects, for reasons that are unclear. Sweden became the first country in the world to implement a national system in which all university students are offered a brief online intervention via an e-mail. Methods/Design: This randomized controlled trial (RCT) aims to evaluate the effectiveness of this national system comprising a brief online intervention among university students who are hazardous and harmful drinkers. This study employs a conventional RCT design in which screening to determine eligibility precedes random allocation to immediate or delayed access to online intervention. The online intervention evaluated comprises three main components; assessment, normative feedback and advice on reducing drinking. Screening is confined to a single question in order to minimise assessment reactivity and to prevent contamination. Outcomes will be evaluated after 2 months, with total weekly alcohol consumption being the primary outcome measure. Invitations to participate are provided by e-mail to approximately 55,000 students in 9 Swedish universities. Discussion: This RCT evaluates routine service provision in Swedish universities via a delay in offer of intervention to the control group. It evaluates effects in the key population for whom this intervention has been designed. Study findings will inform the further development of the national service provision.
  • McCambridge, Jim, et al. (författare)
  • Alcohol assessment and feedback by email for university students: main findings from a randomised controlled trial
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Psychiatry. - : Royal College of Psychiatrists. - 0007-1250 .- 1472-1465. ; 203:5, s. 334-340
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanBrief interventions can be efficacious in changing alcohol consumption and increasingly take advantage of the internet to reach high-risk populations such as students. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanAims less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanTo evaluate the effectiveness of a brief online intervention, controlling for the possible effects of the research process. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanMethod less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanA three-arm parallel groups design was used to explore the magnitude of the feedback and assessment component effects. The three groups were: alcohol assessment and feedback (group 1); alcohol assessment only without feedback (group 2); and no contact, and thus neither assessment nor feedback (group 3). Outcomes were evaluated after 3 months via an invitation to participate in a brief cross-sectional lifestyle survey. The study was undertaken in two universities randomising the email addresses of all 14 910 students (the AMADEUS-1 study, trial registration: ISRCTN28328154). less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanResults less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanOverall, 52% (n=7809) of students completed follow-up, with small differences in attrition between the three groups. For each of the two primary outcomes, there was one statistically significant difference between groups, with group 1 having 3.7% fewer risky drinkers at follow-up than group 3 (P=0.006) and group 2 scoring 0.16 points lower than group 3 on the three alcohol consumption questions from the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT-C) (P = 0.039). less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanConclusions less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanThis study provides some evidence of population-level benefit attained through intervening with individual students.
  • McCambridge, Jim, et al. (författare)
  • Alcohol email assessment and feedback study dismantling effectiveness for university students (AMADEUS-1): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: TRIALS. - : BioMed Central. - 1745-6215. ; 13:49
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Alcohol causes huge problems for population health and for society, which require interventions with individuals as well as populations to prevent and reduce harms. Brief interventions can be effective and increasingly take advantage of the internet to reach high-risk groups such as students. The research literature on the effectiveness of online interventions is developing rapidly and is confronted by methodological challenges common to other areas of e-health including attrition and assessment reactivity and in the design of control conditions. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanMethods/design: The study aim is to evaluate the effectiveness of a brief online intervention, employing a randomized controlled trial (RCT) design that takes account of baseline assessment reactivity, and other possible effects of the research process. Outcomes will be evaluated after 3 months both among student populations as a whole including for a randomized no contact control group and among those who are risky drinkers randomized to brief assessment and feedback (routine practice) or to brief assessment only. A three-arm parallel groups trial will also allow exploration of the magnitude of the feedback and assessment component effects. The trial will be undertaken simultaneously in 2 universities randomizing approximately 15,300 students who will all be blinded to trial participation. All participants will be offered routine practice intervention at the end of the study. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanDiscussion: This trial informs the development of routine service delivery in Swedish universities and more broadly contributes a new approach to the study of the effectiveness of online interventions in student populations, with relevance to behaviors other than alcohol consumption. The use of blinding and deception in this study raise ethical issues that warrant further attention.
  • Müssener, Ulrika, et al. (författare)
  • Effectiveness of Short Message Service Text-Based Smoking Cessation Intervention Among University Students A Randomized Clinical Trial
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: JAMA Internal Medicine. - : AMER MEDICAL ASSOC. - 2168-6106 .- 2168-6114. ; 176:3, s. 321-328
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • IMPORTANCE Smoking is globally the most important preventable cause of ill health and death. Mobile telephone interventions and, in particular, short message service (SMS) text messaging, have the potential to overcome access barriers to traditional health services, not least among young people. OBJECTIVE To determine the effectiveness of a text-based smoking cessation intervention among young people. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A single-blind, 2-arm, randomized clinical trial (Nicotine Exit [NEXit]) was conducted from October 23, 2014, to April 17, 2015; data analysis was performed from April 23, 2014, to May 22, 2015. Participants included daily or weekly smokers willing to set a quit date within 1 month of enrollment. The study used email to invite all college and university students throughout Sweden to participate. INTERVENTIONS The NEXit core program is initiated with a 1- to 4-week motivational phase during which participants can choose to set a stop date. The intervention group then received 157 text messages based on components of effective smoking cessation interventions for 12 weeks. The control group received 1 text every 2 weeks thanking them for participating in the study, with delayed access to the intervention. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The primary outcomes were self-reported prolonged abstinence (not having smoked >5 cigarettes over the past 8 weeks) and 4-week point prevalence of complete smoking cessation shortly after the completion of the intervention (approximately 4 months after the quit date). RESULTS A total of 1590 participants, mainly between 21 and 30 years of age, were randomized into the study; 827 (573 [69.3%] women) were allocated to the intervention group and 763 (522 [68.4%] women) were included in the control group. Primary outcome data were available for 783 (94.7%) of the intervention group and 719 (94.2%) of the control group. At baseline, participants were smoking a median (range) of 63 (1-238) and 70 (2-280) cigarettes per week, respectively. Eight-week prolonged abstinence was reported by 203 participants (25.9%) in the intervention group and 105 (14.6%) in the control group; 4-week point prevalence of complete cessation was reported by 161 (20.6%) and 102 (14.2%) participants, respectively, a mean (SD) of 3.9 (0.37) months after the quit date. The adjusted odds ratios (95% CIs) for these findings were 2.05 (1.57-2.67) and 1.56 (1.19-2.05), respectively. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE With the limitation of assessing only the short-term effect of the intervention, the effects observed in this trial are comparable with those for traditional smoking cessation interventions. The simple NEXit intervention has the potential to improve the uptake of effective smoking cessation interventions.
  • Müssener, Ulrika, 1974-, et al. (författare)
  • High School Students’ Preferences and Design Recommendations for a Mobile Phone–Based Intervention to Improve Psychological Well-Being: Mixed Methods Study
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: JMIR Pediatrics and Parenting. - Toronto, ON, Canada : J M I R Publications, Inc.. - 2561-6722. ; 3:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background:Young adults’ mental health is characterized by relatively high rates of stress and anxiety and low levels of help-seeking behavior. Mobile health (mHealth) interventions could offer a cost-effective and readily available avenue to provide personalized support to young adults. More research needs to be directed at the development of mHealth interventions targeting youths specifically, as well as at determining how to reach young people and how to effectively intervene to improve psychological well-being.Objective:The objective was to gather perceptions from high school students to inform the development of a prototype mHealth intervention aiming to promote psychological well-being.Methods:A mixed methods design was used to (1) investigate high school students’ perceptions about stress and its consequences in daily life, as well as their ability to cope with stress, and (2) explore their preferences and design recommendations for an mHealth intervention to improve psychological well-being. Students from two high schools in the southeast of Sweden were invited to take part in the study. Recruitment of high school students was completed over a 6-week period, between October 25 and December 7, 2018. Recruitment entailed inviting students to complete a stress test (ie, screening and feedback) on their mobile phones. After completing the stress test, all participants were invited to complete a follow-up questionnaire and take part in telephone interviews.Results:A total of 149 high school students completed the stress test, of which 68 completed the questionnaire. There were 67 free-text comments distributed across the items. The majority of participants (55/68, 81%) stated that they coped with stress better or in the same way after engaging in the stress test, due to time management, dialogue with others, and self-refection. A total of 4 out of 68 participants (6%)—3 female students (75%) and 1 male student (25%)—took part in telephone interviews. Three main themes were identified from the interview data: perceptions about stress, design features, and intervention features.Conclusions:Stress was described by the students as a condition caused by high demands set by oneself and the social environment that impacted their physical health, personal relationships, school performance, and emotional well-being. Participants claimed that mHealth interventions need to be clearly tailored to a young age group, be evidence based, and offer varied types of support, such as information about stress, exercises to help organize tasks, self-assessment, coping tools, and recommendations of other useful websites, literature, blogs, self-help books, or role models. Mobile phones seemed to be a feasible and acceptable platform for the delivery of an intervention.
  • Müssener, Ulrika, et al. (författare)
  • SMS-based smoking cessation intervention among university students: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial (NEXit trial)
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Trials. - : BioMed Central. - 1745-6215 .- 1745-6215. ; 16
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Most smoking efforts targeting young people have so far been focused on prevention of initiation, whereas smoking cessation interventions have largely been targeted towards adult populations. Thus, there is limited evidence for effective smoking cessation interventions in young people, even though many young people want to quit smoking. Mobile communication technology has the potential to reach large numbers of young people and recent text-based smoking cessation interventions using phones have shown promising results. Methods/design: The study aims to evaluate a newly developed text-based smoking cessation intervention for students in colleges and universities in Sweden. The design is a randomised controlled trial (RCT) with a delayed/waiting list intervention control condition. The trial will be performed simultaneously in all colleges and universities served by 25 student health care centres in Sweden. Outcomes will be evaluated after 4 months, with 2 cessation primary outcomes and 4 secondary outcomes. After outcome evaluation the control group will be given access to the intervention. Discussion: The study will examine the effectiveness of a stand-alone SMS text-based intervention. The intervention starts with a motivational phase in which the participants are given an opportunity to set a quit date within 4 weeks of randomisation. This first phase and the subsequent core intervention phase of 12 weeks are totally automated in order to easily integrate the intervention into the daily routines of student and other health care settings. As well as providing data for the effectiveness of the intervention, the study will also provide data for methodological analyses addressing a number issues commonly challenging in Internet-based RCTs. For example, an extensive follow-up strategy will be used in order to evaluate the use of repeated attempts in the analysis, and in particular to explore the validity of a possible missing not at random assumption that the odds ratio between the primary outcome and response is the same at every attempt.
  • Müssener, Ulrika, et al. (författare)
  • User satisfaction with the structure and content of the NEXit intervention, a text messaging-based smoking cessation programme
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: BMC Public Health. - : BIOMED CENTRAL LTD. - 1471-2458 .- 1471-2458. ; 16
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Smoking is still the leading cause of preventable ill health and death. There is a limited amount of evidence for effective smoking cessation interventions among young people. To address this, a text messaging-based smoking cessation programme, the NEXit intervention, was developed. Short-term effectiveness, measured immediately after the 12-week intervention revealed that 26% of smokers in the intervention group had prolonged abstinence compared with 15% in the control group. The present study was performed to explore the users experiences of the structure and content of the intervention in order to further develop the intervention. Methods: Students participating in the main NEXit randomized controlled trial were invited to grade their experiences of the structure and content of the intervention after having completed follow-up. The participants received an e-mail with an electronic link to a short questionnaire. Descriptive analysis of the distribution of the responses to the questionnaire was performed. Free-text comments to 14 questions were analysed. Results: The response rate for the user feedback questionnaire was 35% (n = 289/827) and 428 free-text comments were collected. The first motivational phase of the intervention was appreciated by 55% (158/289) of the participants. Most participants wanted to quit smoking immediately and only 124/289 (43%) agreed to have to decide a quit-date in the future. Most participants 199/289 (69%) found the content of the messages in the core programme to be very good or good, and the variability between content types was appreciated by 78% (224/289). Only 34% (97/289) of the participants thought that all or nearly all messages were valuable, and some mentioned that it was not really the content that mattered, but that the messages served as a reminder about the decision to quit smoking. Conclusions: The programme was largely perceived satisfactory in most aspects concerning structure and content by young people and most participants stated that they would recommend it to a friend who wants to quit smoking. The motivational phase might be worth shortening and the number of messages around the quit date itself reduced. Shorter messages seemed to be more acceptable.
  • Müssener, Ulrika, 1974-, et al. (författare)
  • Using Mobile Devices to Deliver Lifestyle Interventions Targeting At-Risk High School Students : Protocol for a Participatory Design Study
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: JMIR Research Protocols. - Toronto, Canada : J M I R Publications, Inc.. - 1929-0748 .- 1929-0748. ; 1:9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Unhealthy lifestyle behaviors such as insufficient physical activity, unhealthy diet, smoking, and harmful use of alcohol tend to cluster (ie, individuals may be at risk from more than one lifestyle behavior that can be established in early childhood and adolescence and track into adulthood). Previous research has underlined the potential of lifestyle interventions delivered via mobile phones. However, there is a need for deepened knowledge on how to design mobile health (mHealth) interventions taking end user views into consideration in order to optimize the overall usability of such interventions. Adolescents are early adopters of technology and frequent users of mobile phones, yet research on interventions that use mobile devices to deliver multiple lifestyle behavior changes targeting at-risk high school students is lacking.Objective: This protocol describes a participatory design study with the aim of developing an mHealth lifestyle behavior intervention to promote healthy lifestyles among high school students.Methods: Through an iterative process using participatory design, user requirements are investigated in terms of technical features and content. The procedures around the design and development of the intervention, including heuristic evaluations, focus group interviews, and usability tests, are described.Results: Recruitment started in May 2019. Data collection, analysis, and scientific reporting from heuristic evaluations and usability tests are expected to be completed in November 2019. Focus group interviews were being undertaken with high school students from October through December, and full results are expected to be published in Spring 2020. A planned clinical trial will commence in Summer 2020. The study was funded by a grant from the Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life, and Welfare.Conclusions: The study is expected to add knowledge on how to design an mHealth intervention taking end users’ views into consideration in order to develop a novel, evidence-based, low-cost, and scalable intervention that high school students want to use in order to achieve a healthier lifestyle.
  • Thomas, Kristin, 1978-, et al. (författare)
  • Effectiveness of a Text Messaging-Based Intervention Targeting Alcohol Consumption Among University Students: Randomized Controlled Trial
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: JMIR mhealth and uhealth. - : JMIR PUBLICATIONS, INC. - 2291-5222. ; 6:6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Excessive drinking among university students is a global challenge, leading to significant health risks. However, heavy drinking among students is widely accepted and socially normalized. Mobile phone interventions have attempted to reach students who engage in excessive drinking. A growing number of studies suggest that text message-based interventions could potentially reach many students and, if effective, such an intervention might help reduce heavy drinking in the student community. Objective: The objective of this study was to test the effectiveness of a behavior change theory-based 6-week text message intervention among university students. Methods: This study was a two-arm, randomized controlled trial with an intervention group receiving a 6-week text message intervention and a control group that was referred to treatment as usual at the local student health care center. Outcome measures were collected at baseline and at 3 months after the initial invitation to participate in the intervention. The primary outcome was total weekly alcohol consumption. Secondary outcomes were frequency of heavy episodic drinking, highest estimated blood alcohol concentration, and number of negative consequences attributable to excessive drinking. Results: A total of 896 students were randomized to either the intervention or control group. The primary outcome analysis included 92.0% of the participants in the intervention group and 90.1% of the control group. At follow-up, total weekly alcohol consumption decreased in both groups, but no significant between-group difference was seen. Data on the secondary outcomes included 49.1% of the participants in the intervention group and 41.3% of the control group. No significant between-group difference was seen for any of the secondary outcomes. Conclusions: The present study was under-powered, which could partly explain the lack of significance. However, the intervention, although theory-based, needs to be re-assessed and refined to better support the target group. Apart from establishing which content forms an effective intervention, the optimal length of an alcohol intervention targeting students also needs to be addressed in future studies.
  • Thomas, Kristin, et al. (författare)
  • Implementing Facilitated Access to a Text Messaging, Smoking Cessation Intervention Among Swedish Patients Having Elective Surgery: Qualitative Study of Patients and Health Care Professionals Perspectives
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: JMIR mhealth and uhealth. - : JMIR PUBLICATIONS, INC. - 2291-5222. ; 8:9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: There is strong evidence that short-term smoking cessation before surgery can reduce postoperative morbidity. There are, however, several structural problems in health care systems concerning how to implement smoking cessation interventions in routine practice for preoperative patients. Objective: This study aimed to analyze the implementation of a text messaging, smoking cessation intervention targeting patients having elective surgery. Implementation of facilitated access (ie, referral from practitioners) and the perceived usefulness among patients were investigated. Elective surgery is defined as scheduled, nonacute surgery. Methods: A qualitative study was carried out at two medium-sized hospitals in the south of Sweden. The implementation of facilitated access was investigated during a 12-month period from April 2018 to April 2019. Facilitated access was conceptualized as specialists recommending the text messaging intervention to patients having elective surgery. Implementation was explored in terms of perceptions about the intervention and behaviors associated with implementation; that is, how patients used the intervention and how specialists behaved in facilitating usage among patients. Two focus groups with smoking cessation specialists and 10 individual interviews with patients were carried out. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyze the data. Results: Two main categories were identified from the focus group data with smoking cessation specialists: implementation approach and perceptions about the intervention. The first category, implementation approach, referred to how specialists adapted their efforts to situational factors and to the needs and preferences of patients, and how building of trust with patients was prioritized. The second category, perceptions about the intervention, showed that specialists thought the content and structure of the text messaging intervention felt familiar and worked well as a complement to current practice. Two categories were identified from the patient interview data: incorporating new means of support from health care and determinants of use. The first category referred to how patients adopted and incorporated the intervention into their smoking cessation journey. Patients were receptive, shared the text messages with friends and family, humanized the text messages, and used the messages as a complement to other strategies to quit smoking. The second category, determinants of use, referred to aspects that influenced how and when patients used the intervention and included the following: timing of the intervention and text messages, motivation to change, and perceptions of the mobile phone medium. Conclusions: Smoking cessation specialists adopted an active role in implementing the intervention by adapting their approach and fitting the intervention into existing routines. Patients showed strong motivation to change and openness to incorporate the intervention into their behavior change journey; however, the timing of the intervention and messages were important in optimizing the support. A text messaging, smoking cessation intervention can be a valuable and feasible way to reach smoking patients having elective surgery.
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