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  • Capusan, Andrea J., et al. (författare)
  • Comorbidity of Adult ADHD and Its Subtypes With Substance Use Disorder in a Large Population-Based Epidemiological Study
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Journal of Attention Disorders. - Thousand Oaks, USA : Sage Publications. - 1087-0547 .- 1557-1246. ; 23:12, s. 1416-1426
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: The objective of the study is to explore the role and possible substance preference in ADHD and subtypes in substance use disorder (SUD).Method: Using self-report data on ADHD Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM-IV) symptoms and SUD (alcohol, illicit drugs, and nicotine) in 18,167 Swedish twins, aged 20 to 45 years, we obtained odds ratios (OR) from mixed effect logistic regression, controlling for age, sex, education, and nonindependence of twin data.Results: Increased ADHD symptoms were significantly associated with increased odds for all SUD. ORs ranged between 1.33 for regular nicotine (95% confidence interval [CI] = [1.12, 1.59]); 2.54 for multiple drug use (95% CI = [2.00, 3.23]), and 3.58 for alcohol dependence (95% CI = [2.86, 4.49]).Conclusion: ADHD symptoms and subtypes in the population are associated with increased risks for all SUD outcomes, with no difference between ADHD subtypes, no substance preference, and no sex differences for the comorbidity. Clinicians need to consider ADHD evaluation and treatment as part of management of SUD in adults.
  • Capusan, Andrea J., et al. (författare)
  • Genetic and environmental contributions to the association between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and alcohol dependence in adulthood : A large population-based twin study
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B. - Hoboken, USA : Wiley-Blackwell. - 1552-4841 .- 1552-485X. ; 168:6, s. 414-422
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Previous research indicates that attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) frequently co-occurs with alcohol dependence; however, the extent to which shared genetic risk factors underpin this association remains unclear. The aim of this study is to investigate the relative importance of genetic, shared, and nonshared environmental factors for the overlap between ADHD and alcohol dependence in adults. Almost 18,000 adult twins aged 20-45 years, from more than 12,000 twin pairs (5,420 complete pairs), from the population-representative Swedish Twin Registry, were included. Self-ratings were used to assess symptoms of ADHD and alcohol dependence. Twin analysis was used to determine the role of additive genetic (A), shared (C), and nonshared environmental (E) factors. As a result, we found a significant association between ADHD and alcohol dependence (odds ratio 3.58; 95% confidence interval, 2.85-4.49). Twin analysis suggested that shared genetic risk factors explained 64% of the overlap between ADHD and alcohol dependence. Nonshared environmental factors accounted for the remaining 36%, whereas the contribution of shared environmental factors was minimal. We found no support for statistically significant sex differences in the overlap between ADHD and alcohol dependence. In conclusion the overlap between ADHD and alcohol dependence in adulthood was largely explained by shared genetic risk factors. This is an important step toward understanding the underlying nature of the risk of alcohol dependence in patients with ADHD and suggests that individuals with ADHD and their family members are important targets for alcohol prevention and treatment.
  • Carlfjord, Siw, et al. (författare)
  • Applying the RE-AIM framework to evaluate two implementation strategies used to introduce a tool for lifestyle intervention in Swedish primary health care
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Health Promotion International. - : Oxford University Press. - 0957-4824 .- 1460-2245. ; 27:2, s. 167-176
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aim of this study was to evaluate two implementation strategies for the introduction of a lifestyle intervention tool in primary health care (PHC), applying the RE-AIM framework to assess outcome. A computer-based tool for lifestyle intervention was introduced in PHC. A theory-based, explicit, implementation strategy was used at three centers, and an implicit strategy with a minimum of implementation efforts at three others. After 9 months a questionnaire was sent to staff members (n= 159) and data from a test database and county council registers were collected. The RE-AIM framework was applied to evaluate outcome in terms of reach, effectiveness, adoption and implementation. The response rate for the questionnaire was 73%. Significant differences in outcome were found between the strategies regarding reach, effectiveness and adoption, in favor of the explicit implementation strategy. Regarding the dimension implementation, no differences were found according to the implementation strategy. A theory-based implementation strategy including a testing period before using a new tool in daily practice seemed to be more successful than a strategy in which the tool was introduced and immediately used for patients.                 
  • Carlfjord, Siw, et al. (författare)
  • Computerized lifestyle intervention in routine primary health care : Evaluation of usage on provider and responder levels
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: PATIENT EDUCATION AND COUNSELING. - 0738-3991. ; 75:2, s. 238-243
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of a computerized concept for lifestyle intervention in routine primary health care (PHC). Methods: Nine PHC units were equipped with computers providing a lifestyle test and tailored printed advice regarding alcohol consumption and physical activity. Patients were referred by staff, and performed the test anonymously. Data were collected over a period of I year. Results: During the study period 3065 tests were completed, representing 5.7% of the individuals visiting the PHC units during the period. there were great differences between the units in the number of tests performed and in the proportion of patients referred. One-fifth of the respondents scored for hazardous alcohol consumption, and one-fourth reported low levels of physical activity. The majority of respondents found the test easy to perform, and a majority of those referred to the test found referral positive. Conclusion: The computerized test can be used for screening and intervention regarding lifestyle behaviours in PHC. Responders are positive to the test and to referral. Practice implications: A more widespread implementation of computerized lifestyle tests could be a beneficial complement to face-to-face interventions in PHC.
  • Carlfjord, Siw, et al. (författare)
  • Key factors influencing adoption of an innovation in primary health care: a qualitative study based on implementation theory
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: BMC Family Practice. - 1471-2296. ; 11:60
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Bridging the knowledge-to-practice gap in health care is an important issue that has gained interest in recent years. Implementing new methods, guidelines or tools into routine care, however, is a slow and unpredictable process, and the factors that play a role in the change process are not yet fully understood. There is a number of theories concerned with factors predicting successful implementation in various settings, however, this issue is insufficiently studied in primary health care (PHC). The objective of this article was to apply implementation theory to identify key factors influencing the adoption of an innovation being introduced in PHC in Sweden.METHODS: A qualitative study was carried out with staff at six PHC units in Sweden where a computer-based test for lifestyle intervention had been implemented. Two different implementation strategies, implicit or explicit, were used. Sixteen focus group interviews and two individual interviews were performed. In the analysis a theoretical framework based on studies of implementation in health service organizations, was applied to identify key factors influencing adoption.RESULTS: The theoretical framework proved to be relevant for studies in PHC. Adoption was positively influenced by positive expectations at the unit, perceptions of the innovation being compatible with existing routines and perceived advantages. An explicit implementation strategy and positive opinions on change and innovation were also associated with adoption. Organizational changes and staff shortages coinciding with implementation seemed to be obstacles for the adoption process.CONCLUSION: When implementation theory obtained from studies in other areas was applied in PHC it proved to be relevant for this particular setting. Based on our results, factors to be taken into account in the planning of the implementation of a new tool in PHC should include assessment of staff expectations, assessment of the perceived need for the innovation to be implemented, and of its potential compatibility with existing routines. Regarding context, we suggest that implementation concurrent with other major organizational changes should be avoided. The choice of implementation strategy should be given thorough consideration.
  • Carlfjord, Siw, et al. (författare)
  • Staff perspectives on the use of a computer-based concept for lifestyle intervention implemented in primary health care
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: HEALTH EDUCATION JOURNAL. - : Health Education Authority. - 0017-8969. ; 69:3, s. 246-256
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate staff experiences of the use of a computer-based concept for lifestyle testing and tailored advice implemented in routine primary health care (PHC). Design: The design of the study was a cross-sectional, retrospective survey. Setting: The study population consisted of staff at nine PHC units in the county of Ostergotland, Sweden. Method: After a computer-based concept for lifestyle intervention had been in operation for 1 year, a questionnaire was distributed to all staff members. The questions concerned experiences of and attitudes to the concept, and comments on addressing lifestyle issues in PHC. Results: Of the 291 potential respondents, 59 per cent returned the questionnaire. Eighty-five per cent found it positive to refer to the computer-based test, and 93 per cent of those who had read the written advice generated by the computer agreed with the advice provided. Seventy-five per cent thought that the concept could have an effect on a patients lifestyle, and 78 per cent had confidence in the computer-based test. Staff at smaller PHC units had more positive attitudes (p = 0.003) and referred a higher proportion of their patients to the computer-based test than staff at larger units (p = 0.000). Follow-up rates showed no significant differences between the categories. Staff believed that inclusion of more lifestyle areas, e. g. smoking and dietary habits, would make the test more useful. More time, education and the establishment of lifestyle practices were issues suggested in order to enhance the focus on lifestyle factors. Conclusion: Staff members have confidence in the computerized test and consider it a valuable tool. A development towards more lifestyle areas will make it even more useful.
  • Carlfjord, Siw, 1959- (författare)
  • The Challenge of Changing Practice : Applying Theory in the Implementation of an Innovation in Swedish Primary Health Care
  • 2012
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Background: The translation of new knowledge, such as research findings, new tools or methods into health care practice has gained increased  interest in recent years. Important factors that determine implementation outcome have been identified, and models and checklists to be followed in planning as well as in carrying out an implementation process have been produced. However, there are still knowledge gaps regarding what approach should be used in which setting and for which problems. Primary health care (PHC) in Sweden is an area where there is a paucity of research regarding implementation of new methods into practice. The aim of the thesis was to apply theory in the study of the implementation of an innovation in Swedish PHC, and identify factors that influenced outcome.Methods: The study was performed using a quasi-experimental design, and included six PHC units, two from each one of three county councils in the southeast part of Sweden. A computer-based lifestyle intervention tool (CLT) developed to facilitate addressing lifestyle issues, was introduced at the units. Two different strategies were used for the introduction, both aiming to facilitate the process: a theory-based explicit strategy and an implicit strategy requiring a minimum of effort. Data collection was performed at baseline, and after six, nine and 24 months. Questionnaires were distributed to staff and managers, and data was also collected from the CLT database and county council registers. Implementation outcome was defined as the proportion of eligible patients being referred to the CLT, and was also measured in terms of Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation and Maintenance according to the RE-AIM framework. Interviews were performed in order to explore experiences of the implementation process as perceived by staff and managers.Results: A positive organizational climate seemed to promote implementation. Organizational changes or staff shortages coinciding with the implementation process had a negative influence on outcome. The explicit implementation strategy seemed to be more effective than the implicit strategy in the short term, but the differences levelled out over time. The adopters’ perceptions of the implementation seemed to be influenced by the existing professional sub-cultures. Successful implementation was associated with positive expectations, perceptions of the innovation being compatible with existing routines and perceptions of relative advantage.Conclusions: The general conclusion is that when theory was applied in the implementation of a lifestyle intervention tool in Swedish PHC, factors related to the adopters and to the innovation seemed to be more important over time than the strategy used. Staff expectations, perceptions of the innovation’s relative advantage and potential compatibility with existing routines were found to be positively associated with implementation outcome, and other major organizational changes concurrent with implementation seemed to affect the outcome in a negative way. Values, beliefs and behaviour associated with the existing sub-cultures in PHC appeared to influence how the implementation of an innovation was perceived by managers and the different professionals.
  • Ekstedt, Mattias, et al. (författare)
  • Alcohol consumption is associated with progression of hepatic fibrosis in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology. - 0036-5521 .- 1502-7708. ; 44:3, s. 366-374
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: Moderate alcohol consumption has been reported to be inversely associated with cardiovascular disease and total mortality. The importance of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is increasing and many NAFLD patients suffer from cardiovascular disease. In these patients, moderate alcohol consumption could be beneficial. The aim of this study was to investigate whether low alcohol intake, consistent with the diagnosis of NAFLD, is associated with fibrosis progression in established NAFLD. Material and methods: Seventy-one patients originally referred because of chronically elevated liver enzymes and diagnosed with biopsy-proven NAFLD were re-evaluated. A validated questionnaire combined with an oral interview was used to assess weekly alcohol consumption and the frequency of episodic drinking. Significant fibrosis progression in NAFLD was defined as progression of more than one fibrosis stage or development of endstage liver disease during follow-up. Results: Mean follow-up (SD) was 13.8 (1.2) years between liver biopsies. At follow-up, 17 patients (24%) fulfilled the criteria for significant fibrosis progression. The proportion of patients reporting heavy episodic drinking at least once a month was higher among those with significant fibrosis progression (p=0.003) and a trend towards higher weekly alcohol consumption was also seen (p=0.061). In a multivariate binary logistic regression analysis, heavy episodic drinking (p0.001) and insulin resistance (p0.01) were independently associated with significant fibrosis progression. Conclusions: Moderate alcohol consumption, consistent with the diagnosis of NAFLD to be set, is associated with fibrosis progression in NAFLD. These patients should be advised to refrain from heavy episodic drinking.
  • Eldh, Ann Catrine, et al. (författare)
  • Health Care Professionals' Experience of a Digital Tool for Patient Exchange, Anamnesis, and Triage in Primary Care : Qualitative Study.
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: JMIR Human Factors. - Toronto, Canada : JMIR Publications. - 2292-9495. ; 7:4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Despite a growing body of knowledge about eHealth innovations, there is still limited understanding of the implementation of such tools in everyday primary care.OBJECTIVE: The objective of our study was to describe health care staff's experience with a digital communication system intended for patient-staff encounters via a digital route in primary care.METHODS: In this qualitative study we conducted 21 individual interviews with staff at 5 primary care centers in Sweden that had used a digital communication system for 6 months. The interviews were guided by narrative queries, transcribed verbatim, and subjected to content analysis.RESULTS: While the digital communication system was easy to grasp, it was nevertheless complex to use, affecting both staffing and routines for communicating with patients, and documenting contacts. Templates strengthened equivalent procedures for patients but dictated a certain level of health and digital literacy for accuracy. Although patients expected a chat to be synchronous, asynchronous communication was extended over time. The system for digital communication benefited assessments and enabled more efficient use of resources, such as staff. On the other hand, telephone contact was faster and better for certain purposes, especially when the patient's voice itself provided data. However, many primary care patients, particularly younger ones, expected digital routes for contact. To match preferences for communicating to a place and time that suited patients was significant; staff were willing to accept some nuisance from a suboptimal service-at least for a while-if it procured patient satisfaction. A team effort, including engaged managers, scaffolded the implementation process, whereas being subjected to a trial without likely success erected barriers.CONCLUSIONS: A digital communication system introduced in regular primary care involved complexity beyond merely learning how to manage the tool. Rather, it affected routines and required that both the team and the context were addressed. Further knowledge is needed about what factors facilitate implementation, and how. This study suggested including ethical perspectives on eHealth tools, providing an important but novel aspect of implementation.
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