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Sökning: WFRF:(Bhatt Deepak L)

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  • Hageman, Steven H. J., et al. (författare)
  • Estimation of recurrent atherosclerotic cardiovascular event risk in patients with established cardiovascular disease : the updated SMART2 algorithm
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: European Heart Journal. - : Oxford University Press. - 0195-668X .- 1522-9645. ; 43:18, s. 1715-1727
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims The 10-year risk of recurrent atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) events in patients with established ASCVD can be estimated with the Secondary Manifestations of ARTerial disease (SMART) risk score, and may help refine clinical management. To broaden generalizability across regions, we updated the existing tool (SMART2 risk score) and recalibrated it with regional incidence rates and assessed its performance in external populations.Methods and results Individuals with coronary artery disease, cerebrovascular disease, peripheral artery disease, or abdominal aortic aneurysms were included from the Utrecht Cardiovascular Cohort-SMART cohort [n = 8355; 1706 ASCVD events during a median follow-up of 8.2 years (interquartile range 4.2-12.5)] to derive a 10-year risk prediction model for recurrent ASCVD events (non-fatal myocardial infarction, non-fatal stroke, or cardiovascular mortality) using a Fine and Gray competing risk-adjusted model. The model was recalibrated to four regions across Europe, and to Asia (excluding Japan), Japan, Australia, North America, and Latin America using contemporary cohort data from each target region. External validation used data from seven cohorts [Clinical Practice Research Datalink, SWEDEHEART, the international REduction of Atherothrombosis for Continued Health (REACH) Registry, Estonian Biobank, Spanish Biomarkers in Acute Coronary Syndrome and Biomarkers in Acute Myocardial Infarction (BACS/BAMI), the Norwegian COgnitive Impairment After STroke, and Bialystok PLUS/Polaspire] and included 369 044 individuals with established ASCVD of whom 62 807 experienced an ASCVD event. C-statistics ranged from 0.605 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.547-0.664] in BACS/BAMI to 0.772 (95% CI 0.659-0.886) in REACH Europe high-risk region. The clinical utility of the model was demonstrated across a range of clinically relevant treatment thresholds for intensified treatment options.Conclusion The SMART2 risk score provides an updated, validated tool for the prediction of recurrent ASCVD events in patients with established ASCVD across European and non-European populations. The use of this tool could allow for a more personalized approach to secondary prevention based upon quantitative rather than qualitative estimates of residual risk.
  • Hess, Connie N., et al. (författare)
  • Apixaban Plus Mono Versus Dual Antiplatelet Therapy in Acute Coronary Syndromes Insights From the APPRAISE-2 Trial
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Journal of the American College of Cardiology. - : Elsevier BV. - 0735-1097 .- 1558-3597. ; 66:7, s. 777-787
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND Bleeding limits anticoagulant treatment in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS). OBJECTIVES We investigated whether background concomitant antiplatelet therapy influences the effects of apixaban after ACS. METHODS This study examined high-risk ACS patients who were treated with aspirin or aspirin plus clopidogrel and who were randomized to apixaban 5 mg twice daily or placebo. In a post-hoc analysis, we assessed whether the effect of apixaban on efficacy and safety outcomes varied by the concomitant antiplatelet regimen by using simple Cox modeling and marginal structural models with propensity scores and antiplatelet therapy as a time-dependent covariate. RESULTS At baseline, of 7,364 patients, 16.3% (n = 1,202) were on aspirin alone, and 79.0% (n = 5,814) were on aspirin plus clopidogrel. A total of 19.2% (n = 1,415) switched antiplatelet therapy during follow-up. No differential effect of apixaban versus placebo was observed for the composite endpoint of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, and ischemic stroke in patients taking aspirin (12.21 per 100 patient-years vs. 13.21 per 100 patient-years; adjusted hazard ratio [HR]: 0.91; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.62 to 1.32) or aspirin plus clopidogrel (13.22 vs. 14.24; adjusted HR: 0.95; 95% CI: 0.78 to 1.14; p(interaction) = 0.84). Compared with placebo, apixaban increased Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction major bleeding in patients taking aspirin (1.48 vs. 0.25; adjusted HR: 6.62; 95% CI: 0.75 to 51.73) and in patients taking aspirin plus clopidogrel (2.58 vs. 1.02; adjusted HR: 2.44; 95% CI: 1.34 to 4.45; p(interaction) = 0.41). Similar results were obtained with marginal structural models and in patients treated with and without percutaneous coronary intervention. CONCLUSIONS Post-ACS treatment with apixaban versus placebo showed no efficacy, but it increased bleeding regardless of concomitant therapy with aspirin alone or aspirin plus clopidogrel. (Apixaban for Prevention of Acute Ischemic Events 2 [APPRAISE-2]; NCT00831441) (J Am Coll Cardiol 2015; 66: 777-87)
  • Hessulf, Fredrik, 1986, et al. (författare)
  • Predicting survival and neurological outcome in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest using machine learning: the SCARS model.
  • 2023
  • Ingår i: EBioMedicine. - : Elsevier BV. - 2352-3964. ; 89
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A prediction model that estimates survival and neurological outcome in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients has the potential to improve clinical management in emergency rooms.We used the Swedish Registry for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation to study all out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) cases in Sweden from 2010 to 2020. We had 393 candidate predictors describing the circumstances at cardiac arrest, critical time intervals, patient demographics, initial presentation, spatiotemporal data, socioeconomic status, medications, and comorbidities before arrest. To develop, evaluate and test an array of prediction models, we created stratified (on the outcome measure) random samples of our study population. We created a training set (60% of data), evaluation set (20% of data), and test set (20% of data). We assessed the 30-day survival and cerebral performance category (CPC) score at discharge using several machine learning frameworks with hyperparameter tuning. Parsimonious models with the top 1 to 20 strongest predictors were tested. We calibrated the decision threshold to assess the cut-off yielding 95% sensitivity for survival. The final model was deployed as a web application.We included 55,615 cases of OHCA. Initial presentation, prehospital interventions, and critical time intervals variables were the most important. At a sensitivity of 95%, specificity was 89%, positive predictive value 52%, and negative predictive value 99% in test data to predict 30-day survival. The area under the receiver characteristic curve was 0.97 in test data using all 393 predictors or only the ten most important predictors. The final model showed excellent calibration. The web application allowed for near-instantaneous survival calculations.Thirty-day survival and neurological outcome in OHCA can rapidly and reliably be estimated during ongoing cardiopulmonary resuscitation in the emergency room using a machine learning model incorporating widely available variables.Swedish Research Council (2019-02019); Swedish state under the agreement between the Swedish government, and the county councils (ALFGBG-971482); The Wallenberg Centre for Molecular and Translational Medicine.
  • Hohnloser, Stefan H., et al. (författare)
  • Renal Function and Outcomes With Dabigatran Dual Antithrombotic Therapy in Atrial Fibrillation Patients After PCI
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: JACC. - : ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. - 1936-8798 .- 1876-7605. ; 12:16, s. 1553-1561
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVES: The study sought to evaluate the effect of dabigatran dual therapy versus warfarin triple therapy across categories of renal function in the RE-DUAL PCI (Randomized Evaluation of Dual Antithrombotic Therapy with Dabigatran versus Triple Therapy with Warfarin in Patients with Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention) trial.BACKGROUND: The RE-DUAL PCI (NCT02164864) trial of patients with atrial fibrillation undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention reported that dabigatran dual therapy (110 or 150 mg twice daily, plus clopidogrel or ticagrelor) reduced the primary endpoint of major bleeding events (MBE) or clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding events (CRNMBE) compared with warfarin triple therapy, with noninferiority in overall thromboembolic events.METHODS: Risk of a first MBE or CRNMBE and the composite of death or thromboembolic event (DTE) or unplanned revascularization were evaluated in 2,725 patients according to baseline creatinine clearance (CrCl) categories: 30 to <50, 50 to <80, and >= 80 ml/min.RESULTS: Compared with warfarin, dabigatran 110 mg dual therapy reduced risk of MBE or CRNMBE across all categories of CrCl (p for interaction = 0.19). Dabigatran 150 mg dual therapy reduced risk of MBE or CRNMBE regardless of the CrCl category (p for interaction = 0.31). Risk of DTE or unplanned revascularization was similar to warfarin triple therapy for dabigatran 110 mg dual therapy across all CrCl categories. Dabigatran 150 mg dual therapy versus warfarin triple therapy had similar risk for DTE or unplanned revascularization in patients with CrCl 30 to <80 ml/min and lower risk at CrCl >= 80 ml/min (p for interaction = 0.02).CONCLUSIONS: In the RE-DUAL PCI trial, dabigatran dual therapy reduced bleeding events versus warfarin triple therapy irrespective of renal function, with overall similar risks of thromboembolic events but lower risks with dabigatran 150 mg in patients with normal CrCl. 
  • Pareek, Manan, et al. (författare)
  • Enhanced predictive capability of a 1-hour oral glucose tolerance test : A prospective population-based cohort study
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Diabetes Care. - : American Diabetes Association. - 0149-5992 .- 1935-5548. ; 41:1, s. 171-177
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE To examine whether the 1-h blood glucose measurement would be a more suitable screening tool for assessing the risk of diabetes and its complications than the 2-h measurement. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We conducted a prospective population-based cohort study of 4,867men, randomly selected fromprespecified birth cohorts between 1921 and 1949,who underwent an oral glucose tolerance test with blood glucose measurements at 0, 1, and 2 h. Subjects were followed for up to 39 years, with registry-based recording of events. Discriminative abilities of elevated 1-h (≥8.6 mmol/L) versus 2-h (≥7.8 mmol/L) glucose for predicting incident type 2 diabetes, vascular complications, andmortality were compared using Kaplan-Meier analysis, Cox proportional hazards regression, and net reclassification improvement. RESULTS Median agewas 48 years (interquartile range [IQR] 48-49). During follow-up (median 33 years [IQR 24-37]), 636 (13%) developed type 2 diabetes. Elevated 1-h glucose was associatedwith incident diabetes (hazard ratio 3.40 [95% CI 2.90-3.98], P < 0.001) and provided better risk assessment than impaired glucose tolerance (Harrell concordance index 0.637 vs. 0.511, P < 0.001). Addition of a 1-hmeasurement in subjects stratified by fasting glucose provided greater net reclassification improvement than the addition of a 2-h measurement (0.214 vs. 0.016, respectively). Finally, the 1-h glucose was significantly associated with vascular complications and mortality. CONCLUSIONS The 1-h blood glucose level is a stronger predictor of future type 2 diabetes than the 2-h level and is associated with diabetes complications and mortality.
  • Alexander, John H., et al. (författare)
  • Apixaban with Antiplatelet Therapy after Acute Coronary Syndrome
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: New England Journal of Medicine. - 0028-4793 .- 1533-4406. ; 365:8, s. 699-708
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Apixaban, an oral, direct factor Xa inhibitor, may reduce the risk of recurrent ischemic events when added to antiplatelet therapy after an acute coronary syndrome.Methods: We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial comparing apixaban, at a dose of 5 mg twice daily, with placebo, in addition to standard antiplatelet therapy, in patients with a recent acute coronary syndrome and at least two additional risk factors for recurrent ischemic events.Results: The trial was terminated prematurely after recruitment of 7392 patients because of an increase in major bleeding events with apixaban in the absence of a counterbalancing reduction in recurrent ischemic events. With a median follow-up of 241 days, the primary outcome of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or ischemic stroke occurred in 279 of the 3705 patients (7.5%) assigned to apixaban (13.2 events per 100 patient-years) and in 293 of the 3687 patients (7.9%) assigned to placebo (14.0 events per 100 patient-years) (hazard ratio with apixaban, 0.95; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.80 to 1.11; P = 0.51). The primary safety outcome of major bleeding according to the Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) definition occurred in 46 of the 3673 patients (1.3%) who received at least one dose of apixaban (2.4 events per 100 patient-years) and in 18 of the 3642 patients (0.5%) who received at least one dose of placebo (0.9 events per 100 patient-years) (hazard ratio with apixaban, 2.59; 95% CI, 1.50 to 4.46; P = 0.001). A greater number of intracranial and fatal bleeding events occurred with apixaban than with placebo.Conclusions: The addition of apixaban, at a dose of 5 mg twice daily, to antiplatelet therapy in high-risk patients after an acute coronary syndrome increased the number of major bleeding events without a significant reduction in recurrent ischemic events.
  • Anand, Sonia S, et al. (författare)
  • Rivaroxaban with or without aspirin in patients with stable peripheral or carotid artery disease: an international, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Lancet (London, England). - 1474-547X. ; 391:10117, s. 219-229
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Patients with peripheral artery disease have an increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Antiplatelet agents are widely used to reduce these complications.This was a multicentre, double-blind, randomised placebo-controlled trial for which patients were recruited at 602 hospitals, clinics, or community practices from 33 countries across six continents. Eligible patients had a history of peripheral artery disease of the lower extremities (previous peripheral bypass surgery or angioplasty, limb or foot amputation, intermittent claudication with objective evidence of peripheral artery disease), of the carotid arteries (previous carotid artery revascularisation or asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis of at least 50%), or coronary artery disease with an ankle-brachial index of less than 0·90. After a 30-day run-in period, patients were randomly assigned (1:1:1) to receive oral rivaroxaban (2·5 mg twice a day) plus aspirin (100 mg once a day), rivaroxaban twice a day (5 mg with aspirin placebo once a day), or to aspirin once a day (100 mg and rivaroxaban placebo twice a day). Randomisation was computer generated. Each treatment group was double dummy, and the patient, investigators, and central study staff were masked to treatment allocation. The primary outcome was cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction or stroke; the primary peripheral artery disease outcome was major adverse limb events including major amputation. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01776424, and is closed to new participants.Between March 12, 2013, and May 10, 2016, we enrolled 7470 patients with peripheral artery disease from 558 centres. The combination of rivaroxaban plus aspirin compared with aspirin alone reduced the composite endpoint of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke (126 [5%] of 2492 vs 174 [7%] of 2504; hazard ratio [HR] 0·72, 95% CI 0·57-0·90, p=0·0047), and major adverse limb events including major amputation (32 [1%] vs 60 [2%]; HR 0·54 95% CI 0·35-0·82, p=0·0037). Rivaroxaban 5 mg twice a day compared with aspirin alone did not significantly reduce the composite endpoint (149 [6%] of 2474 vs 174 [7%] of 2504; HR 0·86, 95% CI 0·69-1·08, p=0·19), but reduced major adverse limb events including major amputation (40 [2%] vs 60 [2%]; HR 0·67, 95% CI 0·45-1·00, p=0·05). The median duration of treatment was 21 months. The use of the rivaroxaban plus aspirin combination increased major bleeding compared with the aspirin alone group (77 [3%] of 2492 vs 48 [2%] of 2504; HR 1·61, 95% CI 1·12-2·31, p=0·0089), which was mainly gastrointestinal. Similarly, major bleeding occurred in 79 (3%) of 2474 patients with rivaroxaban 5 mg, and in 48 (2%) of 2504 in the aspirin alone group (HR 1·68, 95% CI 1·17-2·40; p=0·0043).Low-dose rivaroxaban taken twice a day plus aspirin once a day reduced major adverse cardiovascular and limb events when compared with aspirin alone. Although major bleeding was increased, fatal or critical organ bleeding was not. This combination therapy represents an important advance in the management of patients with peripheral artery disease. Rivaroxaban alone did not significantly reduce major adverse cardiovascular events compared with asprin alone, but reduced major adverse limb events and increased major bleeding.Bayer AG.
  • Angiolillo, Dominick J., et al. (författare)
  • International Expert Consensus on Switching Platelet P2Y(12) Receptor-Inhibiting Therapies
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Circulation. - : LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. - 0009-7322 .- 1524-4539. ; 136:20, s. 1955-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Dual antiplatelet therapy with aspirin and a P2Y(12) inhibitor is the treatment of choice for the prevention of atherothrombotic events in patients with acute coronary syndromes and for those undergoing percutaneous coronary interventions. The availability of different oral P2Y(12) inhibitors (clopidogrel, prasugrel, ticagrelor) has enabled physicians to contemplate switching among therapies because of specific clinical scenarios. The recent introduction of an intravenous P2Y(12) inhibitor (cangrelor) further adds to the multitude of modalities and settings in which switching therapies may occur. In clinical practice, it is not uncommon to switch P2Y(12) inhibitor, and switching may be attributed to a variety of factors. However, concerns about the safety of switching between these agents have emerged. Practice guidelines have not fully elaborated on how to switch therapies, leaving clinicians with limited guidance on when and how to switch therapies when needed. This prompted the development of this expert consensus document by key leaders from North America and Europe with expertise in basic, translational, and clinical sciences in the field of antiplatelet therapy. This expert consensus provides an overview of the pharmacology of P2Y(12) inhibitors, different modalities and definitions of switching, and available literature and recommendations for switching between P2Y(12) inhibitors.
  • Bajraktari, Gani, et al. (författare)
  • Complete revascularization for patients with multivessel coronary artery disease and ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction after the COMPLETE trial : a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: IJC Heart & Vasculature. - : Elsevier. - 2352-9067. ; 29
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: The recently published COMPLETE trial has demonstrated that patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and multivessel coronary artery disease (MVD), who underwent successful percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) of both culprit and non-culprit (vs. culprit-only) lesions had a reduced risk of major adverse cardiac events (MACE), but not of cardiovascular or total mortality. The aim of this meta-analysis was to assess the efficacy of complete revascularization on cardiovascular or total mortality reduction using available randomized controlled trials (RCTs) including the COMPLETE trial, in hemodynamically stable STEMI patients with MVD. Methods: PubMed, MEDLINE, Embase, Scopus, Google Scholar, CENTRAL and ClinicalTrials.gov databases search identified 10 RCTs of 7033 patients with STEMI and MVD which compared complete (n = 3420) vs. only culprit lesion (n = 3613) PCI for a median 27.7 months follow-up. Random effect risk ratios were used to estimate for efficacy and safety outcomes. Results: Complete revascularization reduced the risk of MACE (10.4% vs.16.6%; RR = 0.59, 95% CI: 0.47 to 0.74, p < 0.0001), CV mortality (2.87% vs. 3.72%; RR = 0.73, 95% CI: 0.56 to 0.95, p = 0.02), reinfarction (5.1% vs. 7.1%; RR = 0.67, 95% CI: 0.52 to 0.86, p = 0.002), urgent revascularization (7.92% vs.17.4%; RR = 0.47, 95% CI: 0.30 to 0.73, p < 0.001), and CV hospitalization (8.68% vs.11.4%; RR = 0.65, 95% CI: 0.44to 0.96, p = 0.03) compared with culprit only revascularization. All-cause mortality, stroke, major bleeding events, or contrast induced nephropathy were not affected by the revascularization strategy. Conclusion: The findings of this meta-analysis suggest that in patients with STEMI and MVD, complete revascularization is superior to culprit-only PCI in reducing the risk of MACE outcomes, including cardiovascular mortality, without increasing the risk of adverse safety outcomes.
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