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Sökning: WFRF:(Bezard Erwan)

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  • Hulme, Heather, et al. (författare)
  • Basal ganglia neuropeptides show abnormal processing associated with L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: NPJ PARKINSONS DISEASE. - : Springer Nature. - 2373-8057. ; 8:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • L-DOPA administration is the primary treatment for Parkinson's disease (PD) but long-term administration is usually accompanied by hyperkinetic side-effects called L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia (LID). Signaling neuropeptides of the basal ganglia are affected in LID and changes in the expression of neuropeptide precursors have been described, but the final products formed from these precursors have not been well defined and regionally mapped. We therefore used mass spectrometry imaging to visualize and quantify neuropeptides in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine exposed parkinsonian and LID Macaca mulatta brain samples. We found that dyskinesia severity correlated with the levels of some abnormally processed peptides - notably, des-tyrosine dynorphins, substance P (1-7), and substance P (1-9) - in multiple brain regions. Levels of the active neuropeptides; dynorphin B, dynorphin A (1-8), alpha-neoendorphin, substance P (1-11), and neurokinin A, in the globus pallidus and substantia nigra correlated with putaminal levels of L-DOPA. Our results demonstrate that the abundance of selected active neuropeptides is associated with L-DOPA concentrations in the putamen, emphasizing their sensitivity to L-DOPA. Additionally, levels of truncated neuropeptides (which generally exhibit reduced or altered receptor affinity) correlate with dyskinesia severity, particularly for peptides associated with the direct pathway (i.e., dynorphins and tachykinins). The increases in tone of the tachykinin, enkephalin, and dynorphin neuropeptides in LID result in abnormal processing of neuropeptides with different biological activity and may constitute a functional compensatory mechanism for balancing the increased L-DOPA levels across the whole basal ganglia.
  • Hulme, Heather, et al. (författare)
  • Mass spectrometry imaging of multiple basal ganglia neuropeptides shows abnormal neuropeptide processing associated with L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia in a primate model of Parkinson’s disease
  • Annan publikation (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • L-DOPA administration is the primary treatment for Parkinson’s disease (PD) but long-term administration is usually accompanied by hyperkinetic side-effects called L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia (LID). Signalling neuropeptides of the basal ganglia are affected in LID and alterations in the expression of neuropeptide precursors have been described, but the final products of the precursors are not well defined and regionally mapped. Thus, we used matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging to visualize and quantify neuropeptides in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine exposed parkinsonian and LID Macaca mulatta brain samples. We found that the abundance of some abnormally processed peptides—des-tyrosine dynorphins, substance P (1-7) and substance P (1-9)—correlated with dyskinesia severity in multiple brain regions. Other dynorphins, α-neoendorphin and neurokinin A correlated with regional L-DOPA or dopamine levels in the internal and external globus pallidus. Our results demonstrate that the abundance of selected active neuropeptides is associated with local L-DOPA and dopamine concentrations, but the severity of LID is associated with loss of N-terminal tyrosine from dynorphin peptides and C-terminal truncation of substance P peptides, modifications that generally reduce the neuropeptides’ activity. 
  • Hulme, Heather, et al. (författare)
  • Simultaneous mass spectrometry imaging of multiple neuropeptides in the brain and alterations induced by experimental parkinsonism and L-DOPA therapy
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Neurobiology of Disease. - : ACADEMIC PRESS INC ELSEVIER SCIENCE. - 0969-9961 .- 1095-953X. ; 137
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Neuropeptides are important signalling molecules in the brain and alterations in their expression levels have been linked to neurological disorders such as Parkinson's disease. It is challenging to map neuropeptide changes across and within brain regions because of their low in vivo concentrations and complex post-translational processing. Consequently, the role of neuropeptides in Parkinson's disease is not well understood. Thus, we have developed and evaluated a method to image multiple neuropeptides simultaneously in both rat and primate brain tissue sections by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation mass spectrometry imaging at high lateral resolution. Using a unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine rat model of Parkinson's disease, we imaged changes in enkephalins, dynorphins, tachykinins and neurotensin associated with the dopaminergic denervation and L-DOPA treatment in multiple brain regions. L-DOPA administration significantly affected neuropeptides in the globus pallidus, while neuropeptides in the caudate-putamen were mostly affected by dopamine depletion. Using high lateral resolution imaging, we observed an increase of neurotensin in the dorsal sub-region of the globus pallidus after dopamine depletion. This study highlights the capacity of mass spectrometry imaging to elucidate the dynamics of neuropeptide signalling during Parkinson's disease and its treatment.
  • Kultima, Kim, et al. (författare)
  • Normalization and expression changes in predefined sets of proteins using 2D gel electrophoresis : A proteomic study of L-DOPA induced dyskinesia in an animal model of Parkinson's disease using DIGE
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: BMC Bioinformatics. - 1471-2105 .- 1471-2105. ; 7, s. 475-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Two-Dimensional Difference In Gel Electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) is a powerful tool for measuring differences in protein expression between samples or conditions. However, to remove systematic variability within and between gels the data has to be normalized. In this study we examined the ability of four existing and four novel normalization methods to remove systematic bias in data produced with 2D-DIGE. We also propose a modification of an existing method where the statistical framework determines whether a set of proteins shows an association with the predefined phenotypes of interest. This method was applied to our data generated from a monkey model (Macaca fascicularis) of Parkinson's disease. Results: Using 2D-DIGE we analysed the protein content of the striatum from 6 control and 21 MPTP-treated monkeys, with or without de novo or long-term L-DOPA administration. There was an intensity and spatial bias in the data of all the gels examined in this study. Only two of the eight normalization methods evaluated ('2D loess+scale' and 'SC-2D+quantile') successfully removed both the intensity and spatial bias. In 'SC-2D+quantile' we extended the commonly used loess normalization method against dye bias in two-channel microarray systems to suit systems with three or more channels. Further, by using the proposed method, Differential Expression in Predefined Proteins Sets (DEPPS), several sets of proteins associated with the priming effects of L-DOPA in the striatum in parkinsonian animals were identified. Three of these sets are proteins involved in energy metabolism and one set involved proteins which are part of the microtubule cytoskeleton. Conclusion: Comparison of the different methods leads to a series of methodological recommendations for the normalization and the analysis of data, depending on the experimental design. Due to the nature of 2D-DIGE data we recommend that the p-values obtained in significance tests should be used as rankings only. Individual proteins may be interesting as such, but by studying sets of proteins the interpretation of the results are probably more accurate and biologically informative.
  • Marmion, David J., et al. (författare)
  • Viral-based rodent and nonhuman primate models of multiple system atrophy : Fidelity to the human disease
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Neurobiology of Disease. - : Elsevier. - 0969-9961. ; 148
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a rare and extremely debilitating progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by variable combinations of parkinsonism, cerebellar ataxia, dysautonomia, and pyramidal dysfunction. MSA is a unique synucleinopathy, in which alpha synuclein-rich aggregates are present in the cytoplasm of oligodendroglia. The precise origin of the alpha synuclein (aSyn) found in the glial cytoplasmic inclusions (GCIs) as well the mechanisms of neurodegeneration in MSA remain unclear. Despite this fact, cell and animal models of MSA rely on oligodendroglial overexpression of aSyn. In the present study, we utilized a novel oligotrophic AAV, Olig001, to overexpress aSyn specifically in striatal oligodendrocytes of rats and nonhuman primates in an effort to further characterize our novel viral vector-mediated MSA animal models. Using two cohorts of animals with 10-fold differences in Olig001 vector titers, we show a dose-dependent formation of MSA-like pathology in rats. High titer of Olig001-aSyn in these animals were required to produce the formation of pS129+ and proteinase K resistant aSyn-rich GCIs, demyelination, and neurodegeneration. Using this knowledge, we injected high titer Olig001 in the putamen of cynomolgus macaques. After six months, histological analysis showed that oligodendroglial overexpression of aSyn resulted in the formation of hallmark GCIs throughout the putamen, demyelination, a 44% reduction of striatal neurons and a 12% loss of nigral neurons. Furthermore, a robust inflammatory response similar to MSA was produced in Olig001-aSyn NHPs, including microglial activation, astrogliosis, and a robust infiltration of T cells into the CNS. Taken together, oligodendroglial-specific viral vector-mediated overexpression of aSyn in rats and nonhuman primates faithfully reproduces many of the pathological disease hallmarks found in MSA. Future studies utilizing these large animal models of MSA would prove extremely valuable as a pre-clinical platform to test novel therapeutics that are so desperately needed for MSA.
  • Munoz, Ana, et al. (författare)
  • Combined 5-HT1A and 5-HT1B receptor agonists for the treatment of L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia.
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Brain. - : Oxford University Press. - 1460-2156. ; 131, s. 3380-3394
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Appearance of dyskinesia is a common problem of long-term l-DOPA treatment in Parkinson's disease patients and represents a major limitation for the pharmacological management of the motor symptoms in advanced disease stages. We have recently demonstrated that dopamine released from serotonin neurons is responsible for l-DOPA-induced dyskinesia in 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-lesioned rats, raising the possibility that blockade of serotonin neuron activity by combination of 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(1B) agonists could reduce l-DOPA-induced dyskinesia. In the present study, we have investigated the efficacy of 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(1B) agonists to counteract l-DOPA-induced dyskinesia in 1-methyl-4-phenyl 1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-treated macaques, the gold standard model of Parkinson's disease. In addition, we have studied the ability of this treatment to prevent development of l-DOPA-induced dyskinesia in 6-OHDA-lesioned rats. The results demonstrate the existence of a potent synergistic effect between 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(1B) agonists in their ability to dampen l-DOPA-induced dyskinesia in the MPTP-treated macaques. Sub-threshold doses of the drugs, which individually produced no effect, were able to reduce the abnormal involuntary movements by up to 80% when administered in combination, without affecting the anti-parkinsonian properties of l-DOPA. Furthermore, chronic administration of low doses of the 5-HT(1) agonists in combination was able to prevent development of dyskinesia, and reduce the up-regulation of FosB after daily treatment with l-DOPA in the rat 6-OHDA model. Our results support the importance of a clinical investigation of the effect of 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(1B) agonists, particularly in combination, in dyskinetic l-DOPA-treated Parkinson's disease patients.
  • Outeiro, Tiago F., et al. (författare)
  • From iPS Cells to Rodents and Nonhuman Primates : Filling Gaps in Modeling Parkinson's Disease
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Movement Disorders. - : John Wiley & Sons Inc.. - 0885-3185. ; 36:4, s. 832-841
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Parkinson's disease (PD) is primarily known as a movement disorder because of typical clinical manifestations associated with the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. However, it is now widely recognized that PD is a much more complex condition, with multiple and severe nonmotor features implicating additional brain areas and organs in the disease process. Pathologically, typical forms of PD are characterized by the accumulation of α-synuclein-rich protein inclusions known as Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites, although other types of protein inclusions are also often present in the brain. Familial forms of PD have provided a wealth of information about molecular pathways leading to neurodegeneration, but only to add to the complexity of the problem and uncover new knowledge gaps. Therefore, modeling PD in the laboratory has become increasingly challenging. Here, we discuss knowledge gaps and challenges in the use of laboratory models for the study of a disease that is clinically heterogeneous and multifactorial. We propose that the combined use of patient-derived cells and animal models, along with current technological tools, will not only expand our molecular and pathophysiological understanding of PD, but also assist in the identification of therapeutic strategies targeting relevant pathogenic pathways.
  • Rosenblad, Carl, et al. (författare)
  • Vector-mediated l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine delivery reverses motor impairments in a primate model of Parkinson's disease
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Brain : a journal of neurology. - : Oxford University Press. - 1460-2156. ; , s. 2402-2416
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Ever since its introduction 40 years ago l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA) therapy has retained its role as the leading standard medication for patients with Parkinson's disease. With time, however, the shortcomings of oral l-DOPA treatment have become apparent, particularly the motor fluctuations and troublesome dyskinetic side effects. These side effects, which are caused by the excessive swings in striatal dopamine caused by intermittent oral delivery, can be avoided by delivering l-DOPA in a more continuous manner. Local gene delivery of the l-DOPA synthesizing enzymes, tyrosine hydroxylase and guanosine-tri-phosphate-cyclohydrolase-1, offers a new approach to a more refined dopaminergic therapy where l-DOPA is delivered continuously at the site where it is needed i.e. the striatum. In this study we have explored the therapeutic efficacy of adeno-associated viral vector-mediated l-DOPA delivery to the putamen in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-treated rhesus monkeys, the standard non-human primate model of Parkinson's disease. Viral vector delivery of the two enzymes, tyrosine hydroxylase and guanosine-5'-tri-phosphate-cyclohydrolase-1, bilaterally into the dopamine-depleted putamen, induced a significant, dose-dependent improvement of motor behaviour up to a level identical to that obtained with the optimal dose of peripheral l-DOPA. Importantly, this improvement in motor function was obtained without any adverse dyskinetic effects. These results provide proof-of-principle for continuous vector-mediated l-DOPA synthesis as a novel therapeutic strategy for Parkinson's disease. The constant, local supply of l-DOPA obtained with this approach holds promise as an efficient one-time treatment that can provide long-lasting clinical improvement and at the same time prevent the appearance of motor fluctuations and dyskinetic side effects associated with standard oral dopaminergic medication.
  • Rylander, Daniella, et al. (författare)
  • A mGluR5 antagonist under clinical development improves L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia in parkinsonian rats and monkeys.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Neurobiology of Disease. - : Elsevier. - 0969-9961. ; 39, s. 352-361
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • L-DOPA remains the gold-standard treatment for Parkinson's disease but causes motor fluctuations and dyskinesia. Metabotropic glutamate receptor type 5 (mGluR5) has been proposed as a target for antidyskinetic therapies. Here, we evaluate the effects of fenobam, a noncompetitive mGluR5 antagonist already tested in humans, using rodent and nonhuman primate models of L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia. In both animal models, acute administration of fenobam attenuated the L-DOPA-induced abnormal involuntary movements (50-70% reduction at the doses of 30mg/kg in rats and 10mg/kg in monkeys). The effect consisted in a reduction of peak-dose dyskinesia, whereas the end-dose phase was not affected. Chronic administration of fenobam to previously drug-naïve animals (de novo treatment) attenuated the development of peak-dose dyskinesia without compromising the anti-parkinsonian effect of L-DOPA. In addition, fenobam prolonged the motor stimulant effect of L-DOPA. We conclude that fenobam acts similarly in rat and primate models of L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia and that it represents a good candidate for antidyskinetic treatment in Parkinson's disease.
  • Rylander, Daniella, et al. (författare)
  • Maladaptive plasticity of serotonin axon terminals in levodopa-induced dyskinesia.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Annals of Neurology. - : John Wiley & Sons Inc.. - 1531-8249. ; 68:5, s. 619-628
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE:: Striatal serotonin projections have been implicated in levodopa-induced dyskinesia by providing an unregulated source of dopamine release. We set out to determine whether these projections are affected by levodopa treatment in a way that would favor the occurrence of dyskinesia. METHODS:: As an index of terminal serotonin innervation density, we measured radioligand binding to the plasma membrane serotonin transporter (SERT) in levodopa-treated dyskinetic and nondyskinetic subjects, using brain tissue from both rat and monkey models of Parkinson disease as well as parkinsonian patients. In addition, striatal tissue from dyskinetic rats was used for morphological and ultrastructural analyses of serotonin axon terminals, and for studies of stimulated [(3)H]dopamine release. RESULTS:: Across all conditions examined, striatal levels of SERT radioligand binding were significantly elevated in dyskinetic subjects compared to nondyskinetic cases. In the rat striatum, dyskinesiogenic levodopa treatment had induced sprouting of serotonin axon varicosities having a relatively high synaptic incidence. This response was associated with increased depolarization-induced [(3)H]dopamine release and with a stronger release potentiation by brain-derived neurotrophic factor. INTERPRETATION:: This study provides the first evidence that L-dopa treatment induces sprouting of serotonin axon terminals, with an increased incidence of synaptic contacts, and a larger activity-dependent potentiation of dopamine release in the dopamine-denervated striatum. Treatment-induced plasticity of the serotonin innervation may therefore represent a previously unappreciated cause of altered dopamine dynamics. These results are important for understanding the mechanisms by which L-dopa pharmacotherapy predisposes to dyskinesia, and for defining biomarkers of motor complications in Parkinsons disease. Ann Neurol 2010.
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