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  • Thomas, Kristin, et al. (författare)
  • Short message service (SMS)-based intervention targeting alcohol consumption among university students: study protocol of a randomized controlled trial
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Trials. - : BIOMED CENTRAL LTD. - 1745-6215 .- 1745-6215. ; 18
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Despite significant health risks, heavy drinking of alcohol among university students is a widespread problem; excessive drinking is part of the social norm. A growing number of studies indicate that short message service (SMS)-based interventions are cost-effective, accessible, require limited effort by users, and can enable continuous, real-time, brief support in real-world settings. Although there is emerging evidence for the effect of SMS-based interventions in reducing alcohol consumption, more research is needed. This study aims to test the effectiveness of a newly developed SMS-based intervention targeting excessive alcohol consumption among university and college students in Sweden. Methods: The study is a two-arm randomized controlled trial with an intervention (SMS programme) and a control (treatment as usual) group. Outcome measures will be investigated at baseline and at 3-month follow up. The primary outcome is total weekly alcohol consumption. Secondary outcomes are frequency of heavy episodic drinking, highest estimated blood alcohol concentration and number of negative consequences due to excessive drinking. Discussion: This study contributes knowledge on the effect of automatized SMS support to reduce excessive drinking among students compared with existing support such as Student Health Centres.
  • Thomas, Kristin, et al. (författare)
  • Text Message-Based Intervention Targeting Alcohol Consumption Among University Students: Findings From a Formative Development Study
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: JMIR mhealth and uhealth. - : JMIR PUBLICATIONS, INC. - 2291-5222. ; 4:4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Drinking of alcohol among university students is a global phenomenon; heavy episodic drinking is accepted despite several potential negative consequences. There is emerging evidence that short message service (SMS) text messaging interventions are effective to promote behavior change among students. However, it is still unclear how effectiveness can be optimized through intervention design or how user interest and adherence can be maximized. Objective: The objective of this study was to develop an SMS text message-based intervention targeting alcohol drinking among university students using formative research. Methods: A formative research design was used including an iterative revision process based on input from end users and experts. Data were collected via seven focus groups with students and a panel evaluation involving students (n= 15) and experts (n= 5). Student participants were recruited from five universities in Sweden. A semistructured interview guide was used in the focus groups and included questions on alcohol culture, message content, and intervention format. The panel evaluation asked participants to rate to what degree preliminary messages were understandable, usable, and had a good tone on a scale from 1 (very low degree) to 4 (very high degree). Participants could also write their own comments for each message. Qualitative data were analyzed using qualitative descriptive analysis. Quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The SMS text messages and the intervention format were revised continuously in parallel with data collection. A behavior change technique (BCT) analysis was conducted on the final version of the program. Results: Overall, students were positive toward the SMS text message intervention. Messages that were neutral, motivated, clear, and tangible engaged students. Students expressed that they preferred short, concise messages and confirmed that a 6-week intervention was an appropriate duration. However, there was limited consensus regarding SMS text message frequency, personalization of messages, and timing. Overall, messages scored high on understanding (mean 3.86, SD 0.43), usability (mean 3.70, SD 0.61), and tone (mean 3.78, SD 0.53). Participants added comments to 67 of 70 messages, including suggestions for change in wording, order of messages, and feedback on why a message was unclear or needed major revision. Comments also included positive feedback that confirmed the value of the messages. Twenty-three BCTs aimed at addressing self-regulatory skills, for example, were identified in the final program. Conclusions: The formative research design was valuable and resulted in significant changes to the intervention. All the original SMS text messages were changed and new messages were added. Overall, the findings showed that students were positive toward receiving support through SMS text message and that neutral, motivated, clear, and tangible messages promoted engagement. However, limited consensus was found on the timing, frequency, and tailoring of messages.
  • Åsberg, Katarina, et al. (författare)
  • Digital multiple health behaviour change intervention targeting online help seekers : protocol for the COACH randomised factorial trial
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: BMJ Open. - : BMJ Publishing Group. - 2044-6055 .- 2044-6055. ; 12:7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Introduction Unhealthy lifestyle behaviours continue to be highly prevalent, including alcohol consumption, unhealthy diets, insufficient physical activity and smoking. There is a lack of effective interventions which have a large enough reach into the community to improve public health. Additionally, the common co-occurrence of multiple unhealthy behaviours demands investigation of efforts which address more than single behaviours. Methods and analysis The effects of six components of a novel digital multiple health behaviour change intervention on alcohol consumption, diet, physical activity and smoking (coprimary outcomes) will be estimated in a factorial randomised trial. The components are designed to facilitate behaviour change, for example, through goal setting or increasing motivation, and are either present or absent depending on allocation (ie, six factors with two levels each). The study population will be those seeking help online, recruited through search engines, social media and lifestyle-related websites. Included will be those who are at least 18 years of age and have at least one unhealthy behaviour. An adaptive design will be used to periodically make decisions to continue or stop recruitment, with simulations suggesting a final sample size between 1500 and 2500 participants. Multilevel regression models will be used to analyse behavioural outcomes collected at 2 months and 4 months postrandomisation. Ethics and dissemination Approved by the Swedish Ethical Review Authority on 2021-08-11 (Dnr 2021-02855). Since participation is likely motivated by gaining access to novel support, the main concern is demotivation and opportunity cost if the intervention is found to only exert small effects. Recruitment began on 19 October 2021, with an anticipated recruitment period of 12 months.
  • Åsberg, Katarina, et al. (författare)
  • Multiple lifestyle behaviour mHealth intervention targeting Swedish college and university students : protocol for the Buddy randomised factorial trial
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: BMJ Open. - : BMJ Publishing Group. - 2044-6055 .- 2044-6055. ; 11:12
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Introduction The time during which many attend college or university is an important period for developing health behaviours, with potentially major implications for future health. Therefore, it is concerning that many Swedish students excessively consume alcohol, have unhealthy diets, are not physical active and smoke. The potential of digital interventions which integrate support for change of all of these behaviours is largely unexplored, as are the dismantled effects of the individual components that make up digital lifestyle behaviour interventions. Methods and analysis A factorial randomised trial (six factors with two levels each) will be employed to estimate the effects of the components of a novel mHealth multiple lifestyle intervention on alcohol consumption, diet, physical activity and smoking among Swedish college and university students. A Bayesian group sequential design will be employed to periodically make decisions to continue or stop recruitment, with simulations suggesting that between 1500 and 2500 participants will be required. Multilevel regression models will be used to analyse behavioural outcomes collected at 2 and 4 months postrandomisation. Ethics and dissemination The study was approved by the Swedish Ethical Review Authority on 2020-12-15 (Dnr 2020-05496). The main concern is the opportunity cost if the intervention is found to only have small effects. However, considering the lack of a generally available evidence-based multiple lifestyle behaviour support to university and college students, this risk was deemed acceptable given the potential benefits from the study. Recruitment will begin in March 2021, and it is expected that recruitment will last no more than 24 months. A final data set will, therefore, be available in July 2023, and findings will be reported no later than December 2023.
  • Anderson, Peter, et al. (författare)
  • Attitudes and Learning through Practice Are Key to Delivering Brief Interventions for Heavy Drinking in Primary Health Care: Analyses from the ODHIN Five Country Cluster Randomized Factorial Trial
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. - : MDPI AG. - 1661-7827 .- 1660-4601. ; 14:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In this paper, we test path models that study the interrelations between primary health care provider attitudes towards working with drinkers, their screening and brief advice activity, and their receipt of training and support and financial reimbursement. Study participants were 756 primary health care providers from 120 primary health care units (PHCUs) in different locations throughout Catalonia, England, The Netherlands, Poland, and Sweden. Our interventions were training and support and financial reimbursement to providers. Our design was a randomized factorial trial with baseline measurement period, 12-week implementation period, and 9-month follow-up measurement period. Our outcome measures were: attitudes of individual providers in working with drinkers as measured by the Short Alcohol and Alcohol Problems Perception Questionnaire; and the proportion of consulting adult patients (age 18+ years) who screened positive and were given advice to reduce their alcohol consumption (intervention activity). We found that more positive attitudes were associated with higher intervention activity, and higher intervention activity was then associated with more positive attitudes. Training and support was associated with both positive changes in attitudes and higher intervention activity. Financial reimbursement was associated with more positive attitudes through its impact on higher intervention activity. We conclude that improving primary health care providers screening and brief advice activity for heavy drinking requires a combination of training and support and on-the-job experience of actually delivering screening and brief advice activity.
  • Anderson, Peter, et al. (författare)
  • Delivery of Brief Interventions for Heavy Drinking in Primary Care: Outcomes of the ODHIN 5-Country Cluster Randomized Trial
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Annals of Family Medicine. - : ANNALS FAMILY MEDICINE. - 1544-1709 .- 1544-1717. ; 15:4, s. 335-340
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • PURPOSE We aimed to test whether 3 strategies-training and support, financial reimbursement, and an option to direct screen-positive patients to an Internet-based method of giving brief advice-have a longer-term effect on primary care clinicians delivery of screening and advice to heavy drinkers operationalized with the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-Consumption (AUDIT-C) tool. METHODS We undertook a cluster randomized factorial trial with a 12-week implementation period in 120 primary health care units throughout Catalonia, England, Netherlands, Poland, and Sweden. Units were randomized to 8 groups: care as usual (control); training and support alone; financial reimbursement alone; electronic brief advice alone; paired combinations of these conditions; and all 3 combined. The primary outcome was the proportion of consulting adult patients (aged 18 years and older) receiving intervention-screening and, if screen-positive, advice-at 9 months. RESULTS Based on the factorial design, the ratio of the log of the proportion of patients given intervention at the 9-month follow-up was 1.39 (95% CI, 1.03-1.88) in units that received training and support as compared with units that did not. Neither financial reimbursement nor directing screen-positive patients to electronic brief advice led to a higher proportion of patients receiving intervention. CONCLUSIONS Training and support of primary health care units has a lasting, albeit small, impact on the proportion of adult patients given an alcohol intervention at 9 months.
  • Anderson, Peter, et al. (författare)
  • Impact of practice, provider and patient characteristics on delivering screening and brief advice for heavy drinking in primary healthcare: Secondary analyses of data from the ODHIN five-country cluster randomized factorial trial
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: European Journal of General Practice. - : TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD. - 1381-4788 .- 1751-1402. ; 23:1, s. 241-245
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: The implementation of primary healthcare-based screening and advice that is effective in reducing heavy drinking can be enhanced with training. Objectives: Undertaking secondary analysis of the five-country ODHIN study, we test: the extent to which practice, provider and patient characteristics affect the likelihood of patients being screened and advised; the extent to which such characteristics moderate the impact of training in increasing screening and advice; and the extent to which training mitigates any differences due to such characteristics found at baseline. Methods: A cluster randomized factorial trial involving 120 practices, 746 providers and 46 546 screened patients from Catalonia, England, the Netherlands, Poland, and Sweden. Practices were randomized to receive training or not to receive training. The primary outcome measures were the proportion of adult patients screened, and the proportion of screen-positive patients advised. Results: Nurses tended to screen more patients than doctors (OR = 3.1; 95% CI: 1.9, 4.9). Screenpositive patients were more likely to be advised by doctors than by nurses (OR = 2.3; 95% CI: 1.4, 4.1), and more liable to be advised the higher their risk status (OR = 1.9; 95% CI: 1.3, 2.7). Training increased screening and advice giving, with its impact largely unrelated to practice, provider or patient characteristics. Training diminished the differences between doctors and nurses and between patients with low or high-risk status. Conclusions: Training primary healthcare providers diminishes the negative impacts that some practice, provider and patient characteristics have on the likelihood of patients being screened and advised.
  • Andersson, Agneta, et al. (författare)
  • Alcohol use among university students in Sweden measured by an electronic screening instrument
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: BMC PUBLIC HEALTH. - 1471-2458. ; 9:229
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Electronic-based alcohol screening and brief interventions for university students with problem drinking behaviours forms an important means by which to identify risky drinkers. Methods: In this study an e-SBI project was implemented to assess drinking patterns, and to provide personalised feedback about alcohol consumption and related health problems, to students in a Swedish university. In this study, third semester university students (n = 2858) from all faculties (colleges) at the University were invited to participate in e-SBI screenings. This study employed a randomised controlled trial, with respondents having a equal chance of being assigned to a limited, or full-feedback response. Results: The study shows that high risk drinkers tend to underestimate their own consumption compared to others, and that these high risk drinkers experience more negative consequences after alcohol intake, than other respondents. There was a strong belief, for both high-and low-risk drinkers, that alcohol helped celebrations be more festive. This study also confirms findings from other study locations that while males drank more than females in our study population; females reached the same peak alcohol blood concentrations as males. Conclusion: Obtaining clear and current information on drinking patterns demonstrated by university students can help public health officials, university administration, and local health care providers develop appropriate prevention and treatment strategies.
  • Andersson, Kristin, et al. (författare)
  • Implementing healthy lifestyle promotion in primary care: a quasi-experimental cross-sectional study evaluating a team initiative
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: BMC Health Services Research. - : BioMed Central. - 1472-6963. ; 15:31
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background:Non-communicable diseases are a leading cause of death and can largely be prevented by healthy lifestyles. Health care organizations are encouraged to integrate healthy lifestyle promotion in routine care. This study evaluates the impact of a team initiative on healthy lifestyle promotion in primary care.Methods: A quasi-experimental, cross-sectional design compared three intervention centres that had implemented lifestyle teams with three control centres that used a traditional model of care. Outcomes were defined using the RE-AIM framework: reach, the proportion of patients receiving lifestyle promotion; effectiveness, self-reported attitudes and competency among staff; adoption, proportion of staff reporting regular practice of lifestyle promotion; implementation, fidelity to the original lifestyle team protocol. Data collection methods included a patient questionnaire (n = 888), a staff questionnaire (n = 120) and structured interviews with all practice managers and, where applicable, team managers (n = 8). The chi square test and problem-driven content analysis was used to analyse the questionnaire and interview data, respectively.Results:Reach: patients at control centres (48%, n = 211) received lifestyle promotion significantly more often compared with patients at intervention centres (41%, n = 169). Effectiveness: intervention staff was significantly more positive towards the effectiveness of lifestyle promotion, shared competency and how lifestyle promotion was prioritized at their centre. Adoption: 47% of staff at intervention centres and 58% at control centres reported that they asked patients about their lifestyle on a daily basis. Implementation: all intervention centres had implemented multi-professional teams and team managers and held regular meetings but struggled to implement in-house referral structures for lifestyle promotion, which was used consistently among staff.Conclusions:Intervention centres did not show higher rates than control centres on reach of patients or adoption among staff at this stage. All intervention centres struggled to implement working referral structures for lifestyle promotion. Intervention centres were more positive on effectiveness outcomes, attitudes and competency among staff, however. Thus, lifestyle teams may facilitate lifestyle promotion practice in terms of increased responsiveness among staff, illustrated by positive attitudes and perceptions of shared competency. More research is needed on lifestyle promotion referral structures in primary care regarding their configuration and implementation.
  • Andersson, Peter, 1957-, et al. (författare)
  • Health related quality of life in Crohn's proctocolitis does not differ from a general population when in remission
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: Colorectal Disease. - 1462-8910 .- 1463-1318. ; 5:1, s. 56-62
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective  All treatment in Crohn's disease, although palliative, aims at restoring full health. The objective of this study was to compare health-related quality of life and psychosocial conditions in patients with Crohn's proctocolitis with a general population.Patients and methods  One hundred and twenty-seven patients with Crohn's proctocolitis (median age 44 years, 44.1% men) were compared with 266 controls (median age 45 years, 50.7% men). A questionnaire consisting of the Short Form-36 (SF-36), the Psychological General Well-Being Index (PGWB) and a visual analogue scale (VAS) evaluating general health as well as questions regarding psychosocial conditions was used. Disease activity was evaluated by Best's modification of the classical Crohn's Disease Activity Index.Results  Patients in remission had a health related quality of life similar to controls according to the SF-36 apart from general health where scores were lower (P < 0.01). Patients with active disease scored lower in all aspects of the SF-36 (P < 0.001 or P < 0.0001) as well as the PGWB (P < 0.0001). In a model for multiple regression including age, gender, concomitant small bowel disease, permanent stoma, previous colonic surgery, disease activity, duration, and aggressiveness, disease activity was the only variable negatively predicting all 8 domains of the SF-36 in the patient group (P < 0.001). The mean annual sick-leave for patients and controls were 33.9 and 9.5 days (P < 0.0001), respectively. Sixty-eight percent of the patients and 78.4% of the controls (P = 0.04) were married or cohabited, 67.7% and 78.0% (P = 0.04), respectively, had children.Conclusion  The health related quality of life for patients with Crohn's proctocolitis in remission does not differ from the general population. The disease has, however, a negative impact on parenthood, family life and professional performance.
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