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21.
  • Aad, G., et al. (författare)
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Physical Review D. Particles and fields. - : American Physical Society. - 0556-2821 .- 1089-4918. ; 92:11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)
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22.
  • Aad, G., et al. (författare)
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Journal of High Energy Physics. - : Springer. - 1029-8479 .- 1126-6708. ; :11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)
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23.
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24.
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25.
  • Aad, G., et al. (författare)
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Physical Review D. Particles and fields. - : American Physical Society. - 0556-2821 .- 1089-4918. ; 93:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)
  •  
26.
  • Dornelas, M., et al. (författare)
  • BioTIME: A database of biodiversity time series for the Anthropocene
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Global Ecology and Biogeography. - 1466-822X. ; 27:7, s. 760-786
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Motivation: The BioTIME database contains raw data on species identities and abundances in ecological assemblages through time. These data enable users to calculate temporal trends in biodiversity within and amongst assemblages using a broad range of metrics. BioTIME is being developed as a community-led open-source database of biodiversity time series. Our goal is to accelerate and facilitate quantitative analysis of temporal patterns of biodiversity in the Anthropocene. Main types of variables included: The database contains 8,777,413 species abundance records, from assemblages consistently sampled for a minimum of 2 years, which need not necessarily be consecutive. In addition, the database contains metadata relating to sampling methodology and contextual information about each record. Spatial location and grain: BioTIME is a global database of 547,161 unique sampling locations spanning the marine, freshwater and terrestrial realms. Grain size varies across datasets from 0.0000000158 km(2) (158 cm(2)) to 100 km(2) (1,000,000,000,000 cm(2)). Time period and grainBio: TIME records span from 1874 to 2016. The minimal temporal grain across all datasets in BioTIME is a year. Major taxa and level of measurement: BioTIME includes data from 44,440 species across the plant and animal kingdoms, ranging from plants, plankton and terrestrial invertebrates to small and large vertebrates.
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27.
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28.
  • Bauer, M., et al. (författare)
  • Association between polarity of first episode and solar insolation in bipolar I disorder
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Journal of Psychosomatic Research. - 0022-3999 .- 1879-1360. ; 160
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: Circadian rhythm disruption is commonly observed in bipolar disorder (BD). Daylight is the most powerful signal to entrain the human circadian clock system. This exploratory study investigated if solar insolation at the onset location was associated with the polarity of the first episode of BD I. Solar insolation is the amount of electromagnetic energy from the Sun striking a surface area of the Earth. Methods: Data from 7488 patients with BD I were collected at 75 sites in 42 countries. The first episode occurred at 591 onset locations in 67 countries at a wide range of latitudes in both hemispheres. Solar insolation values were obtained for every onset location, and the ratio of the minimum mean monthly insolation to the maximum mean monthly insolation was calculated. This ratio is largest near the equator (with little change in solar insolation over the year), and smallest near the poles (where winter insolation is very small compared to summer insolation). This ratio also applies to tropical locations which may have a cloudy wet and clear dry season, rather than winter and summer. Results: The larger the change in solar insolation throughout the year (smaller the ratio between the minimum monthly and maximum monthly values), the greater the likelihood the first episode polarity was depression. Other associated variables were being female and increasing percentage of gross domestic product spent on country health expenditures. (All coefficients: P ≤ 0.001). Conclusion: Increased awareness and research into circadian dysfunction throughout the course of BD is warranted.
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29.
  • Bauer, M., et al. (författare)
  • Variations in seasonal solar insolation are associated with a history of suicide attempts in bipolar I disorder
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Bipolar Disorders. - 2194-7511. ; 9:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Bipolar disorder is associated with circadian disruption and a high risk of suicidal behavior. In a previous exploratory study of patients with bipolar I disorder, we found that a history of suicide attempts was associated with differences between winter and summer levels of solar insolation. The purpose of this study was to confirm this finding using international data from 42% more collection sites and 25% more countries. Methods Data analyzed were from 71 prior and new collection sites in 40 countries at a wide range of latitudes. The analysis included 4876 patients with bipolar I disorder, 45% more data than previously analyzed. Of the patients, 1496 (30.7%) had a history of suicide attempt. Solar insolation data, the amount of the sun's electromagnetic energy striking the surface of the earth, was obtained for each onset location (479 locations in 64 countries). Results This analysis confirmed the results of the exploratory study with the same best model and slightly better statistical significance. There was a significant inverse association between a history of suicide attempts and the ratio of mean winter insolation to mean summer insolation (mean winter insolation/mean summer insolation). This ratio is largest near the equator which has little change in solar insolation over the year, and smallest near the poles where the winter insolation is very small compared to the summer insolation. Other variables in the model associated with an increased risk of suicide attempts were a history of alcohol or substance abuse, female gender, and younger birth cohort. The winter/summer insolation ratio was also replaced with the ratio of minimum mean monthly insolation to the maximum mean monthly insolation to accommodate insolation patterns in the tropics, and nearly identical results were found. All estimated coefficients were significant at p < 0.01. Conclusion A large change in solar insolation, both between winter and summer and between the minimum and maximum monthly values, may increase the risk of suicide attempts in bipolar I disorder. With frequent circadian rhythm dysfunction and suicidal behavior in bipolar disorder, greater understanding of the optimal roles of daylight and electric lighting in circadian entrainment is needed.
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30.
  • Sansone, G., et al. (författare)
  • Electron localization following attosecond molecular photoionization
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Nature. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 0028-0836. ; 465:7299, s. 3-763
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • For the past several decades, we have been able to directly probe the motion of atoms that is associated with chemical transformations and which occurs on the femtosecond (10(-15)-s) timescale. However, studying the inner workings of atoms and molecules on the electronic timescale(1-4) has become possible only with the recent development of isolated attosecond (10(-18)-s) laser pulses(5). Such pulses have been used to investigate atomic photoexcitation and photoionization(6,7) and electron dynamics in solids(8), and in molecules could help explore the prompt charge redistribution and localization that accompany photoexcitation processes. In recent work, the dissociative ionization of H-2 and D-2 was monitored on femtosecond timescales(9) and controlled using few-cycle near-infrared laser pulses(10). Here we report a molecular attosecond pump-probe experiment based on that work: H-2 and D-2 are dissociatively ionized by a sequence comprising an isolated attosecond ultraviolet pulse and an intense few-cycle infrared pulse, and a localization of the electronic charge distribution within the molecule is measured that depends-with attosecond time resolution-on the delay between the pump and probe pulses. The localization occurs by means of two mechanisms, where the infrared laser influences the photoionization or the dissociation of the molecular ion. In the first case, charge localization arises from quantum mechanical interference involving autoionizing states and the laser-altered wavefunction of the departing electron. In the second case, charge localization arises owing to laser-driven population transfer between different electronic states of the molecular ion. These results establish attosecond pump-probe strategies as a powerful tool for investigating the complex molecular dynamics that result from the coupling between electronic and nuclear motions beyond the usual Born-Oppenheimer approximation.
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