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Sökning: WFRF:(Bergman Richard N)

  • Resultat 21-30 av 45
  • Föregående 12[3]45Nästa
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21.
  • Mahajan, Anubha, et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide trans-ancestry meta-analysis provides insight into the genetic architecture of type 2 diabetes susceptibility
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1546-1718 .- 1061-4036. ; 46:3, s. 234-234
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To further understanding of the genetic basis of type 2 diabetes (T2D) susceptibility, we aggregated published meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies (GWAS), including 26,488 cases and 83,964 controls of European, east Asian, south Asian and Mexican and Mexican American ancestry. We observed a significant excess in the directional consistency of T2D risk alleles across ancestry groups, even at SNPs demonstrating only weak evidence of association. By following up the strongest signals of association from the trans-ethnic meta-analysis in an additional 21,491 cases and 55,647 controls of European ancestry, we identified seven new T2D susceptibility loci. Furthermore, we observed considerable improvements in the fine-mapping resolution of common variant association signals at several T2D susceptibility loci. These observations highlight the benefits of trans-ethnic GWAS for the discovery and characterization of complex trait loci and emphasize an exciting opportunity to extend insight into the genetic architecture and pathogenesis of human diseases across populations of diverse ancestry.
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22.
  • Mahajan, Anubha, et al. (författare)
  • Identification and Functional Characterization of G6PC2 Coding Variants Influencing Glycemic Traits Define an Effector Transcript at the G6PC2-ABCB11 Locus.
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: PLoS Genetics. - : Public Library of Science (PLoS). - 1553-7404 .- 1553-7390. ; 11:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Genome wide association studies (GWAS) for fasting glucose (FG) and insulin (FI) have identified common variant signals which explain 4.8% and 1.2% of trait variance, respectively. It is hypothesized that low-frequency and rare variants could contribute substantially to unexplained genetic variance. To test this, we analyzed exome-array data from up to 33,231 non-diabetic individuals of European ancestry. We found exome-wide significant (P<5×10-7) evidence for two loci not previously highlighted by common variant GWAS: GLP1R (p.Ala316Thr, minor allele frequency (MAF)=1.5%) influencing FG levels, and URB2 (p.Glu594Val, MAF = 0.1%) influencing FI levels. Coding variant associations can highlight potential effector genes at (non-coding) GWAS signals. At the G6PC2/ABCB11 locus, we identified multiple coding variants in G6PC2 (p.Val219Leu, p.His177Tyr, and p.Tyr207Ser) influencing FG levels, conditionally independent of each other and the non-coding GWAS signal. In vitro assays demonstrate that these associated coding alleles result in reduced protein abundance via proteasomal degradation, establishing G6PC2 as an effector gene at this locus. Reconciliation of single-variant associations and functional effects was only possible when haplotype phase was considered. In contrast to earlier reports suggesting that, paradoxically, glucose-raising alleles at this locus are protective against type 2 diabetes (T2D), the p.Val219Leu G6PC2 variant displayed a modest but directionally consistent association with T2D risk. Coding variant associations for glycemic traits in GWAS signals highlight PCSK1, RREB1, and ZHX3 as likely effector transcripts. These coding variant association signals do not have a major impact on the trait variance explained, but they do provide valuable biological insights.
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23.
  • Saxena, Richa, et al. (författare)
  • Genetic variation in GIPR influences the glucose and insulin responses to an oral glucose challenge
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1546-1718 .- 1061-4036. ; 42:2, s. 75-142
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Glucose levels 2 h after an oral glucose challenge are a clinical measure of glucose tolerance used in the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes. We report a meta-analysis of nine genome-wide association studies (n = 15,234 nondiabetic individuals) and a follow-up of 29 independent loci (n = 6,958-30,620). We identify variants at the GIPR locus associated with 2- h glucose level (rs10423928, beta (s.e.m.) = 0.09 (0.01) mmol/l per A allele, P = 2.0 x 10(-15)). The GIPR A-allele carriers also showed decreased insulin secretion (n = 22,492; insulinogenic index, P = 1.0 x 10(-17); ratio of insulin to glucose area under the curve, P = 1.3 x 10(-16)) and diminished incretin effect (n = 804; P = 4.3 x 10(-4)). We also identified variants at ADCY5 (rs2877716, P = 4.2 x 10(-16)), VPS13C (rs17271305, P = 4.1 x 10(-8)), GCKR (rs1260326, P = 7.1 x 10(-11)) and TCF7L2 (rs7903146, P = 4.2 x 10(-10)) associated with 2-h glucose. Of the three newly implicated loci (GIPR, ADCY5 and VPS13C), only ADCY5 was found to be associated with type 2 diabetes in collaborating studies (n = 35,869 cases, 89,798 controls, OR = 1.12, 95% CI 1.09-1.15, P = 4.8 x 10(-18)).
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24.
  • Zeggini, Eleftheria, et al. (författare)
  • Meta-analysis of genome-wide association data and large-scale replication identifies additional susceptibility loci for type 2 diabetes
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1546-1718. ; 40:5, s. 638-645
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Genome-wide association (GWA) studies have identified multiple loci at which common variants modestly but reproducibly influence risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D)(1-11). Established associations to common and rare variants explain only a small proportion of the heritability of T2D. As previously published analyses had limited power to identify variants with modest effects, we carried out meta-analysis of three T2D GWA scans comprising 10,128 individuals of European descent and similar to 2.2 million SNPs (directly genotyped and imputed), followed by replication testing in an independent sample with an effective sample size of up to 53,975. We detected at least six previously unknown loci with robust evidence for association, including the JAZF1 (P=5.0 x 10(-14)), CDC123-CAMK1D (P=1.2 x 10(-10)), TSPAN8-LGR5 (P=1.1 x 10(-9)), THADA (P=1.1 x 10(-9)), ADAMTS9 (P=1.2 x 10(-8)) and NOTCH2 (P=4.1 x 10(-8)) gene regions. Our results illustrate the value of large discovery and follow-up samples for gaining further insights into the inherited basis of T2D.
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25.
  • Morris, Andrew P., et al. (författare)
  • Large-scale association analysis provides insights into the genetic architecture and pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1546-1718 .- 1061-4036. ; 44:9, s. 981-981
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To extend understanding of the genetic architecture and molecular basis of type 2 diabetes (T2D), we conducted a meta-analysis of genetic variants on the Metabochip, including 34,840 cases and 114,981 controls, overwhelmingly of European descent. We identified ten previously unreported T2D susceptibility loci, including two showing sex-differentiated association. Genomewide analyses of these data are consistent with a long tail of additional common variant loci explaining much of the variation in susceptibility to T2D. Exploration of the enlarged set of susceptibility loci implicates several processes, including CREBBP-related transcription, adipocytokine signaling and cell cycle regulation, in diabetes pathogenesis.
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26.
  • Newton-Cheh, Christopher, et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide association study identifies eight loci associated with blood pressure
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1546-1718 .- 1061-4036. ; 41:6, s. 666-676
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Elevated blood pressure is a common, heritable cause of cardiovascular disease worldwide. To date, identification of common genetic variants influencing blood pressure has proven challenging. We tested 2.5 million genotyped and imputed SNPs for association with systolic and diastolic blood pressure in 34,433 subjects of European ancestry from the Global BPgen consortium and followed up findings with direct genotyping (N <= 71,225 European ancestry, N <= 12,889 Indian Asian ancestry) and in silico comparison (CHARGE consortium, N 29,136). We identified association between systolic or diastolic blood pressure and common variants in eight regions near the CYP17A1 (P = 7 x 10(-24)), CYP1A2 (P = 1 x 10(-23)), FGF5 (P = 1 x 10(-21)), SH2B3 (P = 3 x 10(-18)), MTHFR (P = 2 x 10(-13)), c10orf107 (P = 1 x 10(-9)), ZNF652 (P = 5 x 10(-9)) and PLCD3 (P = 1 x 10(-8)) genes. All variants associated with continuous blood pressure were associated with dichotomous hypertension. These associations between common variants and blood pressure and hypertension offer mechanistic insights into the regulation of blood pressure and may point to novel targets for interventions to prevent cardiovascular disease.
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27.
  • Perry, John R. B., et al. (författare)
  • Stratifying Type 2 Diabetes Cases by BMI Identifies Genetic Risk Variants in LAMA1 and Enrichment for Risk Variants in Lean Compared to Obese Cases
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: PLoS Genetics. - : Public Library of Science (PLoS). - 1553-7404. ; 8:5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Common diseases such as type 2 diabetes are phenotypically heterogeneous. Obesity is a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes, but patients vary appreciably in body mass index. We hypothesized that the genetic predisposition to the disease may be different in lean (BMI<25 Kg/m(2)) compared to obese cases (BMI >= 30 Kg/m(2)). We performed two case-control genome-wide studies using two accepted cut-offs for defining individuals as overweight or obese. We used 2,112 lean type 2 diabetes cases (BMI<25 kg/m(2)) or 4,123 obese cases (BMI >= 30 kg/m(2)), and 54,412 un-stratified controls. Replication was performed in 2,881 lean cases or 8,702 obese cases, and 18,957 un-stratified controls. To assess the effects of known signals, we tested the individual and combined effects of SNPs representing 36 type 2 diabetes loci. After combining data from discovery and replication datasets, we identified two signals not previously reported in Europeans. A variant (rs8090011) in the LAMA1 gene was associated with type 2 diabetes in lean cases (P = 8.4610 29, OR = 1.13 [95% CI 1.09-1.18]), and this association was stronger than that in obese cases (P = 0.04, OR = 1.03 [95% CI 1.00-1.06]). A variant in HMG20A-previously identified in South Asians but not Europeans-was associated with type 2 diabetes in obese cases (P = 1.3 x 10(-8), OR= 1.11 [95% CI 1.07-1.15]), although this association was not significantly stronger than that in lean cases (P = 0.02, OR = 1.09 [95% CI 1.02-1.17]). For 36 known type 2 diabetes loci, 29 had a larger odds ratio in the lean compared to obese (binomial P = 0.0002). In the lean analysis, we observed a weighted per-risk allele OR = 1.13 [95% CI 1.10-1.17], P = 3.2 x 10(-14). This was larger than the same model fitted in the obese analysis where the OR = 1.06 [95% CI 1.05-1.08], P = 2.2 x 10(-16). This study provides evidence that stratification of type 2 diabetes cases by BMI may help identify additional risk variants and that lean cases may have a stronger genetic predisposition to type 2 diabetes.
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28.
  • Prokopenko, Inga, et al. (författare)
  • Variants in MTNR1B influence fasting glucose levels
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1546-1718 .- 1061-4036. ; 41:1, s. 77-81
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To identify previously unknown genetic loci associated with fasting glucose concentrations, we examined the leading association signals in ten genome-wide association scans involving a total of 36,610 individuals of European descent. Variants in the gene encoding melatonin receptor 1B (MTNR1B) were consistently associated with fasting glucose across all ten studies. The strongest signal was observed at rs10830963, where each G allele (frequency 0.30 in HapMap CEU) was associated with an increase of 0.07 (95% CI = 0.06-0.08) mmol/l in fasting glucose levels (P = 3.2 x 10(-50)) and reduced beta-cell function as measured by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-B, P = 1.1 x 10(-15)). The same allele was associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes (odds ratio = 1.09 (1.05-1.12), per G allele P = 3.3 x 10(-7)) in a meta-analysis of 13 case-control studies totaling 18,236 cases and 64,453 controls. Our analyses also confirm previous associations of fasting glucose with variants at the G6PC2 (rs560887, P = 1.1 x 10(-57)) and GCK (rs4607517, P = 1.0 x 10(-25)) loci.
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29.
  • Scott, Robert A., et al. (författare)
  • Large-scale association analyses identify new loci influencing glycemic traits and provide insight into the underlying biological pathways
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1546-1718 .- 1061-4036. ; 44:9, s. 991-991
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Through genome-wide association meta-analyses of up to 133,010 individuals of European ancestry without diabetes, including individuals newly genotyped using the Metabochip, we have increased the number of confirmed loci influencing glycemic traits to 53, of which 33 also increase type 2 diabetes risk (q < 0.05). Loci influencing fasting insulin concentration showed association with lipid levels and fat distribution, suggesting impact on insulin resistance. Gene-based analyses identified further biologically plausible loci, suggesting that additional loci beyond those reaching genome-wide significance are likely to represent real associations. This conclusion is supported by an excess of directionally consistent and nominally significant signals between discovery and follow-up studies. Functional analysis of these newly discovered loci will further improve our understanding of glycemic control.
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30.
  • Chen, Wei-Min, et al. (författare)
  • Variations in the G6PC2/ABCB11 genomic region are associated with fasting glucose levels.
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Investigation. - : The American Society for Clinical Investigation. - 0021-9738. ; Jun 2, s. 2620-2628
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Identifying the genetic variants that regulate fasting glucose concentrations may further our understanding of the pathogenesis of diabetes. We therefore investigated the association of fasting glucose levels with SNPs in 2 genome-wide scans including a total of 5,088 nondiabetic individuals from Finland and Sardinia. We found a significant association between the SNP rs563694 and fasting glucose concentrations (P = 3.5 x 10(-7)). This association was further investigated in an additional 18,436 nondiabetic individuals of mixed European descent from 7 different studies. The combined P value for association in these follow-up samples was 6.9 x 10(-26), and combining results from all studies resulted in an overall P value for association of 6.4 x 10(-33). Across these studies, fasting glucose concentrations increased 0.01-0.16 mM with each copy of the major allele, accounting for approximately 1% of the total variation in fasting glucose. The rs563694 SNP is located between the genes glucose-6-phosphatase catalytic subunit 2 (G6PC2) and ATP-binding cassette, subfamily B (MDR/TAP), member 11 (ABCB11). Our results in combination with data reported in the literature suggest that G6PC2, a glucose-6-phosphatase almost exclusively expressed in pancreatic islet cells, may underlie variation in fasting glucose, though it is possible that ABCB11, which is expressed primarily in liver, may also contribute to such variation.
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