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Sökning: WFRF:(Bertilsson Maria)

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  • Föregående 123[4]5Nästa
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  • Sonesson, Ulf, et al. (författare)
  • Paths to a sustainable food sector: integrated design and LCA of future food supply chains : the case of pork production in Sweden
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment. - : Springer Ferlag. - 0948-3349 .- 1614-7502. ; 21:5, s. 664-676
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose: To describe a more sustainable food sector, a supply chain approach is needed. Changing a supply chain inevitably means that various attributes of the product and its system will change. This project assumed this challenge and delivered detailed descriptions, life cycle assessment (LCA) evaluations, and consequence assessments of the supply chains of six commodities, i.e., milk, cheese, beef, pork, chicken, and bread, from a Swedish region. This paper presents results for the pork supply chain. Methods: In the project setup, experts on production along supply chains designed three scenarios for environmentally improved systems. These scenarios, i.e., the ecosystem, plant nutrients, and climate scenarios, were intended to address different clusters of environmental goals. The next step was to challenge these scenarios by considering their possible consequences for products and systems from the food safety, sensory quality, animal welfare, consumer appreciation, and (for primary production only) cost perspectives. This led to changes in production system design to prevent negative consequences. The final supply chains were quantified using LCA and were again assessed from the three perspectives. Results and discussion: The scenario design approach worked well, thoroughly and credibly describing the production systems. Assessment of consequences bolstered the credibility and quality of the systems and results. The LCA of pig production and smoked ham identified large potentials for improvement by implementing available knowledge: global warming potential (GWP) could be reduced 21–54 % and marine eutrophication by 14–45 %. The main reason for these improvements was improved productivity (approaching the best producers’ current performance), though dedicated measures were also important, resulting in increased nitrogen efficiency, more varied crop rotations for crop production and better production management, and improved animal health and manure management for animal production. Reduced post-farm wastage contributed as did reduced emissions from fertilizer production. Conclusions: The working approach applied was successful in integrating LCA research with food system production expertise to deliver results relevant to supply chain decision-makers. The consequence assessments brought considerable value to the project, giving its results greater credibility. By introducing constraints in the form of “no negative consequences and no increased costs,” the work was “guided” so that the scenario design avoided being hampered by too many opportunities.
  • Sumaya, Wael, et al. (författare)
  • Fibrin clot properties independently predict adverse clinical outcome following acute coronary syndrome : a PLATO substudy
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: European Heart Journal. - : Oxford University Press (OUP). - 0195-668X .- 1522-9645. ; 39:13, s. 1078-1085
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Aims To determine whether fibrin clot properties are associated with clinical outcomes following acute coronary syndrome (ACS).Methods and results Plasma samples were collected at hospital discharge from 4354 ACS patients randomized to clopidogrel or ticagrelor in the PLATelet inhibition and patient Outcomes (PLATO) trial. A validated turbidimetric assay was employed to study plasma clot lysis time and maximum turbidity (a measure of clot density). One-year rates of cardiovascular (CV) death, spontaneous myocardial infarction (MI) and PLATO-defined major bleeding events were assessed after sample collection. Hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models. After adjusting for CV risk factors, each 50% increase in lysis time was associated with CV death/spontaneous MI [HR 1.17, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.05-1.31; P < 0.01] and CV death alone (HR 1.36, 95% CI 1.17-1.59; P < 0.001). Similarly, each 50% increase in maximum turbidity was associated with increased risk of CV death (HR 1.24, 95% CI 1.03-1.50; P = 0.024). After adjustment for other prognostic biomarkers (leukocyte count, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, high-sensitivity troponin T, cystatin C, N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide, and growth differentiation factor15), the association with CV death remained significant for lysis time (HR 1.2, 95% CI 1.01-1.42; P = 0.042) but not for maximum turbidity. These associations were consistent regardless of randomized antiplatelet treatment (all interaction P > 0.05). Neither lysis time nor maximum turbidity was associated with major bleeding events.Conclusion Fibrin clots that are resistant to lysis independently predict adverse outcome in ACS patients. Novel therapies targeting fibrin clot properties might be a new avenue for improving prognosis in patients with ACS.
  • Troell, Karin, et al. (författare)
  • Cryptosporidium as a testbed for single cell genome characterization of unicellular eukaryotes
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: BMC Genomics. - : Springer Science and Business Media LLC. - 1471-2164 .- 1471-2164. ; 17
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Infectious disease involving multiple genetically distinct populations of pathogens is frequently concurrent, but difficult to detect or describe with current routine methodology. Cryptosporidium sp. is a widespread gastrointestinal protozoan of global significance in both animals and humans. It cannot be easily maintained in culture and infections of multiple strains have been reported. To explore the potential use of single cell genomics methodology for revealing genome-level variation in clinical samples from Cryptosporidium-infected hosts, we sorted individual oocysts for subsequent genome amplification and full-genome sequencing. Results: Cells were identified with fluorescent antibodies with an 80 % success rate for the entire single cell genomics workflow, demonstrating that the methodology can be applied directly to purified fecal samples. Ten amplified genomes from sorted single cells were selected for genome sequencing and compared both to the original population and a reference genome in order to evaluate the accuracy and performance of the method. Single cell genome coverage was on average 81 % even with a moderate sequencing effort and by combining the 10 single cell genomes, the full genome was accounted for. By a comparison to the original sample, biological variation could be distinguished and separated from noise introduced in the amplification. Conclusions: As a proof of principle, we have demonstrated the power of applying single cell genomics to dissect infectious disease caused by closely related parasite species or subtypes. The workflow can easily be expanded and adapted to target other protozoans, and potential applications include mapping genome-encoded traits, virulence, pathogenicity, host specificity and resistance at the level of cells as truly meaningful biological units.
  • Ueland, Thor, et al. (författare)
  • Admission Levels of DKK1 (Dickkopf-1) Are Associated With Future Cardiovascular Death in Patients With Acute Coronary Syndromes
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology. - 1079-5642 .- 1524-4636. ; 39:2, s. 294-302
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective- The Wnt/wingless signaling antagonist DKK1 (dickkopf-1) regulates platelet-mediated inflammation and may contribute to plaque destabilization. We hypothesized that DKK1 would be associated with cardiovascular outcomes.Approach and Results- We determined DKK1 levels in serum samples obtained before randomization, at discharge, and 1 and 6 months in a subset of 5165 patients with acute coronary syndromes in the PLATO trial (Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes; NCT00391872). The median (interquartile range) DKK1 concentrations were 0.61 (0.20-1.27) ng/mL at baseline and increased during follow-up. The hazard ratio (95% CIs) for the composite end point (cardiovascular death, nonprocedural spontaneous myocardial infarction, or stroke) during 1 year of follow-up, per 50% increase in baseline DKK1 concentration, was 1.06 (1.02-1.10), P=0.0011, and remained significant in fully adjusted analysis with 14 conventional clinical and demographic and 6 biochemical variables, including NT-proBNP (N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide), hs-TnT (high-sensitivity troponin T), and GDF-15 (growth differentiation factor 15; 1.05 [1.00-1.09]; P=0.028). This association was mainly driven by the association with cardiovascular death, where a gradual increase in event rates was observed with increasing quartiles of DKK1 (2.7%, 3.0%, 4.3%, and 5.0%) and remained significant and unmodified in fully adjusted analysis (hazard ratio, 1.10 [1.04-1.17]; P=0.002). Change in DKK1 and levels at 1 month were unrelated to outcomes. A modifying effect of ticagrelor on DKK1 discharge levels was observed but not associated with prognosis.Conclusions- In patients with acute coronary syndromes treated with dual antiplatelet treatment, admission DKK1 levels were independently associated with a composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke and with cardiovascular death alone.
  • Ueland, Thor, et al. (författare)
  • ALCAM predicts future cardiovascular death in acute coronary syndromes : Insights from the PLATO trial
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Atherosclerosis. - : Elsevier. - 0021-9150 .- 1879-1484. ; 293, s. 35-41
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM) is upregulated during inflammation and involved in transmigration of leukocytes and T-cell activation. We hypothesized that ALCAM might be associated with recurrent events in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS).METHODS: ALCAM was measured in serum obtained on admission, at discharge, 1 month and 6 months in a subgroup of 5165 patients admitted with ACS and included in the PLATelet inhibition and patient Outcomes (PLATO) trial (NCT00391872). The association between ALCAM and the composite endpoint and its components, including cardiovascular (CV) death, non-procedural spontaneous myocardial infarction (MI) or stroke during 1-year follow-up, was assessed by Cox proportional hazards models with incremental addition of clinical risk factors and biomarkers (including high-sensitivity troponin T, N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide and growth differentiation factor-15).RESULTS: The median (Q1-Q3) concentration of ALCAM at admission was 97 (80-116) ng/mL. A 50% higher level of ALCAM on admission was associated with a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.16 (95% confidence interval [1.00-1.34] p = 0.043) for the composite endpoint in fully adjusted analysis, mainly driven by the association with CV death (HR 1.45 [1.16-1.82] p = 0.0012).CONCLUSIONS: In patients with ACS, admission level of ALCAM was independently associated with adverse outcome including CV death even after adjustment for established inflammatory and cardiac biomarkers.
  • Ueland, Thor, et al. (författare)
  • Osteoprotegerin Is Associated With Major Bleeding But Not With Cardiovascular Outcomes in Patients With Acute Coronary Syndromes : Insights From the PLATO (Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes) Trial
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Journal of the American Heart Association. - : WILEY. - 2047-9980 .- 2047-9980. ; 7:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background-Elevated levels of osteoprotegerin, a secreted tumor necrosis factor-related molecule, might be associated with adverse outcomes in patients with coronary artery disease. We measured plasma osteoprotegerin concentrations on hospital admission, at discharge, and at 1 and 6months after discharge in a predefined subset (n=5135) of patients with acute coronary syndromes in the PLATO (Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes) trial. Methods and Results-The associations between osteoprotegerin and the composite end point of cardiovascular death, nonprocedural spontaneous myocardial infarction or stroke, and non-coronary artery bypass grafting major bleeding during 1year of follow-up were assessed by Cox proportional hazards models. Event rates of the composite end point per increasing quartile groups at baseline were 5.2%, 7.5%, 9.2%, and 11.9%. A 50% increase in osteoprotegerin level was associated with a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.31 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.21-1.42) for the composite end point but was not significant in adjusted analysis (ie, clinical characteristics and levels of C-reactive protein, troponin T, NT-proBNP [N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide], and growth differentiation factor-15). The corresponding rates of non-coronary artery bypass grafting major bleeding were 2.4%, 2.2%, 3.8%, and 7.2%, with an unadjusted HR of 1.52 (95% CI, 1.36-1.69), and a fully adjusted HR of 1.26 (95% CI, 1.09-1.46). The multivariable association between the osteoprotegerin concentrations and the primary end point after 1month resulted in an HR of 1.09 (95% CI, 0.89-1.33); for major bleeding after 1month, the HR was 1.33 (95% CI, 0.91-1.96). Conclusions-In patients with acute coronary syndrome treated with dual antiplatelet therapy, osteoprotegerin was an independent marker of major bleeding but not of ischemic cardiovascular events. Thus, high osteoprotegerin levels may be useful in increasing awareness of increased bleeding risk in patients with acute coronary syndrome receiving antithrombotic therapy.
  • Urrutia Cordero, Pablo, et al. (författare)
  • Functionally reversible impacts of disturbances on lake food webs linked to spatial and seasonal dependencies
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Ecology. - : John Wiley & Sons. - 0012-9658 .- 1939-9170. ; 102:4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Increasing human impact on the environment is causing drastic changes in disturbance regimes and how they prevail over time. Of increasing relevance is to further our understanding on biological responses to pulse disturbances (short duration) and how they interact with other ongoing press disturbances (constantly present). Because the temporal and spatial contexts of single experiments often limit our ability to generalize results across space and time, we conducted a modularized mesocosm experiment replicated in space (five lakes along a latitudinal gradient in Scandinavia) and time (two seasons, spring and summer) to generate general predictions on how the functioning and composition of multitrophic plankton communities (zoo-, phyto- and bacterioplankton) respond to pulse disturbances acting either in isolation or combined with press disturbances. As pulse disturbance, we used short-term changes in fish presence, and as press disturbance, we addressed the ongoing reduction in light availability caused by increased cloudiness and lake browning in many boreal and subarctic lakes. First, our results show that the top-down pulse disturbance had the strongest effects on both functioning and composition of the three trophic levels across sites and seasons, with signs for interactive impacts with the bottom-up press disturbance on phytoplankton communities. Second, community composition responses to disturbances were highly divergent between lakes and seasons: temporal accumulated community turnover of the same trophic level either increased (destabilization) or decreased (stabilization) in response to the disturbances compared to control conditions. Third, we found functional recovery from the pulse disturbances to be frequent at the end of most experiments. In a broader context, these results demonstrate that top-down, pulse disturbances, either alone or with additional constant stress upon primary producers caused by bottom-up disturbances, can induce profound but often functionally reversible changes across multiple trophic levels, which are strongly linked to spatial and temporal context dependencies. Furthermore, the identified dichotomy of disturbance effects on the turnover in community composition demonstrates the potential of disturbances to either stabilize or destabilize biodiversity patterns over time across a wide range of environmental conditions.
  • Urrutia Cordero, Pablo, et al. (författare)
  • Integrating multiple dimensions of ecological stability into a vulnerability framework
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Journal of Ecology. - : John Wiley & Sons. - 0022-0477 .- 1365-2745. ; 110:2, s. 374-386
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Ecological stability encompasses multiple dimensions of functional and compositional responses to environmental change. Though no single stability dimension used in isolation can fully reflect the overall response to environmental change, a common vulnerability assessment that integrates simultaneously across multiple stability components is highly desirable for ecological risk assessment. We develop both functional and compositional counterparts of a novel, integrative metric of overall ecological vulnerability (OEV). We test the framework with data from a modularized experiment replicated in five lakes over two seasons, examining functional and compositional responses to both pulse and press disturbances across three trophic groups. OEV is measured as the area under the curve integrated over the entire observation period, with the curve delimiting the difference between the disturbance treatment and undisturbed parallel controls, expressed either as the log response ratio of biomass (functional OEV) or community dissimilarity index (compositional OEV). Both, functional and compositional OEV correlated negatively with functional and compositional 'resistance', 'temporal stability' and 'final/extent of recovery' following both pulse and press disturbances, though less so with 'resilience' following a pulse disturbance. We also found a positive correlation between functional and compositional OEV, which reveals the potential to also evaluate the intricate linkage between biodiversity and functional change. Our findings demonstrate that OEV comprises a robust framework to: (a) capture simultaneously multiple functional and compositional stability components, and (b) quantify the functional consequences of biodiversity change. Our results provide the basis for an overarching framework for quantifying the overall vulnerability of ecosystems to environmental change, opening new possibilities for ecological risk assessment and management. Synthesis. Ecological stability comprises multiple dimensions that together encapsulate how ecosystems respond to environmental change. Considering these multiple aspects of stability simultaneously often poses a problem in environmental assessments, which frequently require overarching indicators of risk or vulnerability. While an analysis of multiple dimensions allows for deeper exploration of mechanisms, here we develop and test a new univariate indicator that integrates stability aspects under a broad range of disturbance regimes. Using a modularized experiment in Swedish lakes, we show that this integrative measure captures multiple stability dimensions reflecting compositional and functional vulnerability and their relationships between them.
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