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Sökning: WFRF:(Bhatt Deepak L)

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  • Hagström, Emil, et al. (författare)
  • Apolipoprotein B, Residual Cardiovascular Risk After Acute Coronary Syndrome, and Effects of Alirocumab
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Circulation. - : Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health). - 0009-7322 .- 1524-4539. ; 146:9, s. 657-672
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Apolipoprotein B (apoB) provides an integrated measure of atherogenic risk. Whether apoB levels and apoB lowering hold incremental predictive information on residual risk after acute coronary syndrome beyond that provided by low-density lipoprotein cholesterol is uncertain. METHODS: The ODYSSEY OUTCOMES trial (Evaluation of Cardiovascular Outcomes After an Acute Coronary Syndrome During Treatment With Alirocumab) compared the proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 inhibitor alirocumab with placebo in 18 924 patients with recent acute coronary syndrome and elevated atherogenic lipoproteins despite optimized statin therapy. Primary outcome was major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE; coronary heart disease death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, fatal/nonfatal ischemic stroke, hospitalization for unstable angina). Associations between baseline apoB or apoB at 4 months and MACE were assessed in adjusted Cox proportional hazards and propensity score-matched models. RESULTS: Median follow-up was 2.8 years. In proportional hazards analysis in the placebo group, MACE incidence increased across increasing baseline apoB strata (3.2 [95% CI, 2.9-3.6], 4.0 [95% CI, 3.6-4.5], and 5.5 [95% CI, 5.0-6.1] events per 100 patient-years in strata <75, 75-<90, >= 90 mg/dL, respectively; P-trend<0.0001) and after adjustment for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P-trend=0.035). Higher baseline apoB stratum was associated with greater relative (P-trend<0.0001) and absolute reduction in MACE with alirocumab versus placebo. In the alirocumab group, the incidence of MACE after month 4 decreased monotonically across decreasing achieved apoB strata (4.26 [95% CI, 3.78-4.79], 3.09 [95% CI, 2.69-3.54], and 2.41 [95% CI, 2.11-2.76] events per 100 patient-years in strata >= 50, >35-<50, and <= 35 mg/dL, respectively). Compared with propensity score-matched patients from the placebo group, treatment hazard ratios for alirocumab also decreased monotonically across achieved apoB strata. Achieved apoB was predictive of MACE after adjustment for achieved low-density lipoprotein cholesterol or non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol but not vice versa. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with recent acute coronary syndrome and elevated atherogenic lipoproteins, MACE increased across baseline apoB strata. Alirocumab reduced MACE across all strata of baseline apoB, with larger absolute reductions in patients with higher baseline levels. Lower achieved apoB was associated with lower risk of MACE, even after accounting for achieved low-density lipoprotein cholesterol or non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, indicating that apoB provides incremental information. Achievement of apoB levels as low as <= 35 mg/dL may reduce lipoprotein-attributable residual risk after acute coronary syndrome.
  • Harrington, Josephine, et al. (författare)
  • Acute Decompensated Heart Failure in the Setting of Acute Coronary Syndrome
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: JACC. Heart failure. - : Elsevier BV. - 2213-1779 .- 2213-1787. ; 10:6, s. 404-414
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is frequently complicated by evidence of heart failure (HF). Those at highest risk for acute decompensated HF in the setting of ACS (ACS-HF) are older, female, and have preexisting heart disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and/or kidney disease. The presence of ACS-HF is strongly associated with higher mortality and more frequent readmissions, especially for HF. Low implementation of guideline-directed medical therapy has further complicated the clinical care of this high-risk population. Improved utilization of current therapies, coupled with further investigation of strategies to manage ACS-HF, is desperately needed to improve outcomes in this vulnerable population, and the results of currently ongoing or recently concluded ACS-HF studies in this population are of great interest. In this review, we explore the pathophysiology, epidemiology, risk factors, and outcomes for patients with ACS-HF, and describe both existing evidence for management of this challenging condition and areas requiring further research. (J Am Coll Cardiol HF 2022;10:404-414) (c) 2022 by the American College of Cardiology Foundation.
  • Hessulf, Fredrik, 1986, et al. (författare)
  • Predicting survival and neurological outcome in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest using machine learning: the SCARS model
  • 2023
  • Ingår i: eBioMedicine. - 2352-3964. ; 89
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: A prediction model that estimates survival and neurological outcome in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients has the potential to improve clinical management in emergency rooms.Methods: We used the Swedish Registry for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation to study all out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) cases in Sweden from 2010 to 2020. We had 393 candidate predictors describing the circumstances at cardiac arrest, critical time intervals, patient demographics, initial presentation, spatiotemporal data, socioeconomic status, medications, and comorbidities before arrest. To develop, evaluate and test an array of prediction models, we created stratified (on the outcome measure) random samples of our study population. We created a training set (60% of data), evaluation set (20% of data), and test set (20% of data). We assessed the 30-day survival and cerebral performance category (CPC) score at discharge using several machine learning frameworks with hyperparameter tuning. Parsimonious models with the top 1 to 20 strongest predictors were tested. We calibrated the decision threshold to assess the cut-off yielding 95% sensitivity for survival. The final model was deployed as a web application.Findings: We included 55,615 cases of OHCA. Initial presentation, prehospital interventions, and critical time intervals variables were the most important. At a sensitivity of 95%, specificity was 89%, positive predictive value 52%, and negative predictive value 99% in test data to predict 30-day survival. The area under the receiver characteristic curve was 0.97 in test data using all 393 predictors or only the ten most important predictors. The final model showed excellent calibration. The web application allowed for near-instantaneous survival calculations.Interpretation: Thirty-day survival and neurological outcome in OHCA can rapidly and reliably be estimated during ongoing cardiopulmonary resuscitation in the emergency room using a machine learning model incorporating widely available variables.
  • Kolte, Dhaval, et al. (författare)
  • Culprit Vessel-Only Versus Multivessel Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in Patients With Cardiogenic Shock Complicating ST-Segment-Elevation Myocardial Infarction : A Collaborative Meta-Analysis
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Circulation. Cardiovascular Interventions. - : LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. - 1941-7640 .- 1941-7632. ; 10:11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background The optimal revascularization strategy in patients with multivessel disease presenting with cardiogenic shock complicating ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction remains unknown. Methods and Results Databases were searched from 1999 to October 2016. Studies comparing immediate/single-stage multivessel percutaneous coronary intervention (MV-PCI) versus culprit vessel-only PCI (CO-PCI) in patients with multivessel disease, ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction, and cardiogenic shock were included. Primary end point was short-term (in-hospital or 30 days) mortality. Secondary end points included long-term mortality, cardiovascular death, reinfarction, and repeat revascularization. Safety end points were in-hospital stroke, renal failure, and major bleeding. The meta-analysis included 11 nonrandomized studies and 5850 patients (1157 MV-PCI and 4693 CO-PCI). There was no significant difference in short-term mortality with MV-PCI versus CO-PCI (odds ratio [OR], 1.08; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.81-1.43; P=0.61). Similarly, there were no significant differences in long-term mortality (OR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.54-1.30; P=0.43), cardiovascular death (OR, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.42-1.23; P=0.23), reinfarction (OR, 1.65; 95% CI, 0.84-3.26; P=0.15), or repeat revascularization (OR, 1.13; 95% CI, 0.76-1.69; P=0.54) between the 2 groups. There was a nonsignificant trend toward higher in-hospital stroke (OR, 1.64; 95% CI, 0.98-2.72; P=0.06) and renal failure (OR, 1.30; 95% CI, 0.98-1.72; P=0.06), with no difference in major bleeding (OR, 1.47; 95% CI, 0.39-5.63; P=0.57) with MV-PCI when compared with CO-PCI. Conclusions This meta-analysis of nonrandomized studies suggests that in patients with cardiogenic shock complicating ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction, there may be no significant benefit with single-stage MV-PCI compared with CO-PCI. Given the limitations of observational data, randomized trials are needed to determine the role of MV-PCI in this setting.
  • Lip, Gregory Y. H., et al. (författare)
  • Relationship of stroke and bleeding risk profiles to efficacy and safety of dabigatran dual therapy versus warfarin triple therapy in atrial fibrillation after percutaneous coronary intervention : An ancillary analysis from the RE-DUAL PCI trial
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: American Heart Journal. - : MOSBY-ELSEVIER. - 0002-8703 .- 1097-6744. ; 212, s. 13-22
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background In the RE-DUAL PCI trial of patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), dabigatran dual therapy (110 or 150 mg bid, plus clopidogrel or ticagrelor) reduced International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis bleeding events compared with warfarin triple therapy, with noninferiority in overall thromboembolic events. This analysis assessed outcomes in relation to patient bleeding and stroke risk profiles, based on the modified HAS-BLED and CHA(2)DS(2)-VASc scores. Methods The primary endpoint, major bleeding event (MBE) or clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding event (CRNMBE), was compared across study arms in patients categorized by modified HAS-BLED score 0-2 or >= 3. The composite endpoint of death, thromboembolic event, and unplanned revascularization rates was compared in patients categorized by CHA(2)DS(2)-VASc score 0-1, 2, or >= 3. Results Risk of MBE or CRNMBE was lower with dabigatran dual therapy (both doses) versus warfarin triple therapy, irrespective of modified HAS-BLED category (treatment-by-subgroup interaction P-value 0.584 and 0.273 for dabigatran 110 and 150 mg dual therapy, respectively, vs warfarin). Risk of the composite thromboembolic endpoint was similar across CHA(2)DS(2)-VASc categories and consistent with overall study results (interaction P-value 0.739 and 0.075 for dabigatran 110 and 150 mg dual therapy, respectively, vs warfarin). Higher HAS-BLED scores were associated with higher risks of bleeding in AF patients after PCI in a treatment-independent analysis. Conclusion Dabigatran dual therapy reduced bleeding events irrespective of bleeding risk category and demonstrated similar efficacy regardless of stroke risk category when compared with warfarin triple therapy.
  • Lopes, Renato D., et al. (författare)
  • Cardiovascular Safety of Degarelix Versus Leuprolide in Patients With Prostate Cancer : The Primary Results of the PRONOUNCE Randomized Trial
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Circulation. - : Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. - 1524-4539. ; 144:16, s. 1295-1307
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: The relative cardiovascular safety of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonists compared with GnRH agonists in men with prostate cancer and known atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease remains controversial. METHODS: In this international, multicenter, prospective, randomized, open-label trial, men with prostate cancer and concomitant atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease were randomly assigned 1:1 to receive the GnRH antagonist degarelix or the GnRH agonist leuprolide for 12 months. The primary outcome was the time to first adjudicated major adverse cardiovascular event (composite of death, myocardial infarction, or stroke) through 12 months. RESULTS: Because of slower-than-projected enrollment and fewer-than-projected primary outcome events, enrollment was stopped before the 900 planned participants were accrued. From May 3, 2016, to April 16, 2020, a total of 545 patients from 113 sites across 12 countries were randomly selected. Baseline characteristics were balanced between study groups. The median age was 73 years, 49.8% had localized prostate cancer; 26.3% had locally advanced disease, and 20.4% had metastatic disease. A major adverse cardiovascular event occurred in 15 (5.5%) patients assigned to degarelix and 11 (4.1%) patients assigned to leuprolide (hazard ratio, 1.28 [95% CI, 0.59-2.79]; P=0.53). CONCLUSIONS: PRONOUNCE (A Trial Comparing Cardiovascular Safety of Degarelix Versus Leuprolide in Patients With Advanced Prostate Cancer and Cardiovascular Disease) is the first, international, randomized clinical trial to prospectively compare the cardiovascular safety of a GnRH antagonist and a GnRH agonist in patients with prostate cancer. The study was terminated prematurely because of the smaller than planned number of participants and events, and no difference in major adverse cardiovascular events at 1 year between patients assigned to degarelix or leuprolide was observed. The relative cardiovascular safety of GnRH antagonists and agonists remains unresolved. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT02663908.
  • Maeng, Michael, et al. (författare)
  • Dabigatran Dual Therapy Versus Warfarin Triple Therapy Post-PCI in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation and Diabetes
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: JACC. - : ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. - 1936-8798 .- 1876-7605. ; 12:23, s. 2346-2355
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate dabigatran dual therapy versus warfarin triple therapy in patients with or without diabetes mellitus in the RE-DUAL PCI (Randomized Evaluation of Dual Antithrombotic Therapy With Dabigatran Versus Triple Therapy With Warfarin in Patients With Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention) trial.BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether dual therapy is as safe and efficacious as triple therapy in patients with atrial fibrillation with diabetes following percutaneous coronary intervention.METHODS: In RE-DUAL PCI, 2,725 patients with atrial fibrillation (993 with diabetes) who had undergone PCI were assigned to warfarin triple therapy (warfarin, clopidogrel or ticagrelor, and aspirin) or dabigatran dual therapy (dabigatran 110 mg or 150 mg twice daily and clopidogrel or ticagrelor). Median follow-up was 13 months. The primary outcome was the composite of major bleeding or clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding, and the main efficacy outcome was the composite of death, thromboembolic events, or unplanned revascularization.RESULTS: Among patients with diabetes, the incidence of major bleeding or clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding was 15.2% in the dabigatran 110 mg dual therapy group versus 27.5% in the warfarin triple therapy group (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.48; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.35 to 0.67) and 23.8% in the dabigatran 150 mg dual therapy group versus 25.1% in the warfarin triple therapy group (HR: 0.87; 95% CI: 0.62 to 1.22). Risk for major bleeding or clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding was also reduced with both dabigatran doses among patients without diabetes (dabigatran 110 mg dual therapy: HR: 0.54; 95% CI: 0.42 to 0.70; dabigatran 150 mg dual therapy: HR: 0.63; 95% CI: 0.48 to 0.83). Risk for the efficacy endpoint was comparable between treatment groups for both patients with and those without diabetes. No interaction between treatment and diabetes subgroup could be observed, either for bleeding or for composite efficacy endpoints.CONCLUSIONS: In this subgroup analysis, dabigatran dual therapy had a lower risk for bleeding and a comparable rate of the efficacy endpoint compared with warfarin triple therapy in patients with atrial fibrillation with or without diabetes following percutaneous coronary intervention. 
  • Mahaffey, Kenneth W., et al. (författare)
  • Comparison of Clinical Trial Outcome Patterns in Patients Following Acute Coronary Syndromes and in Patients With Chronic Stable Atherosclerosis
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Clinical Cardiology. - : Wiley. - 0160-9289 .- 1932-8737. ; 37:6, s. 337-342
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: The transition of patients with atherosclerotic vascular disease from the acute phase of the disease to the chronic stable atherosclerosis (CSA) phase has not been well characterized. We sought to compare ischemic and bleeding outcomes in hospitalized patients enrolled in clinical trials of non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome (ACS) with patients enrolled in outpatient trials of CSA. Hypothesis: The risk for recurrent events will differ between the 2 populations. Methods: Patient-level outcome data were evaluated from 3 consecutive trials of patients with ACS with long-term follow-up and 2 trials of patients with CSA. Kaplan-Meier curves were generated for ischemic and bleeding outcomes. Results: In total, 37 370 patients were included in these analyses. Of these, 28 489 (76.2%) were from ACS trials and 8881 (23.8%) from chronic trials. During the first year of follow-up, 1353 deaths, 1081 cardiovascular (CV) deaths, 2113 myocardial infarctions (MIs), and 397 strokes occurred across the trials. Six-month Kaplan-Meier event rates for CV death, MI, or stroke were higher in the ACS trials compared with the CSA trials (8.6% vs 2.7%), as were the 1-year CV death rate (3.6% vs 1.7%) and 1-year rates for GUSTO moderate or severe bleeding (6.0% vs 1.3%). Qualitatively, the Kaplan-Meier curves appear to show an early increased risk as well as a continued increased risk over time. Conclusions: Patients with ACS enrolled while in the hospital appear to have different risk profiles for ischemic and bleeding outcomes compared with outpatients enrolled with CSA, including those patients with ACS after the acute phase.
  • Nicolau, Jose C., et al. (författare)
  • Dabigatran Dual Therapy vs Warfarin Triple Therapy Post-Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation With/Without a Proton Pump Inhibitor : A Pre-Specified Analysis of the RE-DUAL PCI Trial
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Drugs. - : Springer Nature. - 0012-6667 .- 1179-1950. ; 80:10, s. 995-1005
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background and Objective In patients with atrial fibrillation following percutaneous coronary intervention, if a proton pump inhibitor is used, could that allow the use of warfarin triple therapy, or is there additional reduction in bleeding while using it with dual therapy? Methods The RE-DUAL PCI trial randomized 2725 patients with atrial fibrillation post-percutaneous coronary intervention to dabigatran dual therapy (110 or 150 mg twice daily, with clopidogrel or ticagrelor) or warfarin triple therapy (with clopidogrel or ticagrelor, and aspirin for 1-3 months). This prespecified subgroup analysis evaluated risks of a first major bleeding event or clinically relevant non-major bleeding event, all gastrointestinal bleeding, and a composite efficacy endpoint of all-cause mortality/thromboembolic event or unplanned revascularization according to baseline use of a proton pump inhibitor. Results Of 2678 analyzed patients, 1641 (61.3%) were receiving a proton pump inhibitor at baseline. Dabigatran 110 and 150 mg dual therapy reduced the risk of major bleeding events or clinically relevant non-major bleeding events vs warfarin triple therapy regardless of proton pump inhibitor use, with comparable risk of the composite efficacy endpoint (all interactionpvalues > 0.05). For gastrointestinal bleeding, no interaction was observed between study treatment and proton pump inhibitor use (interactionpvalues 0.84 and 0.62 for dabigatran 110 and 150 mg dual therapy, respectively, vs warfarin triple therapy). Conclusions Dabigatran 110 and 150 mg dual therapy reduced the risk of major bleeding events or clinically relevant non-major bleeding events vs warfarin triple therapy, regardless of proton pump inhibitor use at baseline, in patients with atrial fibrillation who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention. Risk of the composite efficacy endpoint appeared to be similar for dabigatran dual therapy vs warfarin triple therapy in patients receiving/not receiving a proton pump inhibitor.
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